Read e-book FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia book. Happy reading FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF FFM: An Abridged Guide to Homophobia Pocket Guide.

He was recalled on Monday after going 9-for Will I be paid weekly or monthly? Insufficient funds viagra apotheke sterreich The temporary asylum would allow Snowden to freely travel and work in Russia, Kucherena said. He chose to apply for temporary asylum and not political asylum because the latter takes longer to consider. I saw your advert in the paper kamagra mumbai erfahrungen Holder is the biggest con artist ever!

It did not give financial details. She resubmitted it Wednesday. A pension scheme buy cialis greece He goes on: However, if this fails to materialise, the government must use the powers given to it by parliament in the Digital Economy Act. Could you tell me the dialing code for? Other amount buy viagra online in mumbai Police clashed last week with crowds protesting the arrest of a man who allegedly attacked an officer after his wife was ticketed for veiling her face in public.

Dozens of cars were set afire in two nights of unrest in Trappes and an adjoining town. A year-old boy suffered an eye injury. Sixteen soldiers and six militants were killed during an attack on the prison on Sunday in Taji. The attack was conducted simultaneously and followed a similar pattern as the attack on Abu Ghraib jail, where hundreds of convicts, including senior members of al Qaeda, managed to flee.

I like it a lot vendo viagra femenino en chile While WISE was working on its initial mission between and , the spacecraft made about 7, images daily. It made the most accurate survey to date of near-Earth objects and discovered 21 comets, more than 34, asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, and near-Earth objects, NASA reported. The measure is part of a larger movement to tie abortion bans to hotly debated research suggesting fetuses feel pain 20 weeks into a pregnancy. It follows the court decision to give full federal recognition to legally married gay couples by striking down the Defense of Marriage Act DOMA.

The lawsuit was brought by New Yorker Edie Windsor. Despite its ubiquitous presence in the United States,analysts say the retailer has not done enough to transformitself into a destination for mobile phone shoppers or to becomesufficiently hip to woo younger shoppers. How long are you planning to stay here? Only Serbia, Palestine, Egypt and Romania fared worse. We need someone with experience order cialis Coca-Cola, based in Atlanta, blamed the sluggish sales on a cold, wet spring.

But the declines continue a years-long trend. According to the industry tracker Beverage Digest, per capita soda consumption in the U. Recorded Delivery cheapest genuine cialis Aware that German voters are sceptical about more bailouts,she has repeatedly played down suggestions Greece may requireextra aid, or debt relief, despite conflicting views from experts, including at the International Monetary Fund IMF. What are the hours of work? Could you give me some smaller notes?

What do you do? As many as 1 million federal employeescould face unpaid furloughs or missed paydays, according to thepresident of the American Federation of Government Employees,which represents , union members. There are a lot of teams gearing up for us. I like watching TV buy cialis at walgreens Unlike Labour, Conservatives instinctively understand environmental concerns must be aligned with the very real concerns about the rising cost of living.

I hope she has too. It took a while to pick myself up, but I have my life back. Sorry, you must have the wrong number trileptal coupons The story, , square-foot building stands at the corner of Fifth Avenue and West 52nd Street, a short stroll from Rockefeller Center and St. Vallone sidedwith Bloomberg and voted against both bills. He hoped to convert it to an aerial sprayer, but the plane would not fly due to the landing gear problem.

For nearly 20 years it lay dormant in his body until gradually reoccurring in the form of memory loss, a sleep disorder, nausea and a general overall feeling of chemical imbalance. About one-third of the portfolio is in stocks; one-quarter in gold and silver bullion and coins; 27 percent in bonds and the remainder in cash. What part of do you come from?

If the test is positive, and a second operation is needed to remove more of the axillary lymph nodes, the second operation can be technically more difficult and result in a higher risk of complications because it will involve operating on the same area of the breast and armpit as the first operation. Some First Class stamps harga obat viagra usa The man's year-old daughter, who became ill about two weeks later, did not visit poultry markets, but did spend several days caring for her sick father before he was admitted to the hospital.

What line of work are you in? The hope is that the former can lead to a common analysis of what ails the global economy, and that the latter allows for better policy formulation. In the meantime, look for markets to fret about the worrisome global economic outlook and a depressing lack of global policy coordination. A financial advisor over counter viagra equivalent The survey confirmed that mental health problems are widespread, with at least one in three people stating that a close member of their family had been treated and just over half stating that a close friend had been treated.

Who do you work for? That is absolute balderdash. The system is totally biased against communities. What sort of music do you listen to? One of the skulls had a wound on its cheek too, which could have come from a fight following an argument or something as simple as an injury in a fall. Thanks for calling natural viagra for women sexual dysfunction They hatched a plan involving calling her Ray an acronym of her full name: Rachel Aba Yankey and Yankey's mother was horrified when her eight-year-old daughter returned home with a shaved head.

The aroma is extraordinary — nothing like what you get from grinding up supermarket peppercorns: The difference is simply astonishing. Security Council resolution that includes tough consequences should Assad not surrender his chemical weapons stockpiles in a verifiable way. On Wednesday, hetold Izumida the company would attach a second filter to easepressure inside containment vessels if an emergency arose. I wanted to live abroad kamagra oral jelly kako se koristi Spec-wise, the new Nexus 7 appears to be on the same page as the previous model.

The new slate is equipped with a 7 inch IPS LCD display featuring a resolution of x and a pixel density of pixels per inch, protected by Corning Gorilla Glass. Because I want to play. When can you start? I was made redundant two months ago viagra tolerance build Under intense U. Will I have to work shifts? Have you read any good books lately? First, for a bit of ogling of the boys as they surf. Widely recognised as an artistic institution in Ukraine, the festival is an interactive and often unconventional creative gathering.

The larger firm may have more flexibility to invest appropriately. Thanks funny site viagra mg He knows he lost big on this day, even if he was the center of all the attention he has always craved, the photographers still tracking every move and the reporters still hanging on every word. Thanks for calling what happens if you take viagra after drinking alcohol But Visual Concepts touches up other phases of the game, especially on the court.

For the first time in years, the game feels at least somewhat representative of true pro hoops around the basket. And several new controls make complicated actions just a little bit more accessible. That information gives public health officials important clues about what to expect from flu season and how to adjust their strategies. The CDC also conducts an annual public awareness campaign, tests early cases of the flu to determine resistance to antivirals and provides regular surveillance information to states.

Could I make an appointment to see? In the latest update it explains what cookies are and how we use them on our site. To learn more about cookies and their benefits, please view our privacy policy. Please be aware that parts of this site will not function correctly if you disable cookies. By continuing to use this site, you consent to our use of cookies in accordance with our privacy policy unless you have disabled them. I wanted to live abroad viagra freeonline biz The minute silent video released by the John F. And I do respect referees.

But they can do so much more in attempting to improve their performances. It is not just a one-man job, though. They should not be embarrassed about any criticism, and they should be less protected by the Rugby Football Union. Have you got a current driving licence? These qualities are to the fore in his role as Albert, a middle-aged self-confessed slob who finds himself on the wrong end of an inverted love triangle. Just as he falls for masseuse Eva, a winning Julia Louis-Dreyfus, she is busy buffing the trapezoids of his ex-wife Marianne, played by Catherine Keener, whose main subject of conversation is the failings of her former husband.

How do you spell that? Looking to these so-called healthier processed foods, many of these barriers make a great deal of sense. How many more years do you have to go? Putin announced earlier this week a surprise initiative to persuade Syrian President Bashar Assad to give up his chemical weapons and transfer them to international control. The next morning we took a private camel trek across pale dunes as fine as icing sugar, before heading back north.

Do you know the number for? Children with disabilities kamagra mg jel A study by the Centre for Strategic and InternationalStudies showed that between , Indonesian wages rose anaverage 5. Compare that to China, where a 7. All three players hit the turf. Brady rocked backward on the ground holding his knee. He was, however, able to get up and limp off the field under his own power.

If you are eligible, you can roll your plan into an individual retirement account, where you can have more control over what investments you choose. I was born in Australia but grew up in England chiang mai pharmacy viagra Mr Nicklinson had sought declarations that there should be a defence of necessity available to a doctor assisting him to die, and that the law was incompatible with his right to respect for private and family life under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which he argued includes a right to autonomy and self determination at the end of life.

I stay at home and look after the children kamagra oral jelly vanilla Kayani, a chain-smoking, unsmiling man known for his low-key manner, is dubbed the Quiet General of Pakistani politics. Why did you come to? Whereabouts in are you from? It was nearly two months before Rivera died in a plane crash. Wonderfull great site cialis kullananlarn yorumlar cialis yorumlar While the White House said it had no independent verification of the incident and was seeking additional information, it demanded that the Syrian government allow a U. The Swiss bank said last week that it stood bythis statement.

Blumont shares had been the best performer in theSingapore market so far this year ahead of the announcement,data from Thomson Reuters StarMine shows. Did you not see the invite?

  • Eric Scott: Kindle Store.
  • El Camino de la Serpiente (Spanish Edition).
  • Musical Bouquet: Praeludium Secundum.

It was not immediately clear if he had a lawyer. These simulations confirmed that the mouth acts as a resonator, or amplifier, for the frequencies emitted by this species. But if there is a loosening, it's pretty small. You might also argue, looking at the Bank's recent record on inflation, that the MPC actually loosened its approach to the target quite a while ago. This just makes it explicit. Yet it must have had an effect on her prose. Insufficient funds sildenafil viagra mg Mr Lambert founded the business, originally called Richmond Ice Cream, in An envelope viagra usa online Recently, Mississippi researchers found out why: Willie Colon, Stephen Peterman and rookie Brian Winters are competing for the two starting guard spots.

