These chestnuts are sweeter, very shiny and easy to peel. There was no brand highlighting these distinctive characteristics and our goal is to introduce this high-quality seasonal product, which consumers associate with a specific time of year and that brings back fond memories. At the same time, it is linked to the history of our company and to the family values the business is inspired by. The project was given a new lease of life in The aim of launching the Saudade brand is to add value to high-quality seasonal Portuguese products.
This variety is known for its flavour. The chestnuts are sweeter, very shiny and easy to peel, light brown in colour and rounded. The branding was developed by TerraProjectos, specialised consultants in the agri-food sector. For fruits, the discarded portion was Another concept to be considered when studying FLW is the correction factor CF , used by nutritionists and other professionals to determine the ideal quantity and nutritional value of a given food in the quantitative planning of meals.
The CF is an indicator of waste, defined as the ratio between the mass of the raw food, that is, how it was purchased, and its net mass after cleaning and preparing. Therefore, it can be considered as an index of loss or waste. Correction factors ranged from 1. During postharvest handling and marketing of leafy vegetables in Brazil, trimming the damaged, crushed, cut or diseased leaves is a very common practice, and therefore, a source of loss. There are several articles on food waste in popular and institutional restaurants in Brazil. Two concepts widely used in these studies are leftovers and remains.
Leftovers are food which was prepared, but not served, being subdivided into usable clean and non-usable dirty. Remains are all foods that were distributed but not consumed, which should always be discarded.
Ingestion remains is the ratio between the remains returned in the dish and the amount of food served. The evaluation was performed for 61 days. The mean ingestion remains was Food waste in popular and institutional restaurants results from inadequate meal planning, daily user frequency, food preferences, and employee training in preparing and portioning foods.
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In a study carried out at a popular restaurant in Santa Catarina State, Parisoto et al. Losses for fruits and vegetables were estimated at 6. Household waste was evaluated in two residential buildings. Biodegradable waste corresponded to This is one of the few Brazilian papers on FLW cited abroad, having been published in English in an international journal. Another major source of organic residues and food waste as well are the open air food markets present all over Brazil. Waste was classified according to its destination in four categories: The total waste generated was 1.
The products donated to the food bank corresponded to 0. The main products donated were tomato, melon, onion and papaya. The scientific papers listed above are just a few examples of some research lines found in our search. Certainly, there are much more publications on FLW not retrievable with the specific search terms we used.
Nevertheless, there are relatively few scientific papers. Most of the information on the subject is press editorials and news, followed by reports, abstracts, theses and dissertations. In Brazil, there are five social classes, referred to by letters A, B, C, D, E , with different incomes and characteristics. Much has been commented on the rising of 40 million Brazilians to a new low middle class, with a huge impact on domestic consumption. In an economy with rapid and unpredictable changes, the impacts on inflation and food prices pose an additional challenge to understand consumer behaviors and their effects on food production and consumption.
According to Maluf , food consumption in Brazil must take into account the great social heterogeneity that characterizes the country, due to the high inequality of income, with a different weight to food expenses in the composition of household expenditures in different strata of income. According to IBGE, there was a decrease of Although appreciation of food perceived as sustainable is a consolidated trend, there is also a large segment of the population, notably in countries such as Brazil, which is beginning to enter the market and tends to consume more processed food products.
If on the one hand there is the search for green consumption, on the other, the largest portion of the consumer market of class C is abandoning diets considered healthy, based on fresh food. The inverse relationship between income and consumption of processed foods contributes to the growth of food industries in Brazil, but, at the same time, obesity levels have increased in the low-income population.
The trend of fruit and vegetable consumption, for example, is higher among the highest income segment, which requires Brazil to establish distribution strategies and nutritional education to serve the lower middle class. In Latin American countries, household food waste is a growing threat. It is likely that individual analysis in each of the countries in the region would give a clearer picture of food waste, given the socioeconomic and cultural differences among countries.
These FAO data and empirical evidence from recent studies change the idea that consumer food waste is a threat only to developed nations Porpino et al. The Brazilian case seems to have peculiarities when compared to other emerging countries, although the estimates of losses and food wastage are very scarce in Brazil to provide precise explanations.
In addition to substantial postharvest losses, a feature similar to that of developing countries, Brazilian households also discard considerable amounts of food due to cultural factors. Cooking more than necessary and serving large portions of foods is a common cultural trait in some Latin countries.
