Savinio, Italo Calvino, Giacomo Debenedetti. Alcesti di Samuele e atti unici. A cura di Alessandro Tinterri. A cura di Alessandro Tinterri e Paola Italia. Hermaphrodito e altri romanzi. Narrate, uomini, la vostra storia. Archivio Contemporaneo Alessandro Bonsanti. Arte e storia moderna. A cura di Paola Italia. A cura di Leonardo Sciascia.
Studi su Alberto Savinio. A cura di Dante Isella. Princeton University Press, Testimonianze e documenti Mio carissimo, tu mi conosci bene; puoi quindi immaginare la mia gioia: Io sono a terra!!! Proprio ieri ero a Roma ho fatto istanza a Tosti al Ministero per un sussidio pronto immediato e adeguato!!
Ma vedi di chiamarmi alla tua segreteria! Ti abbraccio tuo aff. Salvatore Maraffa Abate was a journalist, a poet, an entrepreneur, a publicist and sometime publisher. He deliberate moves aimed at professional and personal survival, or were moved from his native Palermo to Messina, Genova, Milan, Rome, they also the result of a true intellectual and political metamorphosis? But, as we know, history has not been generous Paul Corner and other contemporary scholars have already underlined with minor figures and Maraffa is not an exception.
His profits from his understated new post-war life. And yet, In December , Maraffa issued his first notable magazine, Flirt. Flirt was the ideal mirror of the Sicilian osservare che… egli dimenticava gli indifferenti e i disillusi. Similarly, in her recent I redenti. Gli intellettuali che vissero due Flirt was not a political publication. It contained poetry, volte. La rivisitazione delle vicende degli uomini che vissero una to women writers10 and its dynamic Direttore, Maraffa Abate, often duplice esistenza provoca accesi dibattiti.
Moreover, we should not forget that it could not ignore the power of the new bourgeoisie. Salvo, in particular, notes: Openly obsequious to the fascist regime, as its name suggests, Italia But times were changing and soon the economic power of the fascista tried hard a little too hard, at times to balance itself between Florios in Sicily would come to an end.
Around , Maraffa left a servile and an extremely patriotic attitude towards the autarchic Palermo and headed north, to Genoa and Milan and, eventually, to Rome. From time to sort of periodical, a clever mix of cosmopolitism, patriotism, and time, Italia fascista presented its readers with more artistic content, politics.
Futurism and its main features modernity, weighted down by an abundance of percentages and other figures, a energy, innovation and, later, fascism seduced the restless Maraffa telling sign of a too obvious deferential attitude towards the regime. If and contributed to his radical transformation into a militant journalist. It also meant leaving his trademark notion of a literary particular region or city of the empire where fascist enterprises were and cultural magazine.
The years immediately following World War I particularly successful. One of his periodicals, started turning its gaze inwards. By the early s, in the last desperate moments of activities around the world. With had already appeared in print, as a pamphlet, the previous fall, but the regards to his choice of pseudonym, Flirt readers would remember founder of Futurism allowed Maraffa to publish it as well, an important that Maraffa had been using this pen name for decades.
Unfortunately gift for a struggling publication like Italia fascista. On 21 July , Maraffa celebratory. Incidentally, this initiative aroused offense in the foreword of one of his collections of poetry, Chiarezze: Ma questi giornalisti sono davvero inesauribili nello aspirare e Comm. Why would the Ente Stampa and the Ministry not use his commitment for its own purposes?
Since the fascist press was In , Maraffa was already a Mussolini supporter and more heavily controlled beginning in year of the foundation of the than once defined himself a Sansepolcrista. It was not the case. On the contrary, the Min. Overall, between and , Maraffa received A poet since the Flirt years, Maraffa wrote a number of openly philo- more than fifty thousand Lire Ministero della Cultura Popolare n. Among them, Aquile di Roma and La pelle del He was not alone: For instance, Antonio Favales, the proof of this as early as 6 September Not a young age, especially for richieste e quindi su lettere di ringraziamenti di prammatica in someone plagued by professional and personal troubles.
His personal base alle quali poi carpisce adesioni e ottiene entrature arrivando situation was almost as chaotic as his professional one: Polizia Politica, Report on Maraffa, Savagnone. They had two daughters, bound to become well-known 6 September doppiatrici: Rita and Deddi Savagnone. As del Maraffa che se ne serve per ricevere contributi finanziari; Philip Morgan noted: It was during this period that many Italian 12 September , the Germans had freed Mussolini and had put intellectuals who were active under the regime started on the thorny him at the head of the short-lived new republic.
Like Maraffa, people path that would take them through the end of the war and beyond. Like who had been professional and financial profiteers during the previous Maraffa, many successful figures quietly sailed through this delicate regime must have taken it as a sign that the old ways could resume. The publishing press was not immune to this memory loss: Maraffa depicts himself not like an exploiter of fascist politics and Proveniente dai Fasci Rivoluzionari Interventisti di Milano.
It would — Milano P. Curriculum Vitae his letter to Mezzasoma, and the move to Venice meant that his archive was lost.
It is hard to say whether Maraffa had actually been at risk. In the post-war years, this proud fascist biography is excised, leaving Some philo-fascist intellectuals were imprisoned and tried. Among an embarrassing twenty-year gap: Fogu offers an explanation: He followed many others on the prescrizione. A small price to pay, all things considered. On the contrary, it resumed vigorously, ardua purezza lirica, non abbiano accanto alle poesie, manifestato propelled by a new-found energy: The period immediately after liberation in saw a mushrooming Per trovare poeti che si dichiarano indifferenti alla vita politica, of small publishing houses, some of which survived for only a … bisogna giungere ai minori poeti del romanticismo e del few months, and an increase in book production, despite residual decadentismo.
Ma, appunto, si tratta di poeti minori: At the same time some existing publishers sought che, di fatto, non erano ancora divenuti uomini. XIV—XV to take advantage both of the market opportunities and of the chance for cultural renewal opened up by the liberation. Gundle In the past several years, historians and literary critics tackled and Forgacs the question of Italian intellectuals and their relationship with fascism, but a lot of work still needs to be done on the so-called minor or marginal However, in spite of his efforts, Maraffa did not manage to figures and their participation in the fascist propaganda machine.
This is a sign that, while not openly ENDNOTES promoting it, the ministry did benefit from these apparently irrelevant characters and from their unauthorized propaganda. Italiana per i suoi meriti di giornalista. Later, in Rome, In the early s, Sebastiano Munzone published an he published his own works under the Italia Fascista Editrice label.
See Cristina anthology of Sicilian poets. Soltanto per la insistenza di alcuni editori ha raccolto Viator dolente la sua opera poetica riunita in tre volumi: Ombre, silenzi, armonie con illustrazioni nuovo Israele errante sempre inquieto di Servolini poesie ; Riflessi, Chiarezze poesie. Corselli dal titolo I nostri Capi. Mangano sent the Duce her article together with a request for a meeting.
However, before this little setback, Mangano, like Maraffa, passatista. Ma non vorrai tu office, she was hired at the Ente Stampa: She followed up the in altri giornali e in altri centri: Ti ha good news with a thank you note: Ti prego di agire fulmineamente Cesare. Ti abbraccio con grande affetto, Tuo aff. The letter is written on Italia fascista reviews in this particular issue. But there are some short reviews of operas and films stationery.
Vogliate Esperia, contiene la Poesia dei tecnicismi. Proveniente dal Gruppo Nazionalista Giovanile di Genova. Aderente alla storica continued its irregular publication until By then, Maraffa had almost completely adunata 23 Marzo — Milano P. Archivio Centrale dello Stato. Bruno Maraffa in Duke University Press, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, La stampa del Ventennio: Flirt rivista di splendore Bernabei, Gilberto. Note to Salvatore Maraffa Abate. Publishers, Writers and Readers. Popolare, Busta , n. Caesar, Gabriella Romani, and Jennifer Burns.
Il foglio 12 November Estudios Italianos, Nov. Mariapia Lamberti, Franca Bizzoni. Archivio Centrale dello Italy. Oxford University Press, Letter to Benedetta Cappa. Filippo Di Dino, Chiara. Letter to Nicola De Cesare, 26 September Fascism in Popular Memory. The Cultural Experience Centrale dello Stato. Cambridge University Corrispondenza Ordinaria]. Maraffa Abate, Salvatore Leodalba. Biblioteca del Vascello, Italia Fascista Editrice, Segreteria Particolare del Duce, quaderni del meridione 87—88 Riviste ottocentesche e storia della critica.
La vita quotidiana a Palermo ai tempi del Gattopardo. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Milan: Gli intellettuali che vissero due volte. Letter to Fernando Mezzasoma. Ministero della Cultura Popolare. Busta , Serrati, Giacinto Menotti. Archivio Centrale dello Sturzo, Luigi. I mali della politica italiana: La pelle del serpente. Il Primato di Giuseppe Bottai: Italia fascista The fall of Mussolini.
Italy, the Italians and the Second World War. Introduction Scholarly studies have often discussed the huge impact of the film Casablanca WB, , directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Hal Wallis on American media and popular culture. Many critics have attempted to explain why the film continues to be regarded as one of the most iconic and celebrated Hollywood films of all times. Italian viewers, on the other hand, will most probably be familiar with these lines in their corresponding Italian translation, given that Casablanca has, since its first distribution in Italy in , received theatrical and television release in its dubbed version.