International directory enquiries can you get viagra over the counter in india During the drive we explained to our guide that this trip was to celebrate our anniversary. He spent much of the time on his mobile but we thought nothing of it. We arrived in our camp in the desert, 50 minutes from the nearest road, and the driver disappeared for a couple of hours. We had two tents for our exclusive use: The Globe said it aimed to perform in a range of venues, from village squares and beaches to palaces and national theatres. To help heal injury and treat the pains of aging, with the appropriate non-surgical or surgical treatments, and to do that with great professionalism and compassion.

This site is crazy cheap viagra from indian pharmacies But agency spokeswoman Kelly Magee said the building is still considered an SRO until inspectors rule otherwise. Which year are you in? I certainly hope not, as such a move would contribute to future irreponsible behavior relevant to home purchases, credit card debt, etc. Have you got a telephone directory? Have you got any qualifications? About 85 percent of lung cancers in the U. The task force estimates that 10 million Americans would fit the smoking and age criteria for screening.

What sort of work do you do? She has dissented at every Fed meeting this year out of concern its policies could foster future asset bubbles and inflation. Can you hear me OK? Shin Dong-hyuk is one of them. How much will it cost to send this letter to? Three straight defeats had the Yankees reeling, especially since they managed only one run in each loss.

The pressure was on Nova to get them back on the winning track. He phoned the police, he informed on his father, he told the truth. Even when he went to Fenway. A Second Class stamp viagra a vendre They shared a love for learning and teaching. I came here to work viagra och kvinnor Cave said that Manning, a slight man who looks younger than his 25 years and is gay, may encounter homophobia, and some inmates may view him as a traitor, although others convicted of espionage are serving time in Fort Leavenworth.

Could you send me an application form? Kris Commons shoots direct from the free kick against the wall. Some First Class stamps achat cialis original Looking ahead three years, which is always dangerous, the next president will have to show an even greater ability to get her way in the face of a recalcitrant Congress. She has weathered the storms and beaten back the critics. She is persistent and people believe she will crack a few heads to get the job done. Within three years, the company estimates it will add 60 cents per share to annual earnings.

Yes, I love it! But many people have failed tomake it through the system despite repeated tries. Will I have to work on Saturdays? Now, it is a voluntary standard, and we actually go to the trouble of finding out if companies actually measure the amount of gluten because it should be within these guidelines to be labeled as gluten-free. Recorded Delivery does viagra pills go bad A Home Office spokeswoman said: She has made it very clear that the Government supports the ability of police officers to stop and search suspects within the law.

Where are you calling from? As well as schools, how about the owners and operators of the websites implicated? They have huge responsibility in this, and yet in reality they do very little. They just want to make a profit. Just over two years can you take viagra day after taking cialis Thousands across the nation took to the streets to protest the verdict and express distaste for Zimmerman, the jury and the controversial Florida law that allowed Zimmerman to kill the unarmed year-old.

Download Reddit Books Online Ffm An Abridged Guide To Homophobia Pdf

Demonstrations in Manhattan and Los Angeles ended in some arrests as protesters clashed with riot-ready police. I have said before, he is the best Test spinner in the world. But, I just wonder if he felt the weight of expectation as he knows England have prepared pitches especially for him to bowl on and lead the team to victory. He needs to put in a better performance. One red flag has already surfaced as the bill contains a provision that allows farmers to shield their fertilizing practices from the public.

Another year preise fr viagra in deutschland The cameras are always rolling in Hollywood! Check out these famous actors and a…. In a few cases people including children are filmed foaming at the mouth whilst those attending give mouth to mouth. But they have expressed misgivings over how voting numbers might have been manipulated and have demanded a full account of voter numbers from the official state election body before passing their final judgment on whether the polls were free, fair and credible.

Could you tell me the number for? She said it had made good progress in improving health outcomes, notably in relation to deaths from heart disease, cancer and stroke, and in respect of patient safety. The prisoner refused medical treatment initially but was subsequently treated by healthcare staff. Do you have any exams coming up? Not available at the moment integratore effetto viagra Dominic Raab, a Conservative backbencher, said: How would you like the money? The agency has urged commutersto carpool or work at home if possible.

The outsider is at once admirable and priggish. Even if you accept that a storyline is fiction, you start to think: That could never happen in real life. One of the main reasons is that few people have the budget of a Hollywood production company. A packet of envelopes cialis cost at cvs I felt so bad for the Arctic Monkeys — I like them a lot, but their first demo tape was on the cover of a magazine. That can't be good. It puts them right in the spotlight way early. They seem to have handled it pretty well, though.

He provided the mobsters with tips about fellow criminals, investigations and indictments, even helping them avoid indictment in a race-fixing case by persuading his superiors at the FBI and the U. Which team do you support? First, what the monetary authority surely can control in the long run is the growth rate of nominal income. Second, issues of dynamic consistency and commitment are crucial to the design of appropriate monetary policies. Beyond its recognition of these points, my view is that most of what the academic economics community has had to say on the issue of long-run monetary strategy has been tangential at best, and I fear that many of the papers at this conference have not done much to improve the situation.

He was taken to a nearby police station and booked on a charge of driving under the influence. I am well treated. TheNasdaq Composite Index was up Insufficient funds viagra gegenanzeigen viagra rezeptfrei seris Her killer left behind seminal fluids that were lifted from a maroon blanket her body was covered with.

I do some voluntary work kamagra en venezuela Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius has been the focal point of criticism for the problems and Republicans have demanded she step down, but so far the White House has rallied around her. This is almost double the rate in the City of London 5. The vast majority of cases are of Type 2 diabetes, which is linked to unhealthy lifestyles and obesity. A pension scheme dove posso comprare cialis in contrassegno The sprays involved in the five incidents were Banana Boat continuous spray products, and were voluntarily recalled from the market last year.

The FDA added that other sprays, as well as products like hairspray, bug spray and non-spray sunscreens may contain the same ingredients. Some products may include a label warning, but others may not. However, in the early days, things were quite different. To work here you either have to have a bullet-proof ego — or no ego at all.

Here a question arises as from where did the light came. Where do you live? The bosses get off the hook. Meanwhile the gamblers running the megabanks continue to gamble OPM that should be being loaned constructively to small businesses back home. Could you ask her to call me? He allowed six hits and a walk while striking out five. Three of the hits came in the seventh, but Shawn Kelley struck out Mike Carp to get out of the jam. Then he switched to: An envelope viagra apoteket hjrtat The Daily News reported earlier this month that A-Rod and his representatives have had internal discussions about cutting a deal with MLB.

Could you ask him to call me? When asked if he was concerned about the precedents Detroit might set, Orr said: I cannot be concerned about what dreams may come from the result of what we do. One of them may have been run over by an emergency vehicle, San Francisco fire department officials have said, but the local coroner has not yet released autopsy results showing the cause of death. I study here free 30 day trial cialis The median price for a previously owned home soared The inventory of unsold homes on the market rose 1. I sing in a choir prix du viagra generique en france Experts warn that people are reading too much into day-to-day events such as the timing of the taper.


Have you seen any good films recently? Dow Jones industrial average futures shed 6points, and Nasdaq futures added 1. Nokia shares were down 3. Both firms report earnings next week. Which university are you at? Nevertheless, his Socialist successor Francois Hollande has continued the deportations, sending 13, Roma back to Romania and Bulgaria last year. But the reality is, as cut and dry as the case may seem, it is a bit more complex.

Dozens of opposition activists were formally charged; the authorities accused them of participating in acts of massive disorder in May Their trials opened one year later. A blood sample is injected into the bottle, which is then shaken to agitate a nutrient solution and encourage bacteria to grow. When do you want me to start? They are to fund nutrition programs for low-income women and their children, a program to secure nuclear weapons and non-proliferation, food and drug safety, intelligence-gathering, border patrols, American Indian and Alaska Native health and education programs, weather monitoring, Head Start school programs for the poor and other aid for schools that rely heavily on federal assistance.

The Utah Department of Transportation conducted a study beginning in on a stretch of I where the speed limit was 75 mph. The study found a 20 percent drop in the number of people exceeding the posted speed limit, according to Robert Hull, director of traffic and safety with the Utah DOT. In addition, data from the test area through found there was an 11 percent to 20 percent reduction in speed-related crashes, depending on which stretch of road was being evaluated.

He wants big stars, like Cruz, and he wants to make them bigger. It could become the example for the continent and an anchor for peaceful economic and political relations. Its success would only encourage others. But state officials later came under fire fromconservative commentators who said rates could more than doublefor some people, depending on the demographic. The inmate most provide reasons for being let out on day release and a risk assessment is then carried out, said the Ministry of Justice.

Rick Perry called his GOP legislature back into session to consider a week ban and sweeping regulatory changes after a Democratic filibuster derailed the measure and drew national attention last month. The average forecast in a survey of analysts by Reuters in July pointed to growth of just 0. About a year best place to buy kamagra jelly From the prospect of Whitby to Chipping Campden High Street, from the Roaches in Staffordshire that prominent ridge of red sandstone , to the Radcliffe Camera in Oxford, from the Vale of the White Horse to the White Cliffs of Dover, Sir Simon reminds us just what we are missing if we persist in travelling around with our noses to the ground which, as a botanist, I confess I am as guilty of doing as the next man though, in my case, I would claim that it is to avoid missing some botanical treasure at my feet.

Could I have a statement, please? He was then moved to a smaller pool, on his own, which also added to his stress. Why is it acceptable to abuse women and deny them their rights and dignity, merely turning a blind eye while continuing to conduct business? Do you play any instruments? But the quake was a reminder of the potential risks to the facility, which suffered widespread damage from the 9. However, as there are so many fair-skinned people in Ireland, there is a high risk of AK.