In Brazilian households, in particular, abundant food stocks are highly valued, and for low-income families, it is a signal of wealth Porpino et al. Stockpiling food products in abundance goes back to the hyperinflation period of the s and early s, but, in the low-income context, it is also driven by the necessity to assure that the most consumed foods, such as rice, will last the entire month. Empirical evidence also shows that people responsible for food preparation who have experienced scarcity in the past tend to keep stocks high as a precaution, and as a consequence tend to prepare plentiful portions.
Low-income consumers tend also to be highly socially connected in their communities, and having too much food serves as a guarantee that they can offer food to a neighbor or unexpected visitor, for example. Having surplus foods is a way of distancing oneself from the state of poverty, and is also related to the hospitality and affection by the family Porpino et al.
Up to this date December , there is no approved regulatory framework on food losses and waste in Brazil.
All proposed bills shall be approved by the two Houses, after being reviewed by thematic Commissions involved on the subject. According to the Brazilian Constitution, parliamentary initiatives cannot increase public spending Fiscal Responsibility Law. In addition, from a legislative point of view, food waste is related to environmental and food safety issues and must consider the legal provisions of other approved National Policies and Regulatory Frameworks, such as the Environmental Policy , Environmental Education , Climate Change and Solid Waste , as well as the National System of Food and Nutrition Security In this document, they list all the bills around 29!
The bill intended to exempt from civil and criminal liability the donation of food without the subsequent characterization of intent or negligence. Twenty years later, its approval is still pending in the Congress.
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Most of these bills on FLW are basically related to food distribution and consumption. These bills authorize or, in general, require establishments that trade food to donate to charitable or philanthropic entities, food banks, or directly to food insecure people. Donors or receiving entities are responsible for assessing food safety according to Brazilian Public Health and Food Quality standards. Donors are exempt from possible harm to the health of consumers in the absence of malice or negligence. More recently, the food processing industry and retailers like supermarket chains are complaining about the high costs of donating food due to several taxes and levies, since tax exemption is limited to a percentage of the net income.
Governmental agencies are against tax exemption for donation of processed foods. Another problem with the current bills pending in the Congress is about donation to food banks, which includes only those that have specifically a social purpose in their bylaws. In the absence of a regulatory framework to fully support food donation and reduce losses, Brazilian society has found its own way of dealing with the problem, as we try to demonstrate next. The first discussions on hunger and food security date back to the s.
However, only after the formal establishment of the National Council for Food Security CONSEA in , several governmental initiatives were adopted to reduce food insecurity and improve access to food. The actions of the program were classified into three types: The workshop objectives included the discussion of data and information available on FLW; FLW causes and impacts; public programs and successful experiences and; the proposal of an implementing agenda Machado, a.
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Below, we briefly describe some of these initiatives as examples of public policies with positive impacts in reducing FLW:. The Program was established by Law Nr. The Brazilian Network of Food Banks was created to strengthen and integrate the performance of food banks and help to the reduction and prevention of food waste. Food banks under federal, state or municipal governments can join the Network, as well as state-owned wholesale markets and civil society organizations.
Federal public education and research institutions that develop studies and technologies for food banks and other entities of the National System of Food and Nutrition Security SISAN can also integrate it. Currently, there are food banks identified by the network. Of these, 83 were funded by MDS. Banks receive donations of food considered to be non-standard for marketing, but adequate for consumption.
Food is passed on to non-profit civil society institutions that produce and distribute free meals to people in situation of food vulnerability.
There is a federal government policy that stimulates municipal and state governments to implement popular public restaurants. The target audience is families and people at risk of nutritional insecurity. Local public government is responsible for the management, and goals were set to a minimum production of 1, meals a day at lunchtime, for at least five days a week. There is no standard for the amount charged for meals since the operation is under the responsibility of the local public authority.
The Ministry of Social Development only recommends charging affordable prices to the low-income population of the region, and meals should be good, proper and healthy. Brazilian civil society is learning how to get involved in important social issues and also take action. It is impressive the number of non-governmental initiatives to reduce food loss and improve food security in Brazil, with companies, class associations, NGOs and other entities leading different projects.
Since the launch of the Zero Hunger Program, funds have been made available for the implementation of several food banks now operating in many Brazilian cities. Food banks in Brazil operate in distinct ways, depending on their legal figure governmental, private, NGO, parastatal, class association and have different sizes and goals. Below we will briefly describe just a few of them as examples of the diversity of initiatives. Banco de Alimentos is an NGO created to eliminate food waste and reduce hunger. To do this, they carry out the so-called urban harvest , collecting food in perfect condition that would be discarded as surplus in several commercial establishments restaurants, bakeries, grocery stores, etc.