We shall also see that, although not so intuitively, when the film and joined her husband Laszlo, whom she had believed to be dead, was finally ready to be released in early , its edition would be without having the chance to explain to Rick the reasons behind her considerably affected by the legacy of Fascism; this in spite of Italy painful decision.
After a series of political gambles with the French being, at that point, a democracy allied with the US. To illustrate this and German police, Rick i. It was in , in fact, even before Casablanca was produced, escape from the menace of the Nazis in Europe find temporary refuge that Warner Bros abandoned the Italian market as a result of the in unoccupied French Morocco.
Let us take a step back to observe what happened to the to wait there until the war ends. Yet there are people in Casablanca distribution of American films in Italy during these critical years. Will the seemingly cynical and selfish on foreign film distribution. A significant European Resistance, a clandestine movement fighting against the Axis number of foreign films by small US companies such as Monogram, powers.
As the story unfolds, a few flashbacks reveal that some years Republic, and Grand National would still circulate in Italian cinemas earlier, in German-occupied Paris, Ilsa and Rick had had a romantic after the withdrawal of the Big Four. Moreover, from the early onwards various laws were enacted. The political and social unrest in the Italian peninsula caused 4, 5, 9 and both the ban on dubbing foreign films abroad and the by the long years of war, sacrifice, deprivation, foreign occupation, dubbing tax to be paid by film distributors art.
Because of their pro-interventionist message against the Axis, least until mid Besides, as far as the Italian case was concerned, at the its establishment in the new Roman headquarters. Whether under the beginning of the monopoly laws promulgated during Fascism suggestion of the PWB film section or not, Warner Bros seems to have still formally stood in protection of the Italian internal market against been waiting for the Italian political and social waters to settle before American products.
Distributors established a Psychological Warfare Branch PWB at the Allied might have also decided to wait for Italian film translators and Headquarters in Rome in the building formerly hosting the Ministry experienced voice-actors to prepare a domesticated dubbed version of Popular Culture MCP. Consiglio dei Ministri for permission to release Casablanca in the Archival research has documented that, on March , the Italian commercial film circuit. Stone, head of dubbed version was then authorized, obtaining the obligatory nulla the allied military command in Italy, organised a series of important osta on January 10, Importantly for the present discussion, the Admiral insisted regulations on film censorship art.
This decree banned film scenes, facts and subjects: Otherwise, if the producers or distributors did not agree with the first decision, they could file an appeal and the same film Offensivi del pudore, della morale, del buon costume e della would be reviewed by a second commission. If the second commission pubblica decenza; From the authorization, the the end of the war. A passage from the document reads: Il film raggiunge una efficacia [sic] tensione spettacolare, films, e. If authorized, the war setting in other words, far from the more crucial battlegrounds film would be distributed in cinemas.
In the case of restrictions or of Western Europe. The war was over, Although no document has been found attesting the exact and the fascist regime had been replaced by a democratic political date when the film was translated and re-voiced into Italian, it is very system. However, the personnel of the previous administration were probable that the Italian edition of Casablanca had been prepared largely maintained at the film office.
Although there is no official evidence formed mainly by the popular dubbing directors and actors of the s. Indeed, if the script had been the Italian film industry, and more specifically in the dubbing or post- presented for approval, and a final script re-submitted after being synchronisation sector. The name of the person in charge of preparing the by the distributors to limit expense of money and effort i. However, recent archival research has requirements, which, as discussed above, were the same as those of revealed that Carlo Silva was credited as the dialogue writer in the Instead of that petty charge Italians in the war, and 3 the representation of Italian characters in you have on him, you can get the film.
The the dialogues in the original version while b. One example in particular is indicative of a moralistic il deserto non occupato. The government, were substituted with a different geographical indication fact that both the re-edited dubbed version and the subtitles do not that wanted to recall the contemporary Chinese Civil War.
In particular, were only two isolated cases in the film, but they served a very specific the references to the Fascist presence in Ethiopia and in the fighting purpose: In , you in the film, whether used to criticize Nazi-Fascist ideology or to fought in Spain on the Loyalist side. The Fascist captain Tonelli is a background character with 3.
Italian characters only few lines of dialogue. The first time the Italian officer appears in the film, he censorship directed at controlling the negative representation of introduces himself with vain pomposity see fig. It is well known that during the s unwelcome representations of Italians in film were denied permits for distribution in Fascist Italy: These two characters have short lines of dialogue and must have not been recognised as Italians by either the dubbing personnel or the film commissioners as they do not have an evident Italian connotation or accent in the film.
Their lines were therefore translated according to those in the original script. In the film there are two other characters whose Italianness Fig. While in the original version captain Tonelli switches from speaking 8 Renault scoffs at Tonelli as the latter and the French officer English to Italian, and gives a pompous Fascist salute to the German pass by arguing indistinctly and gesticulating: The original passage has been re-inserted in the victory.
After this scene, Tonelli is mainly seen fooling around with The second Italian character is the owner of the club The Blue Parrot, Casselle gesticulating and arguing indistinctly anytime they appear on signor Ferrari. Ferrari is renowned in Casablanca for being in charge the scene. The second appearance made by Tonelli see fig. Man in the street: He has a monopoly here on the black market.
Egli ha quasi tutto il monopolio del Mercato Nero qui. Thank you for the coffee segnore. I shall miss it when we leave Casablanca. The seen adulating any women who passes by a Latin Lover stereotype identity shift also respects quantitative synchronism, that is, each were not already undeniable clues of his Italian characterisation, the dubbed utterance has to contain roughly the same number of syllables final mention of the coffee made by Ilsa 11 leaves no doubt about as the original utterance.
The rewriting and visual censorship discussed in this section with Ferak was probably suggested by the fact that the character wears are quite significant because they are not a reflection of the historical for most of the film a Moroccan Fez hat see fig.
Because of this, they were prone to perceive the lo staiter [sic] in divisa fascista. Casablanca with a different state of mind because for them Casablanca a vietare la circolazione della pellicola in questione: Borrowing with fictional World War II narratives. Having be modified during the post-production phase. However, this that the American Allies had in the eyes of many Italians.
Instead, case is only one of many examples of film censorship directed at the ideological rewriting and censorship of the recent past in the inhibiting the memory of Fascism and of World War II in Italy in the dubbed film is a clear testimony of how Fascist forces were still at post-war period and beyond. Many by Giuseppe Spataro. Spettacolo e Turismo and placed it under the direction of Franco Libonati. According to the historian, in the US, see Merlock Jackson It was published in the Gazzetta Ufficiale on November earlier in , was now put in charge of the distribution of foreign films in the 3, , No.
At the beginning of , this control passed to Einape [Ente 15 nazionale acquisti importazioni pellicole estere] presided over by Giacomo Dusmet. A complete official list of these releases has not been traced back in SIAE records 6 and other sources because the activity lay in the hands of the PWB.
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Film archives in the US would probably yield some results and paid by foreign film distributors, from the initial 25, Italian lire per dubbed film of shed light on the issue. Moreover, an additional charge of 20, was to be paid on 16 each dubbing for any additional , lire earned by these dubbed films in Italian 20th Century Fox was also dubbing its films in Madrid because a group of cinemas this was fixed between the profit range of 2.
Italian dubbers was blocked in Spain, according to Quargnolo United Artists films could still circulate until 31 December He indicated 58 17 films released in , 83 in , 34 in , 8 in and 2 in Indeed, See for example a short article published in Films in Anteprima in January other archival sources document that, for instance, Universal films could also which documents that on June American dubbings were still circulating in Italian circulate without impediment.
Compare later in the text. The volume of Marco Polo , US, dir. This work focused on the complex interplay between Wise Guys, and Sopranos. Historical 32 archival research revealed striking continuities of concern and practice at the state-run The case of the Fascist officer could have also been grouped in the previous set of film office during the period A new examination of Casablanca was carried out by the Italian film office and 33 registered on September 28, ref.
The distribution company Nettunia until February 5, For an account of how the CDC was born, the particular to Focardi. Many thanks should go here to Luca Portas, film archivist and conservator Casablanca - Italian film censorship file ref. Edge of Darkness La bandiera sventola ancora - Italian film 27 censorship file ref. The case is discussed in Mereu The Dub No. First of the Few Il primo dei pochi - Italian film censorship file ref.
Il cattivo tedesco e il bravo italiano: La rimozione film censorship file ref. Mrs Miniver La signora Miniver - Italian film censorship file ref. Indiana University I trecento della settima - Italian film censorship file ref. Round Up the Usual Suspects: Dagos, Palookas, Romeos, Narration in the Fiction Film. Benjamins Translation Library, forthcoming. Caldiron, Orio, and Matilde Hochkofler. Casablanca and Di Cola, Gerardo. Le voci del tempo perduto: Storie in movimento, 23 Storia economico-politica del cinema italiano Eco, Umberto.
Cult Movies and Intertextual Collage. University of Wisconsin Press. La Cineteca del Friuli, An Aesthetic of the films of the Forties that does not belong among the masterpieces Approach. University of Toronto Press, Piscitello becomes a card-carrying Fascist with the approval of his wife, Rosina Ave Ninchi , and his daughter Delia Scala , and despite the indifference of his anti-Fascist friends.
His son, Giovanni Massimo Girotti , is a royal army soldier who takes part in all the wars declared by Mussolini in Ethiopia, Spain, Africa, and Russia. During one of his furloughs, he becomes engaged to Maria Milly Vitale , the granddaughter of the town pharmacist Aldo Silvani , and marries her. When the Allies land in Sicily and the armistice is proclaimed, Piscitello loses first his son Giovanni, who is murdered by two retreating Germans, and then his job.
