The Red Guard is the direct descendant of a French colonial Spahi detachment sent to Senegal in The name "Red Guard" is derived from their red tunics and burnous cloaks. This detachment became a Senegalese-recruited branch of the Spahis. In the twentieth century the Senegalese spahis were kn The National Archives Administration Chinese: Hence it is also known as the Central Archives. He was Mayor of Dakar, the capital city, from to , as well as President of the National Assembly of Senegal from to Diop was born in Dakar.
He was elected to the National Assembly as a PDS candidate from Dakar Department in the May parliamentary election and was re-elected in the May parliamentary election and the April parliamentary election. The Senegal women's national basketball team is the national basketball team representing Senegal at world and continental basketball competitions for women. This includes 10 gold medals between and 9 in 12 tournaments , though Senegal has managed to earn only 1 bronze and 2 silver medals in the 3 tournaments hence. The team has taken part in one Summer Olympics in , where they finished in last place 12th.
The squad swept the first round Of these, 12 properties were nominated by countries from the region of Africa. A modern tourist hotel catering to Europeans in the resort town of Saly. In the background is the Ngor Hotel, catering to Senegalese and business travelers to Dakar. A yellow-crowned gonolek Laniarius barbarus , photographed in the estuaries of the Saloum Delta National Park. Western tourists visit rhinoceroses kept at the Bandia Natural Reserve near Dakar.
Tourism in Senegal is a vital part of the West African nation's economy. Scale From a relatively small industry at the introduction of the first Club Med resort in the s, Tourism has grown to be an important part of the Senegalese economy. Since the s, Senegal has made an effort to reach beyond visitors from the former colonial power France and It is attracting tourists From Spain, British and Italians, in part motivated by the example of neighbouring Gambi Ndakaaru  is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland. The city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,,, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2. France took over the island in Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire.
From to , Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation.
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In , it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple The Prime Minister of Senegal is the head of government of Senegal. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Senegal, who is directly elected for a seven-year term. The Prime Minister, in turn, appoints the Senegalese cabinet, after consultation with the President. The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Senegal, since the country gained independence from France in It is currently used mostly for football matches.
It also has an athletics track, and is sometimes used for rugby union. The stadium holds 60, The stadium's record attendance of 60, was set on 1 July , in an association football match between the national football teams of Senegal and Morocco.
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On 13 October , a Africa Cup of Nations qualification match between Senegal and Ivory Coast was abandoned due to rioting at the stadium. The media of Senegal is varied and includes multiple television channels, numerous private radio stations, and over 15 newspapers. National newspapers are in French. English-language newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune are also available at many newsstands. He was brought to power with the support of France and the United States, who provided training, arms and financing.
He is a member of the Anakaza branch of the Daza Gourane ethnic group, which is itself a branch of the Toubou ethnic group. The Senegalese education system is based on its French equivalent. The state is responsible for the creation of an educational system that enables every citizen access to education. Senegal elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a seven-year term by the people between and , it was a five-year term; this was changed back to the pre seven-year term in , though incumbent president Macky Sall has stated he wants to have it reverted to five-year terms.
Senegal has a multi-party system. He ended his political activities in to devote himself to civil society and journalism. In , he founded Jamra, a monthly magazine that was the "first Senegalese review on social issues", and in he became editor-in-chief of the weekly newspaper Walfadjri. The Archives nationales d'outre-mer in Aix-en-Provence is a branch of the Archives Nationales of France that documents the French colonial empire.
According to one scholar, "half the history of France overseas was represented in the mass of papers" first assembled in Aix in The materials originated in various offices and repositories scattered throughout the colonies. The archives groups its holdings by ministry, territory, document format images, maps ; it also has non-government materials. Niasse made his full international debut for Senegal in He signed his first professional contract with Ouakam in and in the —09 season helped his team win the Second League title by scoring 21 goals.
The Great Mosque of Touba, is one of the largest mosques in Senegal. Islam is the predominant religion in Senegal.
Sufi brotherhoods expanded with French colonization, as people turned to religious authority rather than the colonial administration. The main Sufi orders are the Tijaniyyah, the Muridiyyah or Mourides, and to a lesser extent, the pan-Islamic Qadiriyyah and the smaller Layene order. For nearly a millennium, there has been an Islamic presence in Senegal.
Operations Senelec has a production capacity of Exceptionally, the highest class may be referred to as Grand Cordon or equivalent. In other cases, the rank of Grand Cross may come after another even higher rank, e. In rare cases, solely the actual insignia is referred to as the "grand cross". In international relations, in many times the class of Grand Cross is typically reserved for royalty, heads of state and equivalent.
In the United Kingdom, the rank entails admission to knighthood, allowing the recipient to use the honorific "Sir" male or "Dame" female as a style before his or her name, while entitled "Knight Grand Cross" or "Dame Grand Cross". This stands in contrast to the typical practice in other countr The African Renaissance Monument French: Le Monument de la Renaissance Africaine is a 49 meter tall bronze statue located on top of one of the twin hills known as Collines des Mamelles, outside Dakar, Senegal.