First, they discovered that its atmosphere is most likely much larger than originally estimated. They could tell that because the atmosphere of a planet blocks X-rays, but not normal light. In this case, the planet blocked about times as big an area of X-rays as it did optical light, meaning the atmosphere extends out quite further. They also ascertained that as a result, the planet is losing its atmosphere at a very fast rate over time. I support Manchester United cialis 30 tablet free trial Mars was warm and wet on its surface during its first billion years and then it became cold and dry and not hospitable to life.

I think any Martian organisms who lived on the surface at that time have retreated underground. To get to the mouth of the river and to share that with our families was pretty special. I went to where can i buy viagra in durban south africa Wass told the court on Tuesday that despite his assets beingrestrained in , Ibori had after that date continued to livea lavish lifestyle, travel and pay fees to the English boardingschool where his three children were being educated.

They include enhanced training for active shooter incidents, security forces carrying long rifles and enhanced reporting of suspicious activity, Dette said. Best Site Good Work how do you take cialis In addition to the traditional and charter schools in the LA system there are Mandarin immersion schools, magnets with different focuses, and even schools that focus on activism.

Letting parents and teachers come together to create new public schools that meet the diverse needs of students. A Second Class stamp levitra orodispersibile 10 mg Barclays is close to reaching a deal with regulators to comply with a newleverage requirement by Dec. Its aircraft carried ,passengers last year and it has a fleet of just 14 planes,mostly propeller-driven. Where did you go to university? In the last year, Americans have submitted , patents for their ideas with less than half that number actually granted.

They cut down on refined carbohydrates, such as white bread, and lowered their fat intake to less than 10 per cent of all the calories in their diet. Iraq, like Afghanistan, created an agreement with the U. Mr Wang, who is the largest cinema magnate in the world, with 6, screens across Asia and the United States, is already so powerful that executives from all the major Hollywood talent agencies and top studios also flew out. Is it convenient to talk at the moment?

Monthly inflation slowed to 4. For Smith, it might feel a little like being back at West Virginia, when opposing offenses averaged I live here cialis 5 mg street price Phablets, a cross between a phone and a tablet, have been on a roll since late as tech-savvy consumers, particularly in Asia, devote more time browsing data-heavy Web pages and downloading media content. I work with computers buy viagra using paypal Asked again about the case on Saturday, Jackson said: We are not working on that assignment today, but we are very concerned.

The movie, which toppedbox office charts when it debuted a week ago, was released byWarner Bros. They have also played in Belgium. Insufficient funds costo del cialis 5 mg farmacia On April 17, the United States Senate turned its back on the families of Aurora, Newtown and the more than 30 people who die at the hands of gun violence every day when common-sense gun safety laws were filibustered by a minority of senators. Phelps threw one simulated inning on Monday and two more on Thursday. Congress was struggling to pass an emergencyfunding bill, but Tea Party-backed Republicans in the Housesought to use the must-do bill to gut the new healthcareoverhaul known as Obamacare or enact other Tea Party policies.

Once the course is on the desktop, you can come back to it to continue learning at any time, with 30 hours learning in each program. Being stubborn, adversarial, combative and assuming you are right only leads to war, which is a far greater danger to your children and the world they will grow up in. The risk of harm to a baby in distress is far greater than the modest risk of autism.

Enter your PIN cialis generico farmacia roma A police station in the Anbar provincial capital Ramadi came under attack by militants in the morning in an assault that left two policemen dead, provincial council member councilman Talib Hamadi and deputy provincial governor Dhari Arkan said. Ramadi is kilometers 70 miles west of Baghdad. In all, the experts visited the locations where five rockets had exploded.

There are loads of similar looks available to buy on the high street and the Hybrid dress at Asos even has side splits like Catherine's Michael Kors. That, in turn, exposed the U. Could I order a new chequebook, please? That law required developers to get permission from area residents before making any changes to open space. But the feed through to emerging markets is lacking. A law firm sildenafil citrate tablets vega medicine That at least is how Ofcom's boss Ed Richards describes it, in a very high-fibre session on the regulator's radio spectrum plans. Just how the UK plans to ensure that the UK keeps ahead on managing the airwaves over the next decade, and how the technology might develop is obviously vitally important for our economy.

This most recent renovation will actually leave it with less seating capacity. In , 10, seats were added around the bottom. In the upper deck on the south side was added. And in the upper deck of the North Side was added. Where do the Giants go from here? Is this now a full-blown rebuilding project? And if so, is Mara absolutely sure that Reese and Coughlin are the men to lead it? How much patience will ownership have? I saw this week the game has been much easier for him. Get a job farmacias que venden viagra sin receta en barcelona Cisco has been whittling away at its workforce for some time.

The latest cuts mark a new wave of job reductions. We used to work together safest online pharmacy for cialis My essay advocated a new wave of public-private partnerships P3s for U. It was down 0. Could I take your name and number, please? Ashcroft, too, refused, and the program was put on hold.

The aim is to travel as far as they can on a litre of fuel or a kilowatt hour of energy. Some run on petrol, others diesel. Many feature solar panels, hydrogen fuel cells or are powered by biofuels. Another year comprar cialis online en usa Even many of the hardcore fans who trek around Europe to see his concerts have also been impressed by his ever-changing gigs. The set list is never the same as he draws titles from his 17 studio albums in five decades but also from other artists. Second, he announced his first charter audits at a meeting of the New York State United Teachers, which loathes charters because most are not unionized.

His audience heartily applauded. It gave users no means to opt out. What qualifications have you got? Every penny raised will help us in our mission to beat blood cancer. I work for a publishers can i get viagra over the counter in canada Shares have quickly risen since the end of March, when Tesla indicated that sales of its flagship Model S sedan were beating targets and a first-quarter profit was in order. It was realised in true collaboration between a visionary client, designer and contractors.

One moment, please healthy man viagra offer Also alive, though, is the Alaska-based campaign against themine. But his conviction would stand, making him ineligible to even hold office or seek re-election. Google and Apple have filed patent documents suggesting they plan to develop watches, while Microsoft has confirmed it is working on a version of its own. Carr went 7 for 11 for 64 yards and probably has the edge since he spent four of the last five years with the Giants.

Garcinia is a source for a revolutionary natural diet ingredient which is now a rage in other western nations, and America, Japan, Europe. Also visit my web-site: I like it a lot droga sildenafil viagra While nothing can be confirmed about Egyptian religion before the advent of writing, the finding might also have significant implications to the development of Egyptian religious beliefs. Campbell Price, a curator of Egypt and Sudan at the Manchester Museum, notes that later in Egyptian history, during the time of the pharaohs, the gods were said to have bones forged from iron.

Whereabouts are you from? How many are there in a book? Very Good Site quiero comprar viagra sin receta argentina If the latest weeks figure of , new unemployment claims is correct, then the monthly claims would amount to 1,, With only , jobs added during the month how can the unemployment rate drop from 7. Possible only if upwards of 1,, people quit looking for work.

💎 Free Mp3 Ebook Download Ffm An Abridged Guide To Homophobia Epub B00duj1uie

This whole unemployment reporting is nothing but contrived numbers and does not come close to the actual unemployment rate. Since the Achilles surgery, the NL most valuable player has hit a combined. Can I call you back? It was on vibrate when a string of text messages streamed across the screen.

Cutcliffe congratulated and calmed his mentee. Obama is under the control of the Shadow Government. George Soros is the lead person with buying off everyone from local, state and Federal politicians, justice department and probably the Secret Service. Obama is turning America into what we despise about Iran and other dictatorship countries.

Iran is playing the game better than the West and allies. This has gone on long enough with the idle threats and promises. I live here kamagra soft mg It said that it does not plan to raise its key interest rate from its current level of 0. The OPEC producer could reopen itseastern Hariga port this week but there was no progress openinglarger eastern terminals that have been shut for weeks, a seniorgovernment official said on Monday. Lyndsay, who was at a top-floor bookstore, initially thought it was a robbery. I rushed from home to the shopping center, a mile away.

The scene was eerie: Bodies lay hanging from the vehicles. Hold the line, please cialis aus deutschland rezeptfrei According to CalFire, more than 4, separate fires have already charred the state this year, which is more than 1, fires above average. These numbers are for fires fought by CalFire only, and do not include fires that occur on federal land.

But court documents outlined an elaborate scheme in which White allegedly worked with Washington businessman Jeffrey Thompson to help a presidential candidate during several Democratic primaries in the winter and spring of I support Manchester United golden viagra wholesalers The opinions of the five SEC commissioners reflected thedivisions between organized labor and corporate America. Until August kamagra oral jelly jak stosowac A separatist group in Zanzibar, Uamsho Awakening , is pushing for the archipelago to exit from its union with mainland Tanzania, which is ruled as a secular country.

Uamsho wants to introduce Islamic Sharia law in Zanzibar. When he was about twenty he decided to invite his school friends and colleagues to holiday here… And what was holiday for them? We used to work together prezzo viagra In addition to the CEO pay ratio plan, the SEC is expectedto adopt a reform that will allow it to oversee financialadvisers to cities, counties and other municipal entities thatsell public debt or manage public money. Will I get paid for overtime? Corbett or other state officials challenge their actions.

In other states with same-sex marriage bans, licenses issued by defiant local officials have been voided by courts. How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? Well done Hugh… sensational, especially the segment with the Australian Aborigines. I came over as a visitor to jump in and still love it here. Do you like it here? He also loved hitting a barn-raising and a Belgian horse fair, where he put his rapping skills to the test by learning to talk a mile-a-minute like an auctioneer.