In this story, the end of the Regime and of the war do not coincide with a renewal of the political class: Even such a brief summary reveals why Anni difficili has aroused strong opposition on all sides of the political spectrum. The portrayal of Italians that the film conveys does not spare anyone and was quite new in the history of Italian national cinema. Briguglio Film, promoted its restoration. However, it was openly defended by Giulio Andreotti, the undersecretary to the president of 2. The comical and grotesque approach mitigates a specific historical context, freely adapting the plot from a literary the bitterness and skepticism of its message.
Probably for this reason source to talk openly about Italy and its middle class during and Andreotti not only gave a nihil obstat to the film but defended it after Fascism. However, three other reasons should be considered. Zampa uses a quick and easy cinematic as in Bicycle Thieves , than with the political opportunism language that connects immediately with the spectator.
It would be depicted in Anni difficili. Zampa inserted archival footage in his film, and dialogue but also from the composition of the frame and the play but not to create the mimesis of reality. As we see in the sequence between actors In contrast to the war Attention is as a bookish exaltation conveyed by literary myths.
The third time Piscitello looks at himself is in a real mirror As suggested by Luca Baranelli 11 the debate was especially strong while he is wearing the Blackshirt uniform, and he throws his hat at within the Communist Party because at that time it was easier to his own reflection. His anger stems from the fact that the pharmacist discuss the public controversy surrounding a still-contentious topic has been arrested by the same forces Piscitello represents with his such as Fascism and anti-Fascism through a comedy like Anni difficili uniform.
Then the postcard arrives that draws his son back to the war. The Spectator in the Mirror the character to confront his guilt and cowardice and acknowledge the casualness with which he and many others joined Fascism. According to Vigliacchi, siamo stati tutti. Quelli che battevano le mani in piazza Goffredo Fofi , both Brancati in his short story and Zampa in e quelli che fischiavano nascosti in casa.
Io ho fatto morire mio figlio. On the contrary, they have Piscitello from his slumber and passive acceptance of Fascism. The first time we see Piscitello in front of a is a more powerful mirror of society than the short story. While In , Zampa and Brancati had a broader understanding of he looks at his image reflected in the mirror he tries to wake up his Italy than the writer had in , when his short story was published. Piscitello wonders aloud how she will be able characters that intensify the satirical dimension of the plot, where to become a serious teacher if she wastes her time reading empty the relationship between Italians and political power, their ability to literature.
Their lack of political consciousness is revealed when they church and Fascism more fully. Paradoxically, the censor asked production to remove political and intellectual ineptitude. The in Modica dying along with him. On the other hand, the the Regime is furtive: He pretends to go to war or urinates on his party affiliation card or his black shirt. Ma il problems within Italian society… but some lack the artistic concentration typical problema interessante del nuovo cinema italiano era vedere se il of [Neorealist] works and may include a mixture of styles or film genres.
Others drift away from a cinema of realism, actual or apparent, toward a more traditional linguaggio dei Visconti, De Sica, Rossellini, Castellani riusciva a commercial cinema, the very kind of cinema neorealist theoreticians such as Zavattini proliferare, se da stile poetico riusciva a diventare lingua corrente, sought to avoid at all costs. He was undersecretary for the president of the Council of Ministers under the in una certa misura, di massa, esprimevano aspetti spiccioli di cabinets led by Giulio Andreotti.
Franco Evangelisti, Enrico Fulchignoni. Films that make people laugh and reflect, provoking a certain— Carlo Montuori. Giuliana Bagni even partial—self-consciousness in the spectator, have been few and unmentioned in credits. Franco Casavola, directed by Ugo Giacomazzi. This is the reason why it is so important to rediscover a Editing: Eraldo da Roma Eraldo Judiconi. Francesco De Feo and Mauro Bolognini. In , it offered Italians a mirror Production: Although Mostra del cinema di Venezia. As a member of the Central Committee of the PCI , he was quelle che le hanno immediatamente precedute.
He directed the journal Critica Marxista from to The debate within the PCI was 17 very lively and revealed unexpected points of view. On the one hand, Calvino intervened in the debate and recognized and directed several films. The restoration was carried out in digital 2K resolution. Anni difficili and its director.
Moreover, in spite 28 This dialogue shows how the characters are generally ineffectual when faced with of the protests of Christian Democrat senators Emilio Battista, Mario Cingolani, and political and intellectual matters: Secondo loro che cosa dovrei fare? Io non ho fatto nessuna insinuazione. Oh avvocato, potrei citare a memoria certi suoi fatalismo solo se si aggancia a questi grandi fatti, solo se si aggancia alla Storia. In Corriere della sera 28 October Brancati in his short story: Ci piace star male!
Che fascisti e antifascisti di scarso coraggio abbian ritratto inorriditi 31 Cops and Robbers Dir. Mario Monicelli and Steno Reprinted in Cosulich, Callisto taken directly from the short story: Che cosa ha detto il papa? Storia del cinema italiano. Reprinted in De Giusti, Luciano ed. Marsilio-Edizioni di however timid, to joining the Fascist Party: Ma lo sa che ci sono degli ex deputati, degli ex ministri che darebbero un occhio della testa per essere iscritti al partito e Anni difficili.
Arrivederci Piscitello, arrivederci e a domani. Riflessi da un paradiso. Edizioni cinque lune, Il cinema di Luigi Zampa. From Neorealism to the Present. Edizioni della Cineteca di Bologna, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. Reprinted in Racconti, Teatro, Scritti giornalistici. Nuove 44 7 November Reprinted in Cosulich, Callisto Rossellini, Visconti e la guerra fredda al cinema. Reprinted in Cosulich, Callisto ed. Review of Anni difficili by Luigi Zampa Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta. Da Via Etnea a Via Veneto. Breve storia del cinema comico in Italia.
Ritornato a Capri, nella sua Casa come me a Punta Massullo, sul finire del fu nuovamente arrestato in almeno due occasioni per i suoi trascorsi fascisti. La vicenda giudiziaria che lo aveva portato a difendersi internazionale condizionato dalla competizione tra Usa e Urss. Firenze, 13 marzo Parigi, 11 marzo Troppo clima di sospetto che circondava la sua persona. Capri, 16 Maggio Capri, 13 giugno Gli Italiani sono che aveva necessariamente dovuto attraversare il fascismo; il tentativo incorreggibili. Io mi ci trovo bene in Italia: Tutti hanno paura, in Italia.
E quando dico polizia plaisir. Ma un Italiano non due cappelli di paglia, copricapo, spiega lo scrittore, molto utile agli si sbaglia. Se non sei qualcuno, il passaporto non lo italiani che hanno sempre la testa calda, sono elevati a simbolo del riesci ad avere. Un operaio, un uomo, o donna, del popolo, non passaggio storico che il Paese ha attraversato e sta attraversando: Se sei qualcuno, subito. Possibile che non si riesca mai ad esser liberi?
Non pas les morts, stesse cose a Milano, in Aprile Ce sont deux chapeaux de paille viste neppure in Russia. Hanno armato tutta la canaglia: Le antiche divisioni interne al fascismo e mai risolte, aggiungeva lo scrittore, si sarebbero riprodotte ora nei partiti On ne peut pas comprendre la situation actuelle, morale et antifascisti: I partiti, con la loro propaganda, fecero a Capri il giorno di Pasqua del In fin dei conti erano irredimibile: La parola, di Fig. Inni satire origine toscana, si riferisce, come spiega ancora una volta Pasquino, epigrammi, Ora si chiamavano Alcide De Gasperi, Palmiro 13 settembre Togliatti, Pietro Nenni, Carlo Sforza.
Aveva pensato anche di arricchirlo Malaparte aveva inizialmente proposto la pubblicazione di con i disegni del pittore Renato Guttuso: In Francia aveva raccolto il successo internazionale riscosso In questo periodo, si rivolse a Valentino Bompiani di sommario, con il titolo Batticulo.
Il 10 ottobre concludeva, doveva essere il seguente: A novembre che, insomma, avrai paura: Ma verso la fine altre due parolacce, due sole, che troverai in un epigramma…. Temerai del mese, Bompiani ebbe un ripensamento. Questi informa il nuovo arrivato di quanto accaduto in Italia: Venne Mussolini, e definitiva del rapporto professionale tra i due. Poi sei venuto tu, e li amareggiato. Son venuti i Russi, e gli Italiani si sono editore, forse per un opportunistico interesse: Storia ai quali vai incontro tu, come editore.
Ma il bersaglio principale dello scrittore resta per tutto il romanzo il comunismo sovietico, che, 4. Questa rappresentazione non poteva piacere al segretario del Partito comunista. Lo seguiva un folto stuolo di forsennati, che agitavano di domani, ricordando come, in passato, lo stesso avesse chiesto bandierine bianche rosse e verdi gridavano: Viva pagina verso la fine del mese: Tutto continuava come sempre, domanda un memoriale di 30 pagine, nel quale voleva dimostrare come il personaggio Malaparte sussurra a Pietro Nenni di fronte allo i suoi sentimenti filocomunisti.