Built overlooking the Atlantic Ocean in the Ouakam suburb, the statue was designed by the Senegalese architect Pierre Goudiaby after an idea presented by president Abdoulaye Wade and built by Mansudae Overseas Projects, a company from North Korea. Construction The monument while being constructed The project was launched by then Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade who considered it part of S Moustapha Niasse Moustapha Niasse born November 4,  is a Senegalese politician and diplomat who has been President of the National Assembly of Senegal since He served in the government of Senegal as Minister of Foreign Affairs from to and again from to He was Prime Minister of Senegal for a few weeks in , and he held that position again from to Political career Niasse was born in Keur Madiabel, Senegal.
He was Director of the Presidential Cabinet from to He was promoted to the rank of Minister of State for Foreign Affairs in January and served in that position until April Niasse served as Mini National Archives of Senegal. Member feedback about National Archives of Senegal: Government agencies established in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about National Library of Senegal: National libraries Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Senegal: List of national archives topic National archives are central archives maintained by countries.
Member feedback about List of national archives: Lists of government agencies Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Senegal national basketball team topic The Senegalese national basketball team has included several players who have competed in the U. Member feedback about Senegal national basketball team: National basketball teams Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
National archives topic National archives are the archives of a country. Member feedback about National archives: National archives Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. National Archives of Zambia topic The National Archives of Zambia preserve the archives of the Republic of Zambia and maintain its legal deposit library. Member feedback about National Archives of Zambia: Member feedback about Macky Sall: Senegalese Muslims Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Politics of Senegal topic Politics in Senegal takes place within the framework of a semi-presidential, democratic republic. Member feedback about Politics of Senegal: Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded Member feedback about Senegal Airlines: Airlines started in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Member feedback about National Archives of Solomon Islands: History of Senegal topic A map by Guillaume Delisle The history of Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era. Member feedback about History of Senegal: French West Africa Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
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Kalidou Koulibaly topic Kalidou Koulibaly born 20 June is a Senegalese footballer who plays as defender for Napoli and the Senegal national football team, usually as a centre back. Member feedback about Kalidou Koulibaly: French people of Senegalese descent Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Senegal River: International rivers of Africa Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Demographics of Senegal topic This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
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Two other major political entities were formed and grew during the 13th and 14th century: Originating in the Mandinka invasion, Mali continued to expand, encompassing first eastern Senegal, and later almost all the present territory. Founded in the 14th century by the possibly mythical chief of the Wolof Ndiadiane Ndiaye ,  who was a Serer of Waalo Ndiaye is originally a Serer surname      which is also found among the Wolof. The Jolof Empire was founded by a voluntary confederacy of States; it was not an empire built on military conquest in spite of what the word "empire" implies.
The arrival of Europeans engendered autonomy of small kingdoms which were under the influence of Djolof. Less dependent on trans-Saharan trade with the new shipping lanes, they turn more readily to trade with the New World. The decline of these kingdoms can be explained by internal rivalries, then by the arrival of Europeans, who organized the mass exodus of young Africans to the New World.
Under the influence of Islam , these kingdoms were transformed and marabouts played an increasing role. In the 15th century, the king of one of the tribes, Kassas gave his name to the region: Kassa Mansa King of Kassas. Until the French intervention The Casamance was a heterogeneous entity, weakened by internal rivalries. Flattering for Norman sailors, this argument gives credence also to the idea of a precedence of the French presence in the region, but it is not confirmed by subsequent work.
In the midth century, several European nations reached the coast of West Africa, vested successively or simultaneously by the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English and French. Europeans first settled along the coasts, on islands in the mouths of rivers and then a little further upstream. They opened trading posts and engaged in the "trade: Encouraged by Henry the Navigator and always in search of the Passage to India , and not forgetting gold and slaves , Portuguese explorers explored the African coast and ventured still farther south.
In Dinis Dias went off the mouth of the Senegal River to reach the westernmost point of Africa he calls Cabo Verde , Cape Vert,  because of the lush vegetation seen there. The Portuguese did not settle there permanently, but used the site for landing and engaged in commerce in the region. They built a chapel there in They also traversed the lower Casamance  and founded Ziguinchor in The introduction of Christianity accompanied this business expansion.
They based their growth on maritime trade and expanded their colonial empire in Asia, the Americas and South Africa. In his Description of Africa , the humanist Dutch Olfert Dapper gives the etymology of the name given to it by his countrymen, Goe-ree Goede Reede , that is to say "good harbor". The Dutch settlers occupied the island for nearly half a century, but were dislodged several times: They dealt in wax, amber , gold, ivory and also participated in the slave trade , but kept away from trading posts on the coast.