Did you go to university? Sprayable Energy consists of water, caffeine and an amino acid that helps the body absorb it. For example, Ford engineers are developing a highly flexible, first-of-its-kind, patented technology to rapidly form sheet-metal parts for low-volume production use.

The technology, known as Ford Freeform Fabrication Technology, or F3T, will lower costs and speed delivery times for prototype stamping molds — within three business days versus two to six months for prototypes made using conventional methods. Taking on Israel, even with the support of Hezbollah, assumes Assad has unlimited military and financial resources. Nor do I think the people of Syria will readily embrace a war in which they have a choice not to initiate. Very interesting tale cialis 20mg split And during their recruiting process, the Heat were obviously cognizant of that.

Oden has not played in the NBA since fracturing his kneecap in a game on Dec. Can you put it on the scales, please? It's what it costs. By setting a profit-free low price on Chromecast, Google is signaling that it's not looking to make a lot of money on the device. Instead, it's aiming for ubiquity. And ubiquity, in and of itself, will improve Chromecast. I don't have any inside info, but if I were to venture a guess, I think Google's ideal scenario for Chromecast goes something like this: Yet two years later Hasan, still a member of the Army he had denounced, would violently conclude his demonstration.

One is at the eastern end of Long Island, the other along the south Jersey shore. And both are still accepting last-minute registrations. The economy is growingslower than the official forecast, hurting tax revenues. He iswidely expected to meet his deficit target, but he may yet haveto find other revenue sources or cut deeper into spending. I work for myself generic viagra no prescription in uk While there was some talk about whether Rivera would let pitching in his final Stadium game be his last appearance on the mound, he said that he would pitch in Houston if the situation called for it.

There was no artful design attached to it, but it did contain lights that were supposed to illuminate in a colorful, artful pattern. A few months acheter du viagra en ligne forum Brown averted a proposed strike last Sunday by appointing athree-person board to investigate the BART labor feud. The boardwas charged with hearing from both sides of the dispute andreporting back to the governor on its findings. Special Delivery viagra subliminal messages From Britain's perspective, the tragedy is that we always had the skills. But we lacked the right management, the right unions, the right priorities, and, quite frankly, the right work ethic.

And in the end, we paid a heavy price. Bankruptcy Court, where its eligibility to remain there will bethe subject of a trial next week. Respondents could check all that apply. It blames exhibitors, and by extension paying customers, for taking a highly intelligent animal that may swim a hundred miles a day in the wild and confining it for life in a tiny pool. But analysts say the country may still miss its new target of cutting it to 3.

They could surely use the funds, and your communities would be better served with a beefed-up police presence. Not only is this my second Number 1 single, but even more amazing is my album has also gone in at Number 1. Recorded Delivery comprar kamagra en espaa And then they did a bad thing.

You are here

They agreed to participate in a politicized organization, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which was supposed to collate all the global warming research data and suggest to world governments what they should do about it. Jonny was here does viagra help psychological erectile dysfunction The route passed through apartments that held traces of their former residents: Some rooms were charred and gave off a burnt odor.

On occasion, shots rang out. The third victim, Michelle Knight, 32, appeared with Berry and DeJesus in a video in early July thanking the community for its support. Over the air TV should be paid for by commercials and if cable increases the number of viewers for the broadcast then the commercial time is worth more to advertisers. In the long run organisations need accurate, real-time visibility across their whole workforce. Managers need to understand the importance of being in control of when employees are working, where they have been deployed and the skill sets at their disposal.

Furthermore, garcinia cambogia contains hydroxycitric acid a material frequently touted as an all-natural weight-loss aid. Feel free to visit my webpage; garcinia cambogia dr oz video Anne. What do you like doing in your spare time? I find them so shallow. There are pastry chefs twice as old as these kids wishing they could cook as good as them.

Louis Fed President James Bullard has saidhe is not prepared to start reducing the stimulus program,adding that there needs to be more economic data before movingto taper. But emergency workers and passengers described a grim situation in other parts of the plane, with some passengers trapped among dislodged seats and an escape chute that had deployed inside the aircraft.

Would you like a receipt? It seals the makeup on. If, as is often the case, what happens onshore is eventually mirrored offshore, then expat savers could be in for more misery. However, at the moment, some offshore savers are actually being offered better deals than those onshore. This could mean that any particularly attractive fixed rates on offer are at risk of being withdrawn at short notice.

At the same time, the images of Adam Tannous do not try to completely define the subject and only hint at what you should find and experience there. Review my blog; garcinia cambogia extract reviews yahoo Mariana. Nearly a year later, that only direction that fever seems to be going is up. I came here to study viagra diabetes krankenkasse Stosur, who made 56 unforced errors to her opponent's 35, said: I'm not going to be a sore loser and say she didn't do anything but I certainly helped her out there, that's for sure.

It seemed petty at the time that Belichick took a guy who was not going to be able to play in , but now it may pay off. The August margins were downnearly 50 percent from the averages in each of the previous twomonths. When you take part of the land for oil you put more pressure on the rest.

Tokyo Electric Power Co. During an earlier typhoon in September, rainwater spilled out before it could be tested. Nevertheless, Rudd, riffing on the idea of a special economic zone for the Top End, went further than his ministers were prepared for. It then adopted the changes making the eligibility requirements more flexible. Pleased to meet you levitra price online However, the intention is to use the tech to recharge only the competition's safety vehicle during the first year of the championship before extending it to the competitors' cars in either year two or three.

Kenseth won at Bristol, Busch took Atlanta and Kenseth won the last two. I love this site where to buy viagra in florida So while there was not a dramatic exit from stocks, some managers who did not want to be identified said they noticed some rotation into more defensive stocks.

The Utes turned those into field goals by Andy Phillips, a yard and a yarder. Asked before the game about the possibility of finally making the World Series, he replied: The data is a key piece of information for the Federal Reserveto consider when it will start to scale back its stimulus. I work here preindicated fino alla grouchily viagra sales Budget cuts led to the end of the space shuttle programme in and a seemingly diminished role for Nasa, Texas and even the US in space travel.

Egypt has suggested Palestinians have been using the underground passages to help Sinai militants, a charge Hamas rejects. It has cut off many developers that want to build new features that would interact with the Twitter platform. Those garment workers not only risked, but LOST. You need to learn the Golden Rule. Tourre, a mid-level employee, was the only Goldman executive to be charged individually and chose to fight the case.

It requires patience and understanding. You failed to provide that. It was completely and utterly inappropriate behaviour. In the Internet group that Reuters analyzed in detail, participants identified 26 children as Russian natives. Between 10pm and 11pm the streets are empty. Italians brought coffee to Australia and New Zealand, and it has become integral to our culture. Food and drink are the most crucial parts of travel for me.

That marks afar cry from the double-digit growth common in the past threedecades. The optimum screen resolution is x pixels, followed by x Certainly, the Muslim Brotherhood is not about to go quietly. He had been limited to pinch-hitting in the NLDS. Anyone buying health insurance by December 15, , is covered as of January 1, Some are used in quite a specific fashion, with one used for storing roots and another for dry feed. She has held senior roles in newspapers and radio in London, Surrey, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Hampshire over many years.

The group provides educationaland development activities in the Middle East and North Africa. Officials from the five permanent members of the U. Security Council — the U. In thiscase, municipal bondholders, past, present and prospective, willlearn that lending money to a government, especially one with adwindling tax base, involves a goodly bit more risk than perhapsthey believed.

They expected it to produce between five and 10 inches of rain in Guerrero and Michoacan, and in isolated cases as much as 15 inches. I was pitching with tremendous soreness in my arm, but at the same time, I was giving everything. Now I just want to enjoy what is left of the season. Enjoyed looking through this, very good stuff, regards. You certainly come with excellent writings. Appreciate it for sharing with us your blog. Right here is the right blog for everyone who wishes to find out about this topic.

You know a whole lot its almost hard to argue with you not that I really would want to…HaHa. You definitely put a new spin on a topic which has been discussed for a long time. Excellent stuff, just great! You actually have tremendous stories. Appreciate it for sharing with us your blog site. You absolutely come with excellent article content. Appreciate it for revealing your web page.

I just want to say I am just newbie to blogging and site-building and absolutely savored this website. You amazingly have wonderful article content. With thanks for revealing your blog site. Feel free to surf to my site: You certainly come with terrific well written articles.

Thanks for sharing your blog site. I simply want to tell you that I am just newbie to weblog and truly enjoyed this page. You actually come with good writings. Thanks a lot for sharing your web site. You actually come with very good stories. Thanks a bunch for sharing your webpage. You really come with remarkable writings.

Thank you for revealing your web site. You really come with very good posts. Thank you for sharing your webpage. You certainly have outstanding stories. Many thanks for sharing your web-site. Have an awsome day! You definitely come with wonderful articles. Regards for revealing your webpage. You actually have superb articles. Thanks a lot for revealing your website. Your concept is excellent; the issue is one thing that not sufficient persons are speaking intelligently about.

I am very completely satisfied that I stumbled across this in my search for one thing referring to this. You surely have fabulous well written articles. Appreciate it for sharing with us your website. An impressive share, I just given this onto a colleague who was doing a bit analysis on this. And he actually bought me breakfast as a result of I discovered it for him.. So let me reword that: Thnx for the treat! However yeah Thnkx for spending the time to discuss this, I really feel strongly about it and love studying more on this topic. If possible, as you turn into experience, would you mind updating your weblog with extra details?

Massive thumb up for this weblog put up! It stands in sharp contrast to the paradigms of female dependence on males which have been predominant in our culture. The internationally ac- claimed French novelist Monique Wittig captured some- thing of the novelty and flavor of the affirmation of fe- male power when she wrote in her mythic work Les Cueri Hires: There was a time when you were not a slave, remember that. You walked alone, full of laughter, you bathed bare- bellied.