In ogni parola, in ogni Malaparte scrittore di guerra. Come se non fossimo tutti colpevoli, tutti. Non in una delle sue Corrispondenze repubblicane. Non i morti, ma i vivi: Avrei preferito che, molto semplicemente, fosse stato utile a qualcosa. Le loro idee erano vaghe, confuse, antiquate. Erano sordi, eloquenti e miopi. Lettere a Curzio Malaparte. Malaparte e il giornalismo. Introduzione a Curzio Malaparte. Viaggio in abitudini, delle paure e delle speranze del cattolicesimo. Il popolo italiano ama i Etiopia e altri scritti africani.
A cura di Enzo R. Malaparte scrittore di guerra. La piccola borghesia, in quanto classe sociale e Sforza per il suo Battibecco Lettera: Jouy-en-Josas, 24 ottobre Curzio Malaparte, La pelle. Storia e racconto Lettere a Giuseppe Prezzolini. Archivio Prezzolini, Biblioteca 20 cantonale di Lugano. Se ne conserva un esemplare tra le Carte Bompiani.
Lettere a Valentino Bompiani. Il romanzo fu pubblicato in dieci numeri successivi, dal n. The Ventennio in Andrea Pinotti. I di Curzio Malaparte. Opera omnia, a cura di Edoardo e Duilio of his works. As a matter of fact, the pages in which the author remembers his youth under Fascism and during the Allied landing in Sicily are some of the most moving in his biography Lodato He recalls his dueling senses of liberation and occupation—the joy of being freed from tyranny on the one hand and the realization of an impending foreign occupation on the other—which made him cry actual tears at the arrival of the Allied troops.
Many decades later, Leonardo Sciascia, the famous Sicilian writer, would confess to his friend Camilleri the exact same emotions on this historic day [Lodato ]. Such selectivity becomes especially evident when looking between it and recent events. This article will take into Literature transmits knowledge through its mnemonic capacity account recent theoretical discourse in the field of cultural memory and can thus serve a didactic function within a shared memory space studies Assmann, Erll, Isnenghi, Lachmann, Neumann, Rigney as Lachmann The Sicilian author fiercely criticizes Bonina, Demontis, Nigro , to give a comprehensive look at those any type of extremism, orthodoxy, or fanaticism—both historical works in which the author comes to terms with his personal memories and contemporary.
Through a historical looking glass, his writing of the Ventennio. In them, social circles at the time of writing. At first, this consisted of a simple he chose to focus on the abuse of youth during the Ventennio: Decades after the events he witnessed as a youth, as with 2. Youth Denied so many other eyewitnesses and survivors, Camilleri reappraised and processed the dramatic and—especially for a young boy— In the second book of his series of detective novels, Il cane di traumatic events of the Fascist era.
After the detective is wounded in a shoot- Although Burgio remembers many facts of the era, it is out and is required to take a leave of absence from regular police through Angelina that the emotions of the time are conveyed. She duty, the entire second half of the novel is dedicated to his unofficial describes how she and her best friend were separated by the bombings investigation of this crime.
Certain clues, such as coins found close and had to resort to almost daily letters to stay in touch. Given the frenzied circumstances, it Camilleri draws heavily on his own experience and life is not surprising that the letters ceased at a certain point and the two story here. In one of the short stories in the collection Un mese con friends lost touch with one another. But when Angelina finds out more Montalbano, Burgio gives his exact age: Not coincidentally, he and Andrea Camilleri were both the grotto alongside her beloved American soldier, it still causes her born in , and when the Headmaster instructs Montalbano, who is considerable pain.
Although the personal memories and feelings of his youth, rather than the mere Burgio remembers vividly the facts of the particularly horrendous historical facts, using the narrative artifice of the detective story. Rather, it is a nod to childhood: Indeed, Camilleri graduated at the events following , becomes immediately apparent: As memory, and narrative. His individual remembrance, even at the age of young adulthood, and those who managed did so only by when disguised as detective fiction, takes on collective significance.
Of particular note is the style of 3. It soon a primary role in the plot. Dai tre ai sei anni si era Figli della power. He is willing to sacrifice his own life for those ideals that have Lupa… dai sei ai dieci si passava Balilla, poi Avanguardista e dai been inculcated in him and in which he alone apparently still believes.
As Simona Demontis suggests: By pure chance, Montalbano While it is no doubt one of his least approachable works, especially for manages to uncover what had happened: In analysing the narrative, the Wu-Ming explosives in an act of sabotage, causing the death of thirteen people.
It denounces with ferocity the hypocritical and many of the other instances in which Montalbano investigates crimes monstrous characters Italian society has been dragging along for from the Ventennio,11 it is important to note that the parties involved many decades now. Michelino is only six years old in the novel Michelino is raped by his tutor. As Salvatore Nigro explains in the Siege. With his young heart inflamed by rhetoric, he, had Extremely smart for his age—albeit in a very limited way, since he in fact sent a letter to Mussolini, asking to enroll as a volunteer to eschews any type of critical judgment—Michelino is entrusted to fight in Africa.
The text of his letter reads as follows: Gradirei arruolarmi volontario per combattere in best young Fascist he can be. Gorgerino, the head of the National Africa Orientale. And, to to join the army, but expressing appreciation for his fervor and Fascist commemorate Fascist victories, he celebrates with Michelino the spirit Lodato From this point on, he is forced were any of the participants of his beloved Symposium. Further confusing logos takes refuge in his own confused set of orthodox beliefs, which have or the quest for knowledge tow which he pays lipservice, the tutor been influenced by both State and Church.
His next disillusionment occurs when and political fervor. That bond is book: In Imperfect Catholic church. With his morality corrupted by false rhetoric and and political state of affairs that still subsists in contemporary Italy. There is no redemption in the novel, as all appropriate medium. However, can be attributed to the time of publication: Unless otherwise indicated, therefore, all translations provided are my aftermath of the World Trade Center bombings in and published my own.
As shown in the preceeding 6 In Il ladro di merendine his exact age is given: Since its Baedeker is a German publishing house famous for its travel guides. An uncensored version is scheduled to 30 km Over the next few decades, the idea of abiding by a moral or ethical code was put into question by the Prime Minister himself pushing and overstepping boundaries again and again.
New German Critique 65 Romanzi storici e civili. Companion to Modern Italian Culture. Cambridge University Press, Texts Between Bonina, Gianni. Il carico da undici: Cornell University Press, The Sack of Rome: La Nuova Frontiera, Il cane di terracotta. Over by a Man Named Silvio Berlusconi. Il ladro di merendine, Palermo: Crises of Memory and the Second World War. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Camilleri Fans Club. Libri letti e consigliati da Wu-Ming. Il fascismo secondo Camilleri. A Companion of Cultural Memory Studies. La linea della palma: Saverio Lodato fa raccontare Andrea Camilleri.
As we will see, they also challenge the loss of historical memory in Italian society and the covertly approved amnesty for crimes committed during the German occupation of Italy in the name of a still unresolved reconciliation. Last but not least, the investigative process also allows Guccini and Macchiavelli to comment upon contemporary events, drawing a parallel between the past of the investigation and the present of the reader, in a pattern typical of historical crime novels Milanesi It looks in particular at Tango e gli altri.
These writers also stressed the often ambivalent attitudes of a greater sense of national identity among Italians. Revisionists also many Italians who survived during Fascism without taking sides. They claimed that if the Fascists had notable as they investigate the dissociation of individuals from the behaved brutally during the war of Liberation, the Communists were responsibilities of the regime that they served in the name of alleged also responsible for atrocities. While this position was contested, apolitical professionalism or loyalty.
On the contrary, following a tradition of social and political to their inquiry. If the Republic had been flawed in war and make choices of a moral and political nature. All these novels, its first creation, then there was no need to ponder its most recent which raise questions about legality and personal responsibilities in a past. The fictional s to the present.
Macchiavelli is also the co-founder order: Sent to the Russian front as a punishment for his His works and his passionate defence of detective fiction have been a heterodoxy, he survives and, once back in Italy, joins the Resistance. In source of inspiration for a new generation of giallo writers in Italy. He is also a writer and a comic book the strategy of tension in Questo sangue che impasta la terra Equally important, in both Un disco and fans alike, who regard him as an iconic figure.
This gives the authors the sleuth who is a clever and brave detective animated by a love of truth. Finally, through a reaffirmation of the values of afraid to confront complacent authorities in order to pursue justice. Most importantly, it was oppose his efforts to minimize the importance of Tangentopoli. Indeed, a deliberate political choice on the part of Guccini and Macchiavelli as R. As expresses a desire to get over the Tangentopoli period: Although he The first novel of the series sees a twenty-something Sansovito is finally accepted by the villagers in this story, in the following novels investigating a series of murders in a small village in the Apennines in he becomes an outsider as an ex-partisan in a world that has forgotten The narrative presents several flashbacks that take the reader to the sacrifice of thousands of men and women during the Second World the end of the nineteenth century through the story of a young villager, War.
This story, which alternates with the main story set between As Carlo Oliva observes, the Sansovito series allows its and , proves to be critical for the solution of the mystery. From In the novel it is also revealed that maresciallo Sansovito had been the flow of emigration at the end of the nineteenth century through transferred to the village as punishment for having investigated the the last years of World War II to the years of the Economic Boom and children of some important Fascist officers.
Queste non sono cose period at the core of the narratives. This does not come as a surprise di sua competenza. Fiori alla memoria starts with a series of acts down a precipice, triggering an investigation and the questioning of of vandalism against a monument by a group of fallen partisans and the squadristi involved in the incident. At this stage of his personal ends with the discovery of the identity of the traitor who caused their story, Sansovito is similar to all the other fictional detectives of the death at the end of the Second World War.