The "trade" and the slave trade intensified in the 17th century. In Richelieu founded the Norman Company , an association of Dieppe and Rouen merchants responsible for the operation in Senegal and the Gambia. It was dissolved in and its assets were acquired by the Company of Cape Vert and Senegal , itself expropriated following the creation by Colbert in of the French West India Company. The Company of Senegal was in turn founded by Colbert in It became the major tool of French colonialism in Senegal, but saddled with debt, it was dissolved and replaced by another that lasted until , the date of creation of the Royal Company of Senegal, whose director, Andre Brue , would be captured by the Damel of Cay and released against ransom in A third Company of Senegal was founded in and lasted until On the British side, the monopoly of trade with Africa was granted to the Royal African Company in The island was taken up by the English on 4 February before being again occupied by the French four months later.
The excellent location of St. Louis caught the attention of the English, who occupied it three times for a few months in , then during the Seven Years' War of until it was taken by the Duc de Lauzun in , and lastly in In the Treaty of Versailles returned Senegal to France.
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The monopoly of gum acacia is licensed to Senegal Company. Appointed governor in , Knight Boufflers focuses for two years to enhance the colony, while engaged in the smuggling of gum arabic and gold with signares. In people of St. Louis write a List of Complaints.
The same year the French were driven out of Fort St. Joseph in Galam and kingdom of Galam. The Europeans were sometimes disappointed because they hoped to find more gold in West Africa, but when the development of plantations in the Americas, mainly in the Caribbean, in Brazil and in the south of the United States raised a great need for cheap labor, the area received more attention.
The Papacy , who had sometimes opposed slavery , did not condemn it explicitly to the end of the 17th century; in fact the Church itself has an interest in the colonial system.
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Traffic of "ebony" was an issue for warriors who traditionally reduced the vanquished to slavery. Some people specialized in the slave trade, for example the Dyula in West Africa. States and kingdoms competed, along with private traders who became much richer in the triangular trade although some shipments resulted in real financial disaster. Politico-military instability in the region was compounded by the slave trade. The Black Code , enacted in , regulated the trafficking of slaves in the American colonies. Joseph, in the Kingdom of Galam , was in the 18th century a French engine of trafficking in Senegambia.
Slavery was abolished by the National Convention in , then reinstated by Bonaparte in The British Empire abolished slavery in ; in France it was finally abolished in the Second Republic in , under the leadership of Victor Schoelcher. In The Congress of Vienna condemned slavery. But this would not change much economically for the Africans.
After the departure of Governor Schmaltz he had taken office at the end of the wreck of the Medusa , Roger Baron particularly encouraged the development of the peanut , "the earth pistachio", whose monoculture would be long because of the severe economic backwardness of Senegal. Despite the ferocity of the Baron, the company was a failure.
The colonization of Casamance also continued. It was only in the s that the French, under the governor, Louis Faidherbe , began to expand their foothold onto the Senegalese mainland, at the expense of the native kingdoms. In , the French Second Republic extended the rights of full French citizenship to their inhabitants.
Ethnography and Customary Law in Senegal. - Persée
While those who were born in these towns could technically enjoy all the rights of native French citizens, substantial legal and social barriers prevented the full exercise of these rights, especially by those seen by authorities as full blooded Africans. Most of the African population of these towns were termed originaires: On 27 April , following the February revolution in France, a law was passed in Paris enabling the Four Quarters to elect a Deputy to the French Parliament for the first time.
Following the downfall of the French Second Empire , the Four Quarters was again allowed a parliamentary seat which was granted by law on 1 February On 30 December this seat was again abolished, but only for a few years as it was reinstated on 8 April , and remained the single parliamentary representation from sub-Saharan Africa anywhere in a European legislature until the fall of the third republic in It was only in that originaires were granted full voting rights while maintaining legal protections. Blaise Diagne , who was the prime advocate behind the change, was in the first African deputy elected to the French National Assembly.
From that time until independence in , the deputies of the Four Communes were always African, and were at the forefront of the decolonisation struggle. The French Second Republic:. The French Third Republic:. Following the elections to the Constituent Assembly in France, which were held with a very limited franchise, the French authorities gradually extended the franchise until—in November —the principle of universal suffrage was passed into law and implemented the following year. The first electoral contests held under universal suffrage were the municipal elections of November The first national contest was the 31 March election of the Territorial Assembly.
The transfer of power agreement with France was signed on 4 April Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August Senegal and Soudan renamed the Republic of Mali proclaimed independence. The s and early s saw the continued and persistent violating of Senegal's borders by the Portuguese military from Portuguese Guinea.
In response, Senegal petitioned the United Nations Security Council in , , in response to shelling by Portuguese artillery , and finally in In December , their political rivalry led to an attempted coup by Prime Minister Dia. The coup was put down without bloodshed and Dia was arrested and imprisoned. Senegal adopted a new constitution that consolidated the President's power. Senghor was considerably more tolerant of opposition than most African leaders became in the s. Nonetheless, political activity was somewhat restricted for a time.
Senghor's party, the Senegalese Progressive Union now the Socialist Party of Senegal , was the only legally permitted party from until In the latter year, Senghor allowed the formation of two opposition parties that began operation in —a Marxist party the African Independence Party and a liberal party the Senegalese Democratic Party.