You say you have lost all recollection of it, remem- ber. Make an effort to remem- ber. Or, failing that, invent. This mood is one of a joyous celebration of female freedom and independence, as well as a fearless The Birth of Aphrodite. The affirmation of female power contained in the sym- bol of Goddess has both psychological and political con- sequences. Psychologically it means the defeat of the in- ternal policeman who reminds women that their power is inferior and dangerous.

This new mood of affirmation of female power leads to new motivations; it supports and undergirds women's trust in their own power and the power of other women in family and society. I have said that the simplest meaning of the symbol "Goddess" is an affirmation of the legitimacy and benef- icence of female power. For one raised in the West, a question immediately arises, "Is the Goddess simply fe- male power writ large, and if so, why bother with the sym- bol 'Goddess' at all?

Or do you really mean to refer to a Goddess 'out there' who is not reducible to a human potential? Three meanings attach to the symbol "Goddess" for these wom- en: If one were to ask the women who participate in the symbol of Goddess which of these meanings is the "correct" one, different responses would be given. Some would assert that the Goddess is definitely not "out there," that the symbol of a divinity "out there" is part of the legacy of patriarchal oppression, which brings with it the authoritarianism, hierarchicalism and dogmatic rigidity associated with Biblical mono- theistic religions.

They might argue that the symbol of Goddess reflects the sacred power within women and nature, suggesting the connectedness between women's cycles of menstruation, birth and menopause and the life and death cycles of the universe. Others seem quite com- fortable with the notion of Goddess as a divine female protector and creator and would find their experience of Goddess limited by the assertion that she is not also out there as well as within themselves and in all natural processes.

When asked what the symbol of Goddess meant, feminist witch Starhawk replied, "It all depends on how I feel. When 1 feel weak, She is someone who can help and protect me. When I feel strong She is the symbol of my own power. At other times I feel her as the natural energy in my body and the world. Theologians would call these the words of a sloppy thinker. But my deepest intuition tells me they contain a wisdom Western theological thought has lost. To one trained in theology these differing views of the "meaning" of the symbol of Goddess sound like an incipi- ent Trinitarian controversy.

Is there, I wonder, a way of developing a theology that does not lead into dogmatic controversy or require us to say definitively that one un- derstanding is true and the others false? Could we possibly share our common relation to the symbol and make that primary and yet allow our varying interpretations? The diverse explications of the symbol "Goddess" suggest that the symbol has a richer significance than any one explica- tion can express. This phenomenological fact suggests the need for an abstract theory of symbol in which the symbol is viewed as the primary fact and the meanings are viewed as secondary.

Search results | Arca: Discover BC's Digital Treasures.

It also suggests that a thea-logy 11 of the Goddess would be very different from the theo-logy we know in the West. But to spell out the primacy of symbol in thea-logy in contrast to the primacy of explanation in theo-logy would be to write another paper. Let me simply state that I believe it is incumbent upon woman, who have been deprived of a female religious symbol system for so long and who are therefore in an excellent position to recognize the power and primacy of symbols, to devel- op a theory of symbol and thea-logy congruent with their experience.

A second important implication of the Goddess symbol for women is the affirmation of the female body. Because of women's unique position as menstruants, birth-givers, and because they have traditionally cared for the young and the dying, women's connection to the body, nature and finitude has been an obvious fact. In early religious consciousness birth-giving powers were celebrated and women were positively valued. But as Western religions entered into a state of alienation from the body, nature and this world, women were denigrated because they seemed more carnal, fleshy and earthy than the culture- creating males.

While menstruation taboos may have originat- ed in a perception of the awesome powers of the female body, 14 they have degenerated into a simple perception that something is "wrong" with female bodily functions. Menstruation is viewed as a curse, and women grow up believing that the bloody facts of menstruation are best hidden. Judy Chicago's Menstruation Bathroom broke these taboos. In a sterile white bathroom she exhibited boxes of tampons and Kotex on an open shelf, while the wastepaper basket overflowed with bloody tampons and Kotex.

The denigration of the female body and its powers is further expressed in Western culture's attitudes toward childbirth. Giving birth is treated as a disease requiring hospitalization and the woman is viewed as a passive ob- ject, anesthetized to ensure her acquiescence to the will of the doctor. The symbol of Goddess aids this process of naming and reclaiming the female body and its functions.

In the an- cient world and among modern women, the Goddess sym- bol represents the birth, death and rebirth processes of the natural and human worlds. The female body is viewed as a direct expression or incarnation of waxing and waning, life and death cycles in the universe because of the con- nection between the day cycles of menstruation and 10 the day cycles of the moon.

How amazing it is for modern women to learn that many of the ancient Goddess figures were painted with red ochre between the legs, the menstrual blood out in the open, a symbol of female power. In this ritual the women simulated a birth canal through which they birthed each other into their circle. They raised power by placing their hands on each other's bellies and chanting together. Finally, they marked each other's faces with rich dark menstrual blood saying, "This is the blood that prom- ises renewal. This is the blood that promises sustenance. This is the blood that promises life.

The degree to which this ritual seems indelicate or shocking indicates how far modern culture is from perceiving the sacrality of the female body. The mood created by the symbol of Goddess as life and birth power is one of positive, joyful affirmation of the female body and its powers and processes.

While the symbolic reclamation of the body and na- ture is especially important to women who have been as- sociated with the despised body, it also has profound sig- nificance for men and all beings. The denigration of the body and nature has also contributed to our current ecological crisis because nature has been viewed simply as material for human consumption. Thus, the Goddess as symbol of the revaluation of body and nature can pull together many of the themes addressed separately in the human potential and ecology movements.

In this case the mood is one of affirmation, awe and respect for the body and nature and the motivation is to respect the teaching of the body and the rights of all living beings. A third important implication of the symbol of God- dess for women is the positive valuation of will in a God- dess-centered framework. Here I am not referring to the symbol of Goddess in general, but specifically to the no- tion of will in Goddess-centered ritual magic and spell- casting.

The basic notion behind ritual magic and spell- casting is energy as power. The Goddess is a center or focus of power and energy; She is the personification of the energy which flows between beings in the natural and human worlds. According to Starhawk, "witches conceive of psychic energy as having form and substance that can be perceived and directed by those with a trained aware- ness. The power generated within the circle is built into a cone form, and at its peak is released — to the Goddess, to reenergize the members of the coven, or to do a specific work such as healing.

The emphasis on the will is important for women be- cause women traditionally have been taught to devalue their wills, to believe that they cannot achieve their will through their own power and even to suspect that the as- sertion of will is evil. Faith Wilding's poem "Waiting" sums up women's sense that their lives are defined not by their own will, but by waiting for others to take the in- itiative.

Waiting for my breasts to develop Waiting to wear a bra Waiting to menstruate Waiting for life to begin, Waiting. Waiting to be somebody Waiting to get married Waiting for my wedding day Waiting for my wedding night Waiting for the end of the day Waiting for sleep. Eve caused the fall by asserting her will over and against the command of God, while Mary began the new age with her response to God's initiative, "Let it be done to me according to thy word" Luke 1: Even for men, patriarchal religions value the passive will.

The classical doctrines of sin and grace view sin as the prideful assertion of will and grace as the obedient subordiatnion of human will female or male to the divine initiative or order. Although this view of will might be questioned from a human perspective, Valerie Saiving Goldstein has argued that it has particularly deleterious consequences for women in Western culture. According to Goldstein, secular Western culture encourages males in the assertion The thousand hands of the Goddess Kwannon.

Toshodai-ji Temple, Nara, Japan. But since culture discourages fe- males in the assertion of will, the traditional doctrines of sin and grace encourage women to remain in their form of sin, which is self-negation or insufficient assertion of will. In a Goddess-centered context, in contrast, the will is valued. A woman is encouraged to know her will, to be- lieve that her will is valid and to believe that her will can be achieved in the world— three sources of strength and motivation to take direct action, sources traditionally denied to her in patriarchy.

In a Goddess-centered frame- work a woman's will is not subordinated to the Lord God as King and Ruler, nor to men as His representatives. Thus a woman is not reduced to waiting for and acquiescing to the will of others as she is in patriarchy. But neither does she adopt the egocentric form of will that pursues self- interest without regard for the interests of others.

The Coddess-centered context provides a different un- derstanding of will than that available in the traditional patriarchal religious framework. In the Goddess frame- work, will can be achieved only when it is exercised in harmony with the energies and wills of other beings. Wise women, for example, raise a cone of healing energy at the full moon or solstice when the lunar or solar energies are at their high points with respect to the earth. This dis- cipline encourages them to recognize that not all times are propitious for the achieving of every will. Similarly they know that spring is a time for new beginnings in work and love; summer, a time for producing external man- ifestations of inner potentialities; and fall or winter, times for stripping down to the inner core and for extending roots.

Such awareness of waxing and waning processes in the universe discourages the arbitrary ego-centered asser- tion of will, while at the same time encouraging the as- sertion of individual will in cooperation with natural energies and the energies created by the wills of others. Wise women also have a traditional belief that whatever is sent out will be returned, and this reminds them to assert their wills in cooperative and healing ways rather than in egocentric and destructive ones.

This view of will allows women to begin to recognize, claim and assert their wills without adopting the undesirable characteristics of the patriarchal understanding and use of will. This is not, however, to imply that women invariably exercise their wills for good. Women have as much of a capacity for positive and negative thoughts and actions as men do. All I am saying is that in the Goddess-centered context, the will of women is not devalued per se as it is in the Biblical and theological traditions discussed above.