In Sequenze di memoria Fascist era who display a firm sense of justice even when they find , Macchiavelli associates the cruelty of the Fascist past with the themselves in delicate circumstances. In Sequenze di memoria, after the sudden death of Gianni, a the regime: This gesture also hints at his future decision truth written underneath that sheds light on both on the past and the to distance himself from the Fascist ideology as happens with the present.
Throughout War, Sansovito is confronted with a present of political and social the novel, Sansovito is increasingly worried about his future, but he struggle. Casa Editrice Kimerik, And, recognizing, even, the exact instant it arrives, fasting, in order to ill my mouth with dead lies after the last uncouth spring. The Man from del monte says Yes There was basil in a lower-pot. The leaves with a thirst to turn eyes aside in displeasure.
Neither did it perfume either anymore. There was a need for there to be rain sometimes. Praying it would make silence. Perhaps a gear not cognizing round the hours advancing on the table anymore. Each crumb however remained in place. And it made late hour equal my yawn. She has translated four works by magic realist, Massimo Bontempelli: Her essays on translation were published in the Boston Globe. When he died at age 74, Saba left very little unexplored. When he began writing poetry, young Poli used various pseudonyms before inally settling on the name Saba. He was then sixteen years old.
This is where we pick him up in Ernesto. The shop is still at the same location and now serves as a Saba museum as well. Not until he was in his mid forties and analyzed by Edo- ardo Weiss, an early Freudian who practiced in Trieste, was Saba able to unravel the complicated emotions of his early life. Still, the nervous ailments and depressions of his youth continued to plague him and worsened with age.
He spent his last years in and out of sanatoria. In his inal years, addicted to morphine, subject to its and falls, and living alone in a room cluttered with clothes and books, littered with cigar stubs and ashes, Saba turned to prose to reexamine his youth. He died in August Saba produced nearly one thousand pages of prose: He began the work in when in his seventies, fully aware that its frankness and honesty would appall Italian readers. Although he considered some passages to be his best writing, and read the work aloud to friends and family as it progressed, he repeatedly admonished his daughter, Linuc- cia, and her companion, writer and artist Carlo Levi, to destroy their copies of the manuscript.
Four years later, it was made into a movie by director Salvatore Samperi. With the passing of time and the change in social mores the book has become a landmark in Italian and international homosexual literature. The boy, Ernesto is a sixteen year old clerk at a commercial irm, who writes poetry and plays the violin.
He is willingly se- duced by the twenty-eight year old, uneducated stevedore never named in the book whose work Ernesto supervises. Their surrep- titious trysts at work continue until the boy impetuously decides to have his irst relations with a woman. He cautiously chooses a particular prostitute.
Subsequently, wishing to escape the man, Ernesto cruelly engineers his own dismissal from the irm. Still later, he is attracted to a ifteen year old boy, a violinist, very much like his younger self. Discussing his own style in his Scorciatoie Shortcuts , Saba wrote. May my typesetter and my reader forgive me. And there was no other way I could be brief. This candid, almost innocent work on homosexuality relects what I love about Saba: Ernesto is not much known to the world. It was never issued in North America.
Much of the dialogue in the early chapters of Ernesto is in Triestino, the local speech of Trieste and the adjacent Friuli sec- tion of Italy, a dialect so remote in sound and orthography from the standard language that it is in essence a foreign language to other Italians. After beginning the novel with such a dialogue Saba charac- teristically and parenthetically, pauses to tell his Italian readers that he has modiied that dialogue and all that follow it, in the hope that potential readers will be able to translate them on their own.
So much for burn the manuscript, dear daughter. It was not jargon or street slang. Nor was it related to social hierarchy. He spoke it every day. No matter their differences in social class, any two Triestino speakers were equals in terms of direct communication. There is a rich and growing literature addressed to translators on how to translate dialect into a target language. But each translator and work make a unique pair, and as usual in life, every situation must ind its own solution.
Much depends on how the dialect is used within the text: Works completely in dialect can perhaps be most happily translated if the translator can deine the essence of a work and ind a rhythmically and vocally compatible style in the target language. Most of the dialogues in dialect in Ernesto take place between Ernesto and the characters who move the sexual elements of the story forward.
These dialogues tend to be lengthy, tension laden and emotional both for the characters and the reader. Sadly, there is no English language dialect — at least none that I could ind or invent - that can function as the Triestine does in Ernesto. Absent the availability of such a dialect, I have tried to reproduce this essential interplay of voices in English, in as compelling and coherent a way as possible. This translation is based on the critical Italian edition of Ernesto edited by Antonietta Grignani and issued in Prima di pranzo, passa da Bernardo.
Bernardo era un barbiere che aveva la bottega in faccia alla casa di Ernesto. Ma Ernesto non amava perdere nulla della sua persona, nemmeno di quelle parti di essa destinate a ricrescere. Era dificile cavarlo fuori da quel nascondiglio e, qualche volta, la giovane donna, che gli voleva bene come fosse stato suo iglio il suo era morto appena nato , ma aveva molte altre faccende da sbrigare, perdeva la pazienza. E come sempre si mise a piangere.
Si trattava di una vecchia calunnia. Signora Celestina had been pleading with Ernesto for over a month to have this bit of surgery done. It was dificult for her to pry him out from there and at times the woman, who loved him as if he were her own child her son had died shortly after birth , and who had much more work to do, would lose her temper.
It had to do with slanderous old gossip. Avrebbe perino strozzato il merlo che, ignaro, cantava alla inestra. Poi, una cartina di bromuro mise, per il momento, le cose a posto. E, ogni volta, sua madre si offend- eva e arrabbiava; lo minacciava di denunciarlo, per un castigo, allo zio Giovanni. Ernesto, per conto suo, oltre ad avere la consolante certezza che sua madre minacciava invano, non avrebbe trovato niente di male ad essere iglio di Bernardo.
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Lo conosceva e serviva in da piccolo; era stato il primo, dopo la sua balia, a tagliargli i capelli, e sperava di essere lui a fargli la prima barba. Apparteneva - si vede - a quella categoria di persone, molto numerose, che non immaginano una carriera brillante se non preceduta da una laurea. Thrilled and exhilarated by the revelations of the mysteries of procreation and of his hidden relationship to Bernardo, Ernesto had raced home to recount both these exciting bits of news to his mother. On hearing the second, she fainted and fell to the ground. He could have throttled his blackbird singing away obliviously at the window.
It seemed in fact, to be singing louder and better than ever before. A dose of bromide eventually set things right. Nevertheless, every time his mother pressed him go to the barber two, perhaps three times a year the boy would get back at her with the old tale, though by then he, too, knew that it was complete and utter rubbish. And every time she would get insulted and angry and threaten to punish him by telling his Uncle Giovanni. Bernardo was a heavy, fairly elderly man with completely white hair and a kind face. He always welcomed Ernesto warmly, had even lent him money once which the boy spent at a new bakery that everyone in town was raving about, and which he repaid punctually from the weekly allowance he got from his uncle.
Bernardo had waited on him since childhood. And he suffered his irst disappoint- ment when Ernesto left school to take a job. It seems that Bernardo belonged to that very large group of people who cannot imagine a brilliant career not preceded by an academic degree. Although he never expressed his disappointment to Ernesto, the boy sensed it. Bernardo volle servirlo di persona. Il barbiere gli chiese, come prima cosa, notizie della sua salute sapeva che Ernesto era stato ammalato e ci teneva a fargli sapere che lo sapeva , di quella della signora Celestina e della vecchissima zia.
Pareva se ne vantasse. Gli disse che lo zio gli aveva parlato di lui, lamentandosi che fosse sempre socialista. I socialisti diceva lo zio - sono in odio a tutti, e non sono destinati a far carriera nel mondo. Ernesto, che conosceva Bernardo da sempre, la preferiva. Ma no son iscritto al par- tito; son ancora tropo giovine. Conosceva abbastanza Ernesto per dare troppo peso alle sue parole. Il ragazzo e Bernardo lo sapeva non odiava lo zio tutore non odiava ancora nessuno: Sentiva che questi non lo amava almeno eccessivamente e, soprat- tutto, non lo approvava.
Forse sospettava nel nipote qualcosa di strano e di proibito. Ed uno dei tratti del carattere di Ernesto era il bisogno di essere approvato ed amato. He walked resolutely into the shop. Bernardo wanted to take care of him personally. Once seated in the revolv- ing chair and completely at the mercy of his unwitting torturer, Ernesto resigned himself to having his hair cut as a necessity, however unpleasant, of the good life.
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All he said to Bernardo was not to cut his hair too short, and answered all his questions cheerfully. The irst thing the barber inquired about was his health he knew that Ernesto had been ill and wanted him to know that he knew it. After that he asked after the health of Signora Celeste and of his very old Aunt. Then he told him that just the previous day Signor Giovanni had been in to have his beard trimmed.
He seemed to take pride in this.
He added that his uncle had spoken about Ernesto, lamenting that he was still a socialist. Socialists, his uncle had said, were hated by everyone and would never amount to anything in the world. Sometimes he used it, sometimes the more formal lei. He knew Ernesto well enough not to take him seriously. He was just afraid of him. Ernesto si attendeva ad un elogio: Ma sapeva egli stesso di non meritarlo.