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They also offer lectures and workshops to raise awareness among citizens and companies about sustainable consumption. Banco de Alimentos has 50 registered donors, serves 42 institutions and distributes 30 tons of food per month to 22, beneficiaries. Mesa Brasil was created in based on educational actions and food distribution surplus or out of commercial standards.
It is a national network of food banks that aims to reduce hunger and food waste. The program helps about 1. The Network of Food Banks of the state of Rio Grande do Sul was created in with the objective of supporting and stimulating the creation of new Food Banks in Brazil, as well as strengthening the existing ones. The Network is supported by many private companies, such as banks, supermarket chains, food industries, class associations, TV networks, real state companies, universities, among others.
Currently, the Network has 22 Associated Food Banks in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and one in Rio de Janeiro, which together benefit institutions, donating approximately tons of food per month. In recent years, tons of food per month has been distributed to more than institutions, in addition to banks located in other municipalities. The discards unfit for consumption are transformed into organic fertilizer by composting. In , the food bank collected 2, tons and served approximately , beneficiaries per month Fagundes et al.
The publication definitively marks the interest and support of private companies in public food security policies and the development of new horizons of their performance in terms of social responsibility. Since , ABRAS has been publishing an annual report on losses in the retail sector, including food. Perishables ranked first in losses 6. The Association also has a Committee on Loss Prevention, which offers regular training to retail employees.
ABRAS actively participates in discussions about the legal framework for food donation. In the last couple of years, there is an increasing awareness on FLW in Brazilian society, particularly in metropolitan areas. Individuals and NGOs are engaged in finding creative solutions towards a more sustainable way of life and at same time tackle hunger and food waste. We list just some we find on the web as examples:. NGO engaged in education campaigns against food waste through workshops, courses, lectures and digital channels.
They recently developed an app that facilitates food donation, connecting donors to recipients in a map. Restaurants, bars, supermarkets, hotels and other donors can register for food donation, with validity, date and form of delivery. After being registered in the system, food becomes available to institutions that prepare or distribute it in the vicinity.
When a donation is accepted, the donor confirms whether the food will be delivered or should be withdrawn. They have clients that can choose from 14 non-standard perishable products to be delivered on a weekly basis in recyclable carton boxes. In a two-year period, they saved more than tons of fruits and vegetables and reused 25, units of carton boxes. The Slow Food movement is a proposal of a new gastronomy, in clear opposition to the ubiquitous global system of fast food.
In Brazil, the organization maintains a website with news, campaigns, publications, recipes and other useful information Slow Food Brasil, This movement demystifies the issue of the impeccable appearance of vegetables adopted in marketing, such as uniform size, shape and color, shifting the focus to nutritional quality and mode of production. Fruits and vegetables are usually commercialized through strict classification systems, which determine their market value.
Non-standard products, which are irregularly shaped, have different sizes and maturity, are usually discarded, directed for processing or marketed at a lower price. If all types of products are offered on the market, regardless of their appearance, the trend is to increase supply, balance prices and reduce postharvest losses throughout the chain. Farmers can improve their incomes and make their production more sustainable. France recently adopted fines for supermarkets with stores with an area of over m 2 that discard food.
Establishments are obliged to donate non-commercialized but still consumable food to charities, for use as animal feed or agricultural composting in order not to suffer penalties. The bill was proposed in October and determines that supermarkets and hypermarkets with an area greater than m 2 in the Federal District should prevent and avoid wasting food whose expiration date is close to expiration. Food stocks that are not sold should go to charities or to social welfare.
Leftovers can also be used for animal feed and composts. Apparently, the new law is not been enforced till this date. Furthermore, the subject was also discussed in meetings and seminars with relevant stakeholders and the civil society, generating greater awareness and attracting media interest, amid the current political and economic crises. Our opinion is based on the following events:.
Since , the Brazilian government has been issuing several positive policies to foster food and nutritional security in the country. The Technical Committee was composed of relevant stakeholders representing both government and private sectors and had held several meetings throughout this year. In August , the Technical Committee proposed a draft of a national plan with four pillars: Consultancy goals were a to attend and participate in the meetings of Technical Committee on FLW; b to prepare a comprehensive report on food losses and waste situation in Brazil, with a survey of loss measurement methodologies; c to identify stakeholders involved with the theme in Brazil public, private, NGOs ; d to map existing guidelines and strategies in food security and FLW; e to propose a strategic alignment of governmental actions to reduce FLW; f to draw up a proposal and validate an action plan to curb FLW Machado, a.