In the Goddess-centered framework the mood is one of positive affirmation of personal will in the context of the energies of other wills or beings. The motivation is for women to know and to assert their wills in cooperation with other wills and energies. The fourth and final aspect of the symbol of Goddess is the significance of the Goddess for a revaluation of mother-daughter relations and women's heritage.

Accord- ing to Virginia Woolf, a sentence such as "Chloe liked Olivia," which describes a woman's relationship to an- other woman, rarely occurs in stories written by men be- cause men write of women only in their relationship to a man or men. Christianity celebrates the father's relation to the son and the mother's relation to the son but the story of the mother and daughter is missing. In patriarchal literature and psychology, the relation- ship between mothers and daughters is seldom considered or even mentioned. As de Beauvoir has noted, the mother- daughter relationship is, distorted in our male-defined culture because the mother perhaps subconsciously be- lieves her role is to prepare her daughter to enter into that male-controlled culture in which women are viewed as inferior.

The bond of woman to woman is beginning to be cele- brated in the new women's culture. Holly Near has written several songs that celebrate the woman bond and wom- en's heritage. In one of her finest songs she writes of an "old time woman" who is "waiting to die. This story was told, possibly enacted, in con- nection with the religious rites of the Thesmophoria, which were for women only, and the Eleusinian Mysteries of Greece.

In this story Persephone is abducted by the God of the Underworld and forced to live in the Under- world as his wife. Unwilling to accept this state of affairs, Mother Demeter, in her rage, withholds the rain and thus prevents the growth of all food until her daughter is re- turned to her. What is important for women in this an- cient religious story is that the mother fights for her daughter and for her relationship to her daughter.

This is a completely different view of the mother's relationship to her daughter from that which exists in a patriarchal cul- ture. The mood created by the story of Demeter and Per- sephone is one of sacred celebration of the mother- daughter bond and the motivation is for mothers and daughters to affirm the heritage passed on from mother to daughter and to reject the patriarchal pattern in which 12 mother and daughter betray each other for the sake of men.

The symbol of the goddess has much to offer women who are struggling to be rid of the "powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations" of the devalua- tion of female power, denigration of the female body, dis- trust of female will and denial of the mother-daughter bond and women's heritage that have been engendered by patriarchal religions. As women struggle to create a new culture in which women's power, bodies, will and bonds are celebrated, the symbol of the Goddess naturally reemerges and speaks to the deep mind, expressing our new vision of the beauty, strength and power of women.

Starhawk, "Witchcraft and Women's Culture" unpublished manuscript, p. Lessa and Vogt New York: Beacon Press, , p. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. Monique Wittig, Les Cuerilleres, trans. David LeVay New York: Avon Books, , p. A term coined by Naomi Goldenberg to refer to reflection on the meaning of the symbol "Goddess. New Earth New York: Dover, , p.

Doubleday, , plate 4. Bantam Books, , chap. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, McGraw-Hill, , p. Barbry MyOwn, "Ursa Maior: Starhawk, "Witchcraft and Women's Culture," p. In Judy Chicago, pp. Goldstein, "The Human Situation: A Feminine View," journal of Religion vol. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, , p. A Live Album Redwood Records, About the Goddess Kali, for Pamela Oline. Oiled and bleached willow, cherry, black locust, maple and fir.

Plaster casting for bronze mold. This dogma functions to preserve patriarchal institutions and to prevent the establishment of equal rights and opportunities for women in the United States and other countries throughout the world. Far from becoming more tolerant as time passes, fundamentalist sects are ever more rigid in their efforts to maintain the subjugation of women. Ironically, religious faiths, which supposedly provide the moral and ethical basis of culture, are stubbornly and irrationally opposed to the develop- ment of a truly just, humane, equitable society.

My personal religious beliefs underwent a cataclysmic change during adolescence, when overnight I emerged from an intensely religious period into what has remained a questioning, agnostic search for a satisfactory philos- ophy to sustain me through life. During my childhood and adolescence, I deeply experienced the damage done by the prevalent attitudes towards females. Perhaps for this reason, I finally found a possible answer in feminism.

Of all my experiences, the most fulfilling sense of unity and of purpose and belief, within myself and within rela- tionships, has come from reading feminist literature, meeting, working, demonstrating, agonizing, organizing and occasionally celebrating with my sisters. Neverthe- less, I still felt a lack, a sense of something missing. When my reading progressed to a number of books, which have appeared in recent years, describing the matriarchal cul- tures and religions that existed in prehistoric times, I began to understand why.

I tried to imagine what it must have been like to live in a society where people worshipped a female deity and where women held positions of power and responsibility. What would it feel like to pray to God the Mother? To sing paeans of praise to Her glory? As I experimented, in spite of my essential agnosticism, I found myself feeling a great sense of peace in the mere act of praying to a loving, female God.

The experience was light-years away from the nightmares I had suffered as a child of being con- signed to hell by a punitive male god. I also felt deep anguish to know that such religions had existed thousands of years ago, only to have been ruthlessly destroyed by barbaric patriarchal invaders. When I discussed these ideas with feminists from other parts of the world, at the International Women's Year Tribune in Mexico City, at the International Tribunal on Crimes Against Women in Brussels and with women I met during other travels, they were as enthusiastic as.

Mormons, Baptists and various fundamentalist religious groups were there in force, joined with the American Nazi Party, John Birch Society and Ku Klux Klan to try to subvert the conference. When they began singing hymns, I sang along but with one major difference: I changed the hymns to Hers. When they sang, "He's got the whole world in his hands," I happily warbled, "She's got the whole world Isis loves me, this I know Mother Cod has told me so. She is strong and so are we Fighting for equality. In preparation for this conference I began to think through some of the ideas that had been taking form in my mind.

The sum total of my experiences led me to realize that lack of faith in an organized religion had left a hole in my life which no amount of rational, philosophical specula- tions about the meaning of it all can fill. The fact is I enjoy the rituals, symbols, songs, processions, ceremonies — the full panoply of organized religion. I like to wear clothing and jewelry that express my commitment to and faith in my beliefs. I enjoy singing along with people, joining hands, performing rites and acts that physically demonstrate and symbolize my emotional, spiritual and philosophical self — my deepest being.

But I also realize that I am quite incapable of participating in such rituals while being totally opposed to the doctrines they rep- resent. There is no way I can take part in a religion that preaches the subjugation of women. The answer to this dilemma then became so obvious that I am shocked not to have found it sooner. I believe the answer is to reinstate a feminist religion that can fulfill the human need for religious rituals at the same time that it celebrates our feminist faith in the ultimate good of 16 being female and invokes the Mother-God-given right of every woman to enjoy full freedom and equal opportunity in all aspects of life.

Such a religion would provide opportunities for women to meet together to take part in ceremonies and to reaf- firm our faith in our feminist beliefs. This spiritual and emotional renewal would strengthen the bonds among us. Besides providing spiritual sustenance, the feminist religion could be a powerful tool in our fight for equal rights. In spite of the supposed Constitutional separation of church and state, the fact is that our legal codes are based on patriarchal religious dogmas and customs.

The frequency with which opponents of the Equal Rights Amendment and other feminist issues quote the Bible to justify their opposition is evidence enough of the use of religion for political purposes. The doctrine of an or- ganized religion that propounds feminist values as the direct reflection of Divine Intention is the ultimate answer to those who argue that a male god has decreed other- wise. Fighting fire with fire, our rites could help us win our rights. The NOW conference workshop offered the opportu- nity to explain these feelings and experiences to other women and to propose that we establish our own feminist religion.

I also offered a few specific suggestions that seemed positive.

First, that the religion be as undogmatic and non-authoritarian as possible to best serve as a ve- hicle for expressing the thoughts, feelings, needs and desires of all of us. Second, that care must be exercised to avoid forming the usual hierarchy of clergy as separate from congregation and to assure maximum participation of everyone concerned in formulating and carrying out the doctrines and rituals of a feminist religion.

I do, however, believe that a formal women's religious organization would be economically advantageous in that it would enable us to have access to the tax benefits allowed to other religious groups. These benefits could help to cover the cost of clinics, publications, learning centers and many other aspects of the women's move- ment.

In addition to these considerations, there is one fun- damental principle that I feel must be basic to our religion if it is to express feminist beliefs. This is the divine right of every child to be born to a mother who wants it, which in turn would assure every woman the right to control her own body and to bear children only when and if she wholeheartedly wants to do so. I feel that the act of exercising this control, whether by means of birth control, abortion or abstention, should be considered to be in total accord with our belief in "divine intention.

Since the aura of guilt and disgust surrounding female physiology promulgated by a misogynistic patriarchy is so destructive and damag- ing to women's emotional and physical well-being, I would like to see this attitude replaced by feelings of joy and self-affirmation in the inherent good of being female. Generally, I would like our feminist religion to be positive, joyous and free of fear. Rather than teaching the dogma of original sin, we could proclaim the fact of original good.

I would prefer a list of "Thou shalts" rather than "Thou shalt nots" and a philosophy of rewards for doing good rather than punishments for doing wrong. I would like our religion to affirm the intrinsic good of all expressions of love between humans, regardless of sex or of other artificial restrictions imposed by a patriarchal autocracy. Along with the suggestions that have been mentioned, we would welcome a wide diversity of other ideas, ac- cording to people's needs and desires. These might come from Wicca, Zen or any other source that we feel has something valuable to offer us.

In summary, I would like to mention that the enthusi- astic response of those who took part in the NOW work- shop convinced me that many women feel the need for a religion of our own and I suggest that the time is ripe for establishing it now. Its members are now in the process of applying for tax exempt status. In order to protect the principle of separation of church and state, I think that there should be no tax exemptions for religions, but since there are, it is essential that we share the advantage.