Il violino era stato un suo capriccio, nel quale poi si era ostinato. Lo zio poi odiava in linea generale i violini e, in modo particolare, quello del nipote. Paganini; e quando voleva far disperare Ernesto, lo chiamava, ridendo: Era, su questo argomento, intrattabile: Play- ing the violin had begun as one of his whims, but one in which he subsequently persisted. He paid a teacher from the weekly allowance that he received from his Uncle, and from the small sums he extorted with wheedling and promises from his old aunt.
He said that there was only one great violinist in the world: The derision with which his Uncle delivered these words stung the boy more deeply than a slap in the face. The only person who was not completely disapproving of the experiment was his old aunt. But his aunt, in addition to being old, was a little deaf. And the only work that signora Celeste let her do at home was to wash the radicchio which they ate in large amounts.
Despite his meager progress, the boy persisted in studying his loved-and-hated violin. Adesso desiderava che Bernardo si spicciasse. Il vecchio barbiere non mostrava invece nessuna fretta: Sentiva al collo, dove il barbiere aveva fatto passare il rasoio, una spiacevole sensazione di freddo. Il suo movimento istintivo sarebbe stato di alzarsi e scappare; ma, timidezza a parte, avrebbe dovuto dare delle spiegazioni; e, o non le trovava, o non poteva esibirle.
Era, oltre a tutto, il suo mestiere: Nessuno si accorse che aveva le lacrime agli occhi. It was a miracle that, chatterbox that he was, he had never said a word about it to the man. He seemed to enjoy dragging out the process, which was a torture to Ernesto. Anyway, , when he was young, he was for Garibaldi. Besides, he was almost done. Ernesto barely glanced at it, then shut his eyes so as not to see himself looking worse, so he thought, than before. His neck, which the barber had shaved, felt unpleasantly chilled. His intuitive reaction would have been to get up and get out of there.
Then suddenly, he thought of the man; saw him, off in the distance, looking as if he were weeping. He is never named in the book. Sperava - pur sapendo che la sua speranza era vana - che sua madre avrebbe saputo confortarlo. E lo disse col tuono con cui avrebbe annunciata una grande sventura che gli fosse occorsa.
Bernardo ha fatto bene a tagliartela. Poi le friggeva in quello stesso olio. It was, after all, his profession. If there were no such things as beards, he would have invented them. Ernesto was inally free and got up from the chair. No one noticed the tears in his eyes. Bernardo smiling contentedly and folding his towel, watched Ernesto cross the street as he led home. He was hoping, even as he knew it was in vain, that his mother would comfort him. When he had been about thirteen or fourteen years old, he would have liked to be taken for a grown man, and had badgered his mother to buy him a vest like one a boy in his class had.
Now, however, reading newspapers, he was pleased if a youth of his age was still referred to as a boy. Auntie and I are hungry. Fino ai tredici anni ne riceveva una; poi due, e della stessa grandezza di prima. Il ragazzo ne avrebbe mangiate tre, anche quattro: Davano tutti gli insegnamenti del caso, ed abbondavano in particolari. Anche il cugino coetaneo non coetaneo del tutto: Tutti gli altri ed Ernesto si collocava fra gli altri dovevano crepare.
Egli si sapeva incapace di dire di no, specialmente ad una donna. They left specks of blood in the oil, and she would then fry them in the same oil. They were in fact, meat balls, though lattened, but they must have contained a secret ingredient. Until he was thirteen years old, Ernesto had been served only one, later, he got a second, as large as the irst. He could eat three, perhaps even four, but that day he could barely taste any of his food.
He ate in silence, then immediately withdrew to his room, the only one in the house with a sloping roof, where he threw himself down on the brass bed to brood on his unhappiness. The blackbird, accustomed to being released and to having its bath at that time of day, began hopping restlessly from perch to perch, and calling to Ernesto to open the cage. With a sense of regret he recalled all the friends who had already done so; and had bragged about it to him.
They had told him all they knew on the subject and were lavish with details. Even a cousin his own age well, not exactly, he was three months older than Ernesto had already done it - more than once, if you could believe him. Life, in that sense, began the day a boy had a woman for the irst time. However, there had been a time when he was convinced that he would die of tuberculosis before he got to be twenty. Everyone else and Er- nesto counted himself among those others was going to die. The obsession lasted two or three months. Then he stopped thinking about it. E se non gli fosse piaciuta?
Ora una prostituta non poteva - ed egli lo sapeva - amarlo; se andava con lui era per i soldi: Ma il destino doveva essergli, anche questa volta, favorevole. Abitava al primo piano di una vecchia casa, nel quartiere dove si aprivano i postriboli: Se avesse battuto ad una porta sbagliata, cosa avrebbe detto a chi gli fosse venuto ad aprire? And after that, his friendship with the man. He had another problem too. He knew he was incapable of saying no, especially to a woman.
Consequently, if he went to a brothel he would have to say yes to the irst woman offered him. How would he have the nerve to aflict a poor, unfortunate woman The Worker had taught him that prostitutes were poor unfortunate victims of bourgeois prejudice with the shame of a refusal? Ernesto had not yet reached the age of aesthetic sensibility he would reach it shortly - but by other ways and other means. His preferences were dictated solely by his sensuality at a given moment. For example, it never occurred to him to wonder whether the man was handsome or ugly.
He had responded to him for reasons that had nothing to do with aesthetics. He wanted to be loved and the man loved him. If she went with him, it was for the money. This matter of mak- ing a choice or rather of not making one was a major dificulty rooted in his character. But fate was once again to favor him. There was a woman in the old city who practiced the profession on her own perhaps secretly, meaning without police authorization. Ernesto had seen her often at her window. She lived on the irst loor of an old building in a part of town where brothels were permitted. A friend had told him her price a lorin.
If he knocked at the wrong door, what would he say to whoever opened it? He imagined - who knows why- an old woman holding a broom, who, on hearing what he wanted, would chase him into the street shrieking insults and humiliating him in front of everybody. Worse, his uncle, who, fearing solitary vices in his nephew, was giving him weekly gifts for just this purpose though alas, without actually stating his reason , owned shops on a street not far from the brothels.
What if his uncle happened to pass by and witness the scene? Ernesto decise di abbandonarsi al caso: Il pomeriggio era, virtualmente, suo: Sapeva che dalle prostitute si andava solo di sera e di nascosto; ma non si sentiva di rimandare: Era anche un giorno di grande sole. A pensarci su, avrebbe perso il poco coraggio che gli rimaneva. La donna era alla inestra; e vide subito il suo cenno. Era un odore di biancheria nuova, appena tagliata; lo stesso che gli piaceva tanto nella casa della sua balia. Questa, che aveva il marito ammalato, e doveva guadagnare la vita per lui e per lei, cuciva a macchina tutti i pomeriggi capi di biancheria diversi, che la mattina vendeva, o cercava di vendere, in Piazza del Ponterosso.
Ernesto had no doubt she would immediately start crying, maybe faint, or even die right there with the shame of having such a son. Wanting to experience the feelings that Bernardo had inadvertently activated in him with that ill timed, premature shave, Ernesto decided to surrender to fate. He would walk down the street where the woman lived. He would walk by three times. If one of those times she was at the window he would signal to her and go up.
His afternoon was essentially free. So he had plenty of time. He wanted to experi- ence everything head on, immediately, in broad daylight. It was even a bright sunny day. If he stopped to think about it, he would lose what little courage he had. The woman was at the window and immediately noticed his nod. His heart beating in his throat, Ernesto climbed the steps and found her waiting at her door. In fact, he had the feeling that things might work out better for him this way. What he did notice was a light growth of hair over her upper lip.
Is she going to sprout a mustache? The thought amused and cheered him. The nursemaid, who had a sick husband and had to earn a living for both of them, would sit at her sewing machine every afternoon making various articles of linen which she sold, or attempted to sell, mornings in Piazza del Pon- terosso. But she would chase him off immediately. Forse era anche una buona donna, con repressi istinti materni. Ernesto fece un gesto vago, come per dire che la cosa gli era indifferente.
La donna non se le tolse. Under Franz Joseph2 , no one could stop her from walking around with linen under her arm. This woman too, was sewing linen, but she was doing it for herself and for her clients. She was particular about cleanliness. Perhaps she, too, was a kind woman with suppressed maternal instincts. If so, this strange customer who had dropped in on her in broad daylight and who acted less mature than he looked, would seem to be particularly fashioned to draw them out.
He was neither undress- ing nor approaching her. And she looked more closely at Ernesto. He was a good looking boy, so different from the men who regularly visited her at night. She sensed that on that afternoon, fate had bestowed a strange and unexpected gift upon her. You just get yourself undressed. Ernesto did so too. Ernesto gestured vaguely, as if it was matter of indifference to him.
The woman did not remove them. But one glance - and the discovery pleased her - told her her diagnosis had been incorrect. Ma Ernesto era fatto diversamente. La sua forza e la sua debolezza stavano nel mostrarsi, in dove possibile, quale veramente era. Il ragazzo amava, come tutti i suoi coetanei, le lodi; ma, a differenza di questi, doveva sentire di meritarle.
Come ti te ciami? Ma Ernesto non era un cliente comune. E fece seguire al nome il cognome. Evidentemente, la donna era una slovena del Territorio. It will be easier, if this is really your irst time. Why, in fact, should he have? Youngsters generally try to pass themselves off as sophisticated rather than inexperienced. And the harder they pretend to be the former, the more likely they are to be the latter. His strength and his weakness lay in trying as much as possible to present himself as he really was.
Like all boys his age he liked praise, but unlike most others, he had to feel he merited it. There were times his relationship with the man was a torment to him. It would occur to him that if people whom he knew, who were repelled by such behavior and used insulting terms for it, were to learn what he had done, many who now liked him would no longer do so. Meanwhile, to arouse him, the woman had begun caressing him. Completely nude, he seemed to her not more than a child. And as if he were a child, her hand stroked his buttocks.
They were soft and tender and her hand lingered there for a moment. But that moment was enough for Ernesto to recall the man. And his image there, in that place, was frightening. I like you better this way. E - come desid- erava andarsene pensare in pace a quanto gli era accaduto - mise la mano in tasca, per prendere fuori il denaro e pagare la donna. Era il primo del mese e il primo giorno della settimana: Dette alla donna che costava solo un iorino tutto, o quasi, quello che possedeva, compreso quanto aveva dimenticato di dare a Bernardo.
Voleva rendergli una parte del denaro; ma Ernesto non volle. Ricordite che me ciamo Tanda, e sta atento a no sbagliar de porta. Era quasi commossa,e volentieri gli avrebbe dato un bacio. Due cose tormentavano Ernesto, mentre si avviava ad eseguire le commissioni per il signor Wilder: La matassa doveva attendere molti anni per incominciare appena a dipanarla; la sete invece che, per ragioni isiologiche, afligge tutti gli uomini dopo il coito con una prostituta poteva sod- disfarla subito. And falling back at the edge of the bed, she drew the boy towards her. It seemed to him that he had experienced it before, even before his birth.
He felt like a man who, after a long, adventurous journey, returns home where he knows and recognizes everything: Ernesto, no longer worried about himself, inquired about it. And, as he was anxious to get away to think quietly about what he had just experienced , he reached into his pocket for money.
It was the irst of the month, the irst of the week. It was what only the old or impotent paid. She offered to give him some money back, but he refused. Just remember my name is Tanda, and be careful not to go to the wrong door. Non gli restava quindi che bere ad una fontana pubblica. Ma la loro vista lo rese anche accorto di essere in ritardo. Per affrettarlo, decise di prendere, coi pochi centesimi che gli rimanevano, il tram. Lo avrebbe poi messo in conto al parsimonioso signor Wilder. Molte donne, la maggior parte giovani, alcune ancora bambine, attendevano il loro turno.
Dovette, per bere a garganella, piegare in due la persona: Two problems were troubling Ernesto as he set off to do his errands for Signor Wilder. He was unable to undo the twisted tangle of his thoughts, and he was very thirsty. It would be many years before he could even begin to undo the tangle. However, the thirst which, for physiological reasons, aflicts all men after coitus with a prostitute could be satisied immediately.
So there was nothing else to do, but drink at a public fountain. He found one in an outlying area, a highly populated outskirt of the city, which had been growing in every direction. Ancient hovels that Ernesto knew from childhood, and which he thought would surely last forever, were being razed to make way for new buildings. The chimney of a nearby factory was emitting thick smoke that permeated the air. Workers, walking double ile, lunch boxes in hand, were already leaving their building.
But seeing them reminded him that he was late. Suddenly, he felt a strange nostalgia for the ofice, even for Signor Wilder. To get back sooner, he decided he would use the remainder of his money to take the tram back and bill it to miserly Signor Wilder. The fountain rose in the middle of a tree-lined ield between a barracks and a church, both painted yellow. Many women, most of them young, some still merely girls, were waiting their turn.
Despite his desperate thirst, Ernesto waited patiently in line. Ernesto si giudicava male. Gli pareva fosse pas- sato non so quanto tempo da quando era stato per la prima volta da una donna Gli pareva fosse passato non so quanto tempo da quando era stato per la prima volta da una donna He had to bend his body almost in half to reach the spout.
The movement and resulting position of his body roused an intrusive memory. At just that moment, he heard laughter all around him. They know everything, he thought. They know about the man, they know where I just came from. He stopped drinking before his thirst was satisied and blushing, began walking away. They continued staring at Ernesto, who, with his eyes to the ground, was trying to escape the wretched fountain as quickly as he could. Ernesto was misjudging himself badly. There was nothing about his appearance to induce laughter. But Ernesto interpreted their subdued laughter very differently.
It seemed to Ernesto as if an incalculable amount of time had passed since his irst experience with a woman. And an entire epoch separated him from the time he had begun his strange relationship with the laborer, who - he was at least sure about this - had in his own way loved him. And perhaps if Ernesto had wanted him to would still have loved him. And only one month had gone by. His volumes of poetry are Frammenti di tormenti prima parte Longo: Kirschenbaum and illustrations by Delia Robinson. Transla- tions of his poetry have appeared in English and Catalan, and are being prepared in German.
He translated into Italian poems of W. He co-translated from German two autobiographical novels of Johannes Hoesle and is a regular contributor to magazines and journals in both Italy and the U. His other publications are books and articles on literary criticism and language pedagogy. Giovanni Raboni is arguably one of the greatest Italian poets of the second half of the twentieth century.
Born in Milan of an afluent middleclass family he gave up a career in law to become a journalist, translator and literary critic. He was awarded all the most prestigious Italian poetry prizes, including the Viareggio and the Librex Montale. The poems presented here were published posthumously in as part of Ultimi versi with an afterword in verse by his wife and poet Patrizia Valduga. They are now included in the Meridiano Mondadori Opera poetica with the rest of his poetry, a selection of his essays, and works for the theatre.
The problem is from where, exactly, to start the counting: Or will it be the case of going further back, much further back, for example to the entry of the lodge or to when the conscience of the country started to model itself after the programs of channel ive? Canzone del danno e della beffa Stillicidio di delitti, terribile: Until, I say to myself, God preserves him and his squads in double-breasted suits or blazers leave him be, we will always know whom to vote against.
Song of Harm and Mockery Unrelenting low of crimes, terrible: Never so low, so similar not only saying it, even thinking it hurts to the heinous caricatures that have always sullied and disigured us In other places as well, I know, they sanctify crime, in other places as well they celebrate rites of privilege and impunity transformed into doctrine of the state. But only to us, soaked already in ancient sins and pardons, to us irst agents and later victims of the plague of the century, was allotted, with the harm, the mockery, a farce in addition to ill fate.
Sia detto, amici, una volta per tutte: Antonello Borra And all the students of Italian Poetry: Of course it is. How could we not be obsessed with the continuous reiteration of the most obscene stereotypes, the lood of falsity and arrogance, the supreme pornography of cunning made object of worship, of bullying made valor, of impudence made icon?
Let it be said once and for all, my friends: He is currently working on a memoir of his Italian childhood in the Bronx. Bickersteth, and Dorothy Sayers. At age twenty I thus embarked on a foolhardy venture to avoid the most egregious faults of these most established terza rima versions. Six years later, under the guidance of Professor Daniel Donno, I submitted my annotated terza rima translation of the irst nine cantos of the Inferno as my thesis requirement for an MA in English at Queens College. I continued my Dante studies while pursuing a doctorate in English at Yale and produced three more cantos for a total of twelve.
Then, after ten years of work on my version, my day-job responsibilities compelled me to declare an end to the project in , though I have continued to revise my entire text every few years since then. In the meantime several terza rima versions of the Inferno have appeared, most notably that of Michael Palma, and the num- ber of other Dante translations has proliferated at an astonishing rate.
La gente che per li sepolcri giace potrebbesi veder? Ed el mi disse: The suffering people here who occupy These tombs—may they be seen? Within this graveyard Epicurus lies With all his followers in heresy, Who say the spirit with the body dies. The question that you ask shall presently Be answered here, nor shall you be forbidden That wish of yours which you conceal from me. Your language clearly makes you out to be A native of that noble fatherland Which I, perhaps, have harmed too grievously.
You will gain A view of all of him, from waist to head. This made him arch his brows a bit and say: He must have been upon his knees inside. He looked around at irst, as though he meant To see if someone else were with me too, But when his expectations were all spent, Weeping, he said to me: That one who waits leads me through this domain— For whom, perhaps, your Guido felt despite. Is he not living then? It seems that—if I hear aright—you see, Beforehand, things that time will bring to light, But with the present, you fare differently. Therefore, you see, all things will be concealed From us, and all our knowledge will be dead When the door of the future shall be sealed.
And that if I was mute and did not tell What he would know, it was because my thought Was on that problem you have solved so well. Here Frederick and the Cardinal are found— And of the rest, I make you no reply. I turned around And walked back toward that poet of long ago, Relecting on those words of hostile sound. He said to me, as we began to go Upon our way again: Lujan lives in Belmont, California, twenty-ive miles south of San Francisco. He has a doctorate in English from the University of California at Berkeley, and for forty-seven years has taught composition and literature, humanities, speech and ilm, history and political science, philosophy, and religious studies at various colleges in the Bay Area; he is currently at Notre Dame de Namur University.
Growing up in the Mis- sion, a working-class albeit richly multicultural neighborhood in San Francisco, I had heard only vaguely of Dante before then, but I was powerfully impressed. While in high school I read through the whole of the Commedia on my own, and wrote a careful summary. In graduate school at U. Jones, in which we went through the Commedia canto by canto. Since then, in classes and in school tours to Italy, I have taught parts of the Commedia many times.
I now have neither the energy nor the expertise to translate the entire poem, but there are many individual passages, especially in the Inferno, that I have pondered over often and deeply enough to have some sense of how they ought to go in English. The previ- ous translations that I have found most helpful have been those by John D.