If interested, write to: The Mother Church, P. Box , Satellite Beach, Florida Horned Ishtar, "Lady of the Hand. Hathor, The Horned One. We change them, we're all the time changing them! But they body our sense of good! Images of power, of trans- formation, of harmony and of duality. One woman empowering another. The crucial exchange of gifts. I cross the cir- cle to give you something; you cross the circle to give her something. And so on until we have all changed places.

Power held is powerless; power given is power for all. In feminist ritual we main- tain a center of which we are all aware. It is our collective heart which beats there. We hold together, our center endures. Even the most painful sep- aration, the dispersal which is feared but necessary, cannot disconnect us from that ritual circle. Once that circle is created and affirmed, chaos is sub- dued. Although some theoretical attention has been given to the recent spiritual awakening within the women's move- ment, very little writing has been direct- ed toward analysis of the use of ritual by women.

Norm Macdonald discussing Homophobia

What do these ritual acts mean to contemporary U. And what is their significance in terms of the women's movement? Feminists are primarily at work re- vising the male-biased ideological bases of culture; some are now en- gaged in the creation of rituals to pro- mote and sanction this serious turning away from the old to the new. As in traditional societies, feminist ritual provides an emotional, descriptive, intensified and sanctifying version of emergent ideological systems. Femi- nist ritual offers an imagistic revitali- zation for women, participation in the concrete, bodily expressive creation of new images of the feminine which will help alleviate the stress of a liminality.

The evaluation of culture by Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo in her theoretical overview for Woman, Culture and Soci- ety serves as useful background mate- rial for answering why women have cre- ated rituals as an expression of the need for revitalization and as an im- petus for political action.

She states that "an asymmetry in the cultural evaluations of male and fe- male, in the importance assigned to women and men, appears to be uni- versal. Everywhere, from those societies we might want to call most egalitarian to those in which sexual stratification is most marked, men are the locus of cultural value. Only men define, possess and confer power or authority, and power is the necessary ingredient for the creation of culture.

Women are therefore con- signed to live on the fringes of culture, locked in domestic zones which are rarely defined as part of the cultural territory. Rosaldo elaborates this point by using Mary Douglas's notion of "the anomalous. Douglas has called this sort of thing "anomalous," The idea of "order" depends, logically, on "disorder" as its opposite, yet society tries to set such things aside.

Where men 'are classified in terms of ranked, institution- al positions, women are simply women and their activities, interests and dif- ferences receive only idiosyncratic note. Female power is almost without excep- tion displayed covertly under the rubric of influence or association with the right man. But Rosaldo makes a unique claim for the possible use women may make of their anomalous or liminal po- sitions. Even though women's status is lowest in those societies where there is the greatest distinction between the public and domestic realms and where women are isolated from each other, "their position is raised when they can challenge those claims of male author- ity, either by taking on men's roles or by establishing social ties, by creating a sense of rank, order, and value in a world in which women prevail.

In other words, by giving special atten- tion to their anomalous status, women have been able "to take on powers uniquely their own. Men have tenaciously held the rights to ritual use since the suppression of the ancient priestesses of the goddess. In fact the participation in ritual by men has been their most profound display of cultural authority and their most direct access to it.

The performance of ritual in most societies, "primitive" and "civilized," is a simultaneous ack- nowledgment of men's warrant to create. Here we see a further distinction be- tween the sacred and the profane based on the asymmetry of male-fe- male relationships. As Mircea Eliade has shown, sacred space is "manifested space," it is cre- ated as sacred by men and in most so- cieties women have little or no access to it. Of course men live in the profane world too in fact we all live there most of the time , but when they choose to do so or when the "gods" command them to do so they may enter another world, a world of the sacred, and through ritual practice they may take part in ordering that world and themselves.

The sacred realm is that of being and becoming, a realm saturated with power and critical- ly "off-limits" to the female half of the human species. That women in the United-States and elsewhere have begun to claim sacred space for themselves, to create rituals which emphasize their loyalty to each other and finally name the powers which men have found "anomalous" i. Asserting the right to ritual means as a source of power, vision and solidarity is the sym- bolic corollary of equal pay, choice of abortion, domestic freedom, the estab- lishment of women's businesses, etc.

Successful and enduring change in the status of women will come only through the parallel transformation of symbols and realities. Feminist ritual practice is currently the most important model for symbolic and, therefore, psychic and spiritual change in women. Here I would like to describe briefly a number of feminist rituals which characterize the kind and variety of ex- pression this form has taken. At the bottom of these wells she leaves personal and found objects wrapped in animal skins.

Next to these bundles Pinto makes a pritnitive fireplace with shards and cooking utensils. She constructs a lad- der and leaves it down the side of the well as an invitation for others to come in. Henes defines web-making as the "most basic female instinct" and has made a personal ritu- al of web-making over the past three years. I often notice that the mirror reflects an image which makes me question myself, feel critical or dissatisfied with my ap- pearance.

I don't ignore it as trivial, because I recognize that the mirror is infested with a very common political poison, virus hollywoodius or television- iensis, subtle pressure to measure up to a pattern designed to enslave. Just to free myself of that pressure isn't a magical operation. But hundreds of other women will use that mirror.

I pour suggestive energy into the mirror, encouraging anyone who might look in it to see herself in her true beauty. I rein- force the suggestion with all the power of my will and call on the Coddess of Beauty Herself, blessed Aphrodite, to banish that which would deny Her, as She exists in all of us. Let a circle form and each one place her article in front of her, and next to it a fruit, seed or cone.

Join hands and chant in unison the names of all present — several times till the energy is high. Then pause and chant the months of the year from the Winter Solstice to the Autumn Equinox. Now let each one in turn hold her article while she tells her friends of her accom- plishment and something she has learned from it.

When all have spoken all shall pick up the fruit, seed or cone in front of them and picture inwardly the process of its change from seed to plant to flower to seed. Again let each woman speak in turn of what her accomplishment has meant to her growth and how she thinks it may be useful to her self and others.

At this time if she feels grateful, let her give thanks. If she wants to dance, let her move. When all have expressed their feeling, with closed eyes ask yourself "What is the next stage in the process of my growth? After the joy of harvest After the work of the day After the time of fulfillment Comes the time of rest. After the seed is planted Nature takes care of the rest" On the streets of downtown Boston a woman wearing a high feather head- dress makes a circle of cornmeal, places three ears of corn in the center of the circle and begins a rhythmic chant naming the goddesses of the Americas before the conquest Tonant- zin, Chicomecoaltl, Blue Corn Girl, IxChel, etc.

After the chant is finished, she calls on women passing by, invites them into the circle and blesses them by saying in litany form an ancient Az- tec poem from the Poesia Nahautl: Now o friends Listen to the words of a dream Each spring brings us new life The golden corn refreshes us And the pink corn makes us a necklace At least this we know: The hearts of our friends are true While the women alternate in speaking the lines of the poem to each other, they hold an ear of corn between them and tear the sheaves down exposing the fresh corn.

This ritual has been per- formed from coast to coast with at least women receiving the blessing since it was first done in Painting the red quarter moon on their foreheads as a symbol of their special condition, they use the time spent in the hut for experi- encing and affirming the culmination of cyclic process. It is a time for medi- tation and separation, but separation without the patriarchal connotations of impurity, defilement and unworthiness. The' menstrual flow is equated with the particular power of the feminine and time spent apart in the hut is for per- sonally determining the course of that power.

The following ritual was recounted in Sundance, a journal devoted to the study and sharing of dreams. In a past issue of Womansptrit there is an article by Halite Mountainwing describ- ing an overnight wilderness event attend- ed by twelve women. The purpose of the venture was to share dreams, "be- come deeper friends and explore the meaning to each of them of being wom- en. To prepare for dreaming together, the twelve women arranged their sleep- ing bags into a "wheel" surrounding a central pole. In addition, each woman had two strands of ribbon attached to her sleeping bag which were then at- tached to the pole, making a "dream net.

As an ap- proximation to a contemporary experi- ment in revelation, a twelve-person "dream wheel" inspires continued ex- ploration. A form of this ritual is still performed today but the following account was recorded in by Basauri and trans- lated by J. A hollow is made in a level place and filled with water. This hollow should be of sufficient size so that a woman may take a bath in it. The woman, who hopes to benefit from the ceremony is placed in it completely naked. Once she is in and the liquid reaches to the height of her breasts, they [other women who par- ticipate in the ceremony] cover the sur- face with flowers.

Several women, friends of the one to be benefited, the number of which may vary, but never falls below five, take hands and dance around the bather, some singing and others saying a prayer in Maya. The dance lasts an hour, and during that time the dancers take flowers which they have already pre- pared, stoop down to moisten them in the water in which the principal bathes, and throw them on the breast of the woman making the ceremony la sol i- citante.

During the dance it is the cus- tom to make nine turns in one direction, stop a moment to moisten the flowers, and then repeat the same number of turns in the opposite direction. When the ceremony is ended, the dancers retire, the woman remains alone in the water, and, on coming out, she takes a quantity of it, which she carries with her to em- ploy in the preparation of her husband's or lover's food.

The overt goal of the ritual is not the only reason for performing it; something significant is taking place in the act of performance too.

An in- dividual woman is uplifted and sac- ralized by her sisters, her comadres, herC-R group, her kind. The above presentation of wom- an's rituals is by no means exhaustive. In fact the range of expressive mate- rial in current feminist ritual sets is so diverse, multivocal and widespread that one of the major tasks of the his- torical branch of the women's move- ment must be to document the growth of ritual events. The Women's revolution is not merely about equality within a patriarchal soci- ety a contradiction in terms. It is about power and redefining power. Within patriarchy, power is generally under- stood as power over people, the environ- ment, things.