Sinclair and Charles S. Rather, I have written my versions in blank verse. Ah me, how hard a thing it is to tell Of that wood, savage and harsh and stubborn, The very thought of which renews my fear! So bitter is it, death is scarcely more; But to treat of the good that I found there, I will tell of the other things I saw. I cannot rightly say how I got there, I was so full of sleep at the moment When I irst abandoned the path of truth.
These words I beheld inscribed in color Obscure above a gateway; so I said. We have come to the place where you shall see The sorrowful people I told you of, Who have lost the good of the intellect. Here sighs, lamentations, and loud wailings Reverberated through the starless air So that at irst it made me weep to hear. Fama di loro il mondo esser non lassa; Misericordia e giustizia li sdegna: Non ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa. Ed ecco verso noi venir per nave Un vecchio, bianco per antico pelo, Gridando: Non isperate mai veder lo cielo: And I, my head encircled with horror, Said: They are commingled with that wicked choir Of angels who were neither rebellious Nor faithful to God, but were for themselves.
Heaven drove them forth, not to be less fair, Nor yet will the depth of hell receive them, Lest the sinners have glory over them. They have no hope that they will ever die, And this blind life of theirs is so abject, That they then envy every other lot. The world permits no report of them to be; Mercy and justice both disdain them: Let us not talk of them, but look and pass. And behold, coming toward us in a boat, An ancient man, his hair snow-white with age, Crying: Do not hope ever to see the heavens; I come to lead you to the other shore, To eternal darkness, to ire and ice.
And you there, who are still a living soul, Depart from those who are already dead. La bufera infernal, che mai non resta, Mena li spirti con la sua rapina: Voltando e percotendo li molesta. A lighter bark than this must carry you. It is so willed there where there is power To do that which is willed, and ask no more. The infernal blizzard, which never rests, Sweeps the spirits onward before its blast: Whirling and striking, it torments them still. When they arrive in front of the ruin, There are shrieks, wailings, and lamentations; They blaspheme against the divine power. I understood that unto such torment Are condemned all the sinners of the lesh, Who subject their reason to appetite.
And as their wings bear the starlings along In the cold season in a wide, dense lock, So does that wind drive the evil spirits. Now here, now there, now downward, now upward, It takes them; no hope ever comforts them, Not of repose, or even of less pain. She was so corrupted by sensual vice That she gave all lust licence in her laws To take away the blame she had incurred. She is Semiramis, of whom we read That she succeeded Ninus, being his wife: She held that land where now the Sultan rules.
See Helen, for whose sake so many years Of ill passed, and see the great Achilles, Who battled at the last with love, and lost. After I had listened to my teacher Name the ladies and knights of antique times, Pity came on, and I was bewildered. Of what it pleases you to hear and speak We two will hear and we will speak with you, While the wind, as it is now, is silent. The land where I was born lies on the shore Where the Po, with all its attendant streams, Descends to seek its inal resting place.
Love, quickly kindled in the gentle heart, Seized this one for the beauty of my form, Torn from me; the manner offends me still. Amor condusse noi ad una morte: Caina attende chi vita ci spense. Noi leggiavamo un giorno per diletto Di Lancialotto come amor lo strinse: Soli eravamo e sanza alcun sospetto. Galeotto fu il libro e chi lo scrisse: Love led us to one death: Caina awaits The one who extinguished our life. When I understood those offended souls, I bowed my face and kept it bowed until The poet said: But tell me, at the time of your sweet sighs, How and by what signs did love allow you To recognize your dubious desires?
But if you have so great a wish to know The irst root of our love, I shall tell you Even as one who weeps in the telling. We were reading one day, for our pleasure, Of Lancelot, and of how love seized him: We were alone and with no suspicion. Many times our eyes were brought together By that reading, and our faces turned pale; But just one point it was that mastered us. When we were reading how the longed-for smile Was kissed by so great a lover, this one Here, who shall nevermore be divided From me, kissed me on the mouth, all trembling. A Galeotto was the book, and he Who wrote it: La tua loquela ti fa manifesto Di quella nobil patria natio Alla qual forse fui troppo molesto.
Your mode of speech makes manifest that you Are native to that noble fatherland To which perhaps I once did too much harm. And he to me: See there Farinata who has risen: From the waist upward you will see him all. The bold and ready hand of my leader Pushed me between the tombs to him, and he Said: He looked round about me, as if he had Desire to see if someone was with me; But when his expectation was all spent, He said, weeping: Non iere li occhi suoi il dolce lome?
Suddenly straightening up, he cried: Does not the sweet light of day strike his eyes? But that other, great soul at whose request I had stopped, did not change his countenance, Nor move his head, nor even bend his side; And continuing with his irst discourse, He said: But not ifty times will the face of the Lady who rules here be relit before You learn for yourself how much that art weighs.
And, so you may return some time to the Sweet world, tell me why your people are so Pitiless against mine in all their laws? But I was alone, there where everyone Agreed to do away with your Florence, The one who defended her openly. It seems, if I have heard correctly, that Thou seest beforehand what time brings with it, But with the present have a different mode. When they are near or present, our vision Wholly fails; unless others bring us word, We can know nothing of your human state. And let him know that, if I was silent Before, it is because I was already Thinking of the doubt thou hast solved for me.
He said to me: My mind, in a scornful it of temper, Thinking by dying to escape from scorn, Made me, the just, unjust against myself. By the new roots of this my tree I swear To you that never did I break faith with My lord, who was so worthy of honor. And if one of you returns to the world, Let him comfort my memory, which still Lies prostrate from the blow envy gave it. I was standing on the bridge, risen up To see, so if I had not grasped a rock I would have fallen down without a push.
And my leader, who saw me so intent, Explained: Who is in that ire so divided at The top that it seems to rise from the pyre Where Eteocles lay with his brother? They lament within it the craft by which Deidamia, dead, still mourns Achilles, And there they pay for the Palladium. Vedi che del disio ver lei mi piego! You see how I bend toward it with desire! Leave it to me to speak to them, for I Understand what you desire; and perhaps, Since they were Greeks, they might disdain your words.
After the lame had come to where it seemed To my leader the itting time and place, I heard him speak to it in this manner: I saw the both shores, as far as Spain, as Far as Morocco, and Sardinia And the other islands the sea bathes round. Considerate la vostra semenza: Fatti non foste a viver come bruti, Ma per seguir virtute e canoscenza.
On my right had I left behind Seville, On the other hand had left Ceuta. Consider well the seed from which you spring: You were not made to live your lives like brutes, But to follow after virtue and knowledge. That night already showed all the strange stars Of the other pole, and our own so low They did not rise above the ocean loor.
Full ive times the light had been rekindled And as often quenched underneath the moon, Since we had entered on the deep passage, When there appeared to us a mountain, dark By distance, and it seemed of such a height As I had never seen the like before. We were gladdened, but soon turned to weeping; For from the new land a whirlwind arose, And struck upon the forepart of the ship. Three times it whirled round with all the waters: The fourth time it lifted the stern aloft And plunged the prow down, as Another willed, Until the sea closed again over us.
He holds a Ph. His publications embrace a number of different writing modes and include volumes of poetry, prose, translations and critical texts. His most recent collection of poetry, Disturbi del sistema binario , is the text from which the following poems were extracted and translated. Non conoscevo il poeta, il titolo mi interessava, i versi in copertina mi piacevano, cominciai a leggerlo. Poi uguale per tutto il volume. Lui annuisce, io mi giro dentro al letto. Salted water, neither salty nor sweet, indeed both sweet and salty. So it goes when the rivers of war and peace feed into the same marsh, a stagnation of life infested by death, an effervescence of death polluted by life.
He nods, I turn in my bed. Esci prima che puoi, e non aver igli tuoi. Ed ecco il corollario: Disteso accanto a loro, li ascolto cinguettare. Un bosco al buio. Posano sui miei rami il peso caldo e vivo della voce, un peso-volo trepidante. Questo mostro, col mio stesso nome si chiama. It deepens like a coastal shelf. Philip Larkin If all that grows and burns goes to embers, then to love is to glimpse the stake. Think of summer, how it begins by shedding its blood in a smiling hemorrhaging of light. I lie beside them and listen to their chatter. Resting on my branches is the warm living weight of their warbling, an anxious weight-light.
This monster, it bears my very same name. That black mass rising from the depths is not in the painting but in the observer. I am the artist who carries into the work the taint of his gaze, signing thereby the blank check of his own sin. I was trying to explain the concept of deceit in moral terms while falling victim to a visual paradox.
I had ixed my focus on Ethics, yet the problem was one of Optics. It would seem that they double it, too, but in reality they split it in half. A very close friend of Manzoni, who admired him highly, he wrote exclusively in Milanese. The greatness of his poetic exuberance, however, transcends the boundaries of its local idiom. Like Gio- achino Belli, Porta depicted the life of a city; but, unlike his Roman counterpart, he insisted on fewer aspects of the society he chastised. He is at his best in several anticlerical satires, of which The Selec- tion of the Chaplain is the most irresistible and unforgettable.
The Congress of Vienna with its sad implications found in this poet its most powerful voice. Lila, all goitre and all fur and fat, is a Maltese old female dog that, after the Marchioness, in the Travasa home happens to be the most respected beast, so that it is a crime, that all should fear, to make her bark or treat her as a peer.