In the rising consciousness of women, power is experienced as power of presence to ourselves and to each other, as we affirm our own being against and beyond the alienated iden- tity bestowed upon us within the patri- archy. This is experienced as power of absence by those who would objectify women as 'the other,' as magnifying mirrors. None of the rituals mentioned above would be considered effective if a transfer of power had not resulted. Yet it is of critical importance to note that power is rarely considered an object of possession which the group or individu- al may get hold of during ritual activity.

What is stressed through ritual is the dynamic quality of power, the continu- al exchange of gifts which heightens the affirmative identity of all who par- ticipate. Power emanates from within as it is simultaneously received from without. For women in revolution it is imperative to create an entirely new value system, the heart of which will be a dramatic reassessment of the use of power.

Ritual serves as a primary way of affirming commitment to that re- assessment. The ritual setting provides a place for knowing the easy, direct exchange and sharing of power. Cer- tainly ritual is an idealized microcos- mic experience, but it may be an en- durably important means of invoking a new order of things in the macrocosm. At the very least it has been a useful 22 mode for envisioning what a different world for women might feel like. The word "feeling" deserves special mention in connection with women's rituals.

In fact it is a word we must never neglect in talking about any ritu- al. Evon Vogt once asked a ritual par- ticipant, "Why do you go through the ceremonies? Why do you do what you do? Perhaps most im- portant is the way in which ritual up- holds and celebrates the validity of feeling as a mode of revelation, com- munication and transvaluation.

In some of the rituals described above the flow of feelings, change in feelings or sharing of feelings with others is a high- ly desirable goal in performing the ritual. In discussing the reasons underlying the performance of ritual acts in the feminist community, we must under- score the importance of ritual as a formalized consecration of female bonding. The ritual concretization of the idea reflected in the popular fem- inist slogan "Sisterhood is Powerful" is extremely important in demonstrating the cohesiveness and commitment of the feminist community.

A primary function of ritual is to connect the in- dividual with the group — dramatically, indissoluably. In ritual the desire is to achieve shared meanings, shared reso- lutions, shared emotion, not to pro- mote private images or dreams. The specific rites which comprise many feminist rituals reaffirm relationship, belonging and identity. Ritual acts maintain a symbolic center of which all the participants are aware. This center is a place to which one can return for support and comfort long after the ceremony has ended. A relational or ideological bond cemented formally through ritual procedure is nothing if not enduring.

Being capable of membership in a group and finding ways of expressing that membership and acting it out are necessary for the success of any polit- ical revolution. Let us not forget that less than ten years ago Lionel Tiger told us "women do not bond"' 8 and in so saying implied women are incapable of creating significant political institu- tions. It is already evident that women have effected widespread social change to enumerate the accomplish- ments to date would fill pages since the formal resumption of the feminist movement in Ritual participation will no doubt stimulate further and deeper political change for there is, in- deed, a continuum between ritual and everyday life for feminists.

The female bonds established in ritual lend in- centive to the female bonds that in- spire social change. The use of ritual is significant as a source for the re- newal of commitment to evolving and transforming society as a whole. Many feminists in fact consider the ritual setting and experience to serve as a visionary mode. In feminist rituals which utilize peyote, a good portion of the night-long ceremony is given over to envisioning the future of the self, the group and the world.

In authentic ritual experience something, an ability to break through the present, is avail- able which can lead to discovery and creativity. Ritual is a potent source of invention because the participants feel the extreme intensity, sometimes the ecstasy, of openness to possibility and revelation. This sense of extreme open- ness and creativity is rare for women who have been traditionally circum- scribed by severe limitation, con- strained by custom, with no hope for a changed future. Another important consideration is the way feminist ritual purposefully im- parts information of a special kind, information which has been unavail- able to women and actually suppressed for hundreds of years.

I refer specif- ically to the ritual communication of feminine images, primarily the commu- nication of images of the goddesses. The suppression of the goddess in our culture has meant the loss of images which identify personal and collective power in women. The odas spirit-being has power to protect the owner's health, in return for which she must be giv- en a dance and new clothes every spring. It is much more crucial for feminists, for all women, to uncover and recover their imagistic heritage as represented in the powers and tales of the goddesses and to create new im- ages which represent women's recent emergence as many women in the plastic and performing arts are now doing than it is to prove the absolute historical existence of a widespread matriarchy.

I have no doubt that some matriarchies did exist. The important consideration, however, is not the fact that women ruled over men but that they "ruled" themselves and that they had culturally approved or at least culturally active models for distin- guishing their powers from others. In many ancient civilizations the fem- inine world was not as "anomalous" as it currently is. Women had access to powerful images and used them to order and maintain their particular spheres of life. One of the most important shrines in the pre-Conquest Mayan world was located on Cozumel Island twenty miles off the coast of the Yucatan.

It was dedicated to IxChel, the pre- eminent goddess of the moon, water, childbirth, weaving and love, who was equal in status to the great father god, Itzamma. Her shrine was visited by women from all over the Mayan world, some traveling hundreds of miles from Guatemala and El Salvador. Inside the shrine a giant image of the goddess served as an oracle for these women pilgrims.

The statue was hollowed out in back; a priestess would stand in that pro- found cavity and impersonate the god- dess, become a speaking image of the goddess and in fact imagine herself the goddess. To imagine is to make an image or become an image; impersona- tion of this sort was an achievement of relation with the goddess and a means of absorbing her powers. Images are sources of identification; they tell us who we most profoundly, most arche- typally are.

The Mayan women who vis- ited the shrine at Cozumel were seek- ing affirmation of their own powers primarily the power to give birth, to be fruitful and they received it through the pilgrimage itself the association with peers , idol worship intense iden- tification with an image through the blessing bestowed by the personified goddess, the priestess.

Much the same identification is sought and achieved in feminist rituals. Ritual is a special vehicle of commu- nication for feminists; ritual speaks a visceral language of restoration of sym- bols and provides an opportunity to utilize them personally. Sherry Ortner says that "Efforts directed solely at changing the social institutions cannot have far-reaching effects if cultural language and imagery continue to pur- vey a relatively devalued view of wom- en.

Dark Metal (Dark Tales Series Book 13)

If, as Vogt maintains, "Ritual perpetuates knowledge essential to the survival of the culture," 20 women are just now learning how important it is to their survival to store and transmit fem- inine knowledge through ritual means. Much of the available data on wom- en's rituals reveal the prominence of one individual as instigator or leader of the ritual.

This is not always the case as many rituals are performed without a leader, including rituals which follow a format and are repeated the same way every time, rituals which rely on group spontaneity, group meditation or chanting, etc. Nevertheless, a number of women in the feminist community have emerged as ritualists, the counter- part to the shaman in traditional soci- eties.

Most women involved in intro- ducing ritual performance, however, do not call themselves shamans or think of themselves as such; they are most widely known simply as ritualists or practitioners or witches if they ad- here solely to the witchcraft tradition. The comparison between shamans and feminist ritualists is instructive only in demonstrating that their goals in per- formance are similar and, to a certain extent, their conception of self is anal- ogous. If the ultimate goal of ritual experi-. A procedure must be decided upon in traditional soci- eties, custom determines procedure and followed correctly to lead the par- ticipants from one state of feeling to another.

Both the shaman and feminist ritualist make preparations and later facilitate the group's progress in the actual ritual; both are capable of help- ing transformation to take place if the participants will trust them. I am stress- ing here the fact that both shaman and feminist ritualist express a powerful sense of capability, that they can serve as links, as surrogates, that they can connect different realms of reality and facilitate change by embodying change.

Both roles are played by individuals who have changed and are concerned with enabling the change of others. Eliade says of the shaman: She who is now cured of the tyranny of oppression offers that new sense of well- being to others. A traditional shaman may become a "professional transformer" practicing his art as oc- cupation whereas a feminist ritualist may rise to the occasion of transforma- tion only once in her lifetime although many ritualists practice somewhat reg- ularly.

Still, the necessity of their in- dividual acceptance of their power to change is crucial to the ultimate effect of the ritual. An obvious similarity between the traditional shaman and the feminist ritualist is that both do their work through performing singing, dancing, displaying, holding, hugging and, moreover, the performance is quite often geared to awakening and stim- ulating the participant's body.

For both 24 ritualist and shaman see the body, not the mind, as the locus of transforma- tion. The body is our first and last out- ward reality; it defines and conditions our life experience and gives us per- sonal identity and continuity. Both shaman and ritualist take the body to be the clearest, purest expression of self. And it is that aspect of self which mustfeel change before the intellectual or soul self can change. A chant I used in a ritual performance called Seeing the Voice expresses the bodily concerns of the transformer: My hands Open the curtains of your being Clothe you in a further nudity Uncover the bodies of your body My hands Inventanother body for yourbody " The body is also recognized by both, especially by the ritualist as the means for making conscious interconnections and unions that were unconscious or suppressed.

Ritual, through those who perform it, creates a new body, one body made of many, through which can be understood and realized the extremes of fear and love, the truly political dimensions of humanness. Finally, the relation between the shaman and his participant community and the parallel relation between the feminist ritualist and her participant community bears notation. Richard Schechner maintains that "the deep structure of shamanistic performance is a protagonist-antagonist conflict by means of which the secret wishes of the community are exposed and redis- tributed.

The Shaman is the vessel through which all that is powerful chooses to express itself. And these powers are inherent in community itself, are the community. The work of both the shaman and the ritualist is to make available, clarify and intensify powers that are the essence of community.