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Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Hardcover , pages. Published January 18th by University Press of Kentucky. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Apr 12, Amy rated it liked it Recommends it for: This book is just all right. I used it to get info about HBO for the Wire chapter and conclusion of my thesis and because it contains one of the, I think, two scholarly essays on The Wire of my thesis. It provides a pretty good history and some analysis the intro to the "Comedy" section by Amanda Lotz and Bambi Haggins is the best , but the chapters - which are each on one show - are so boring and uncritical. They read more like blog posts or reviews than actual scholarship.

I wouldn't call This book is just all right. Columbia University Press, University of Texas Press, The Science Fiction Film. Cambridge University Press, Tulloch, John, and Henry Jenkins. Watching Doctor Who and Star Trek. Edited by John Armitage. Telotte Before science fiction television SFTV could come into being, the medium itself had to be created both physically and imaginatively , find an audience, and establish its own identity.

This historical emergence corresponds most obviously to a series of key developments that made television both a technical possibility and a potential component of the domestic environment. For at its inception, television was seen not simply as one more new technology among the many others that were ushered in by the machine age, that period from the turn of the century to the beginning of World War II; it was, for many, something that seemed to have sprung forth from the pages of that newly popular genre—science fiction.

Before becoming a fixture in American homes and a purveyor of its own brand of science fiction, television was itself, quite simply, an icon of science fiction, and that character inevitably conditioned both its reception and that of the texts it offered audiences.

In fact, the popular perception of television was taking shape even while the technology itself was still largely a futuristic fantasy, a science fiction. For in this period we find the popular imagination already conceptualizing television in various roles— optimistically, as a kind of ultimate communication device, but also 37 J. Telotte more darkly, as a means of surveillance, a tool of deception, even a potentially deadly force. By looking at how television functions iconically in such movies—works like Metropolis , The Tunnel a.

This particular element of the larger vision machine was certainly very much in the headlines throughout the machine age, although television was hardly ready to take its eventual place as a competitor to the cinema, much less as a generator of its own influential science fiction texts. The mids saw the appearance of two primary television technologies: Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth demonstrated systems based on the cathode ray tube, and John Logie Baird exhibited his Televisor, a mechanical system based on rotating metal disks. Both systems made headlines in the late s and early s with a series of well-publicized firsts, mostly centered on the transmission of images over ever greater distances: The BBC had begun regular broadcasts early in the decade using the Baird equipment, and German, French, and American transmissions soon followed, although few sets were available in any of these countries to receive the broadcasts.

Despite its being ballyhooed in repeated newspaper reports, showcased in national magazines like Life, and explained in specialized journals like Modern Mechanics, Television Today, and Radio and Television,1 television remained more a cultural idea than a practical appliance.

Of course, today, many of these promises no longer seem quite as outlandish as they did then. Television has not only become ubiquitous but has come to exert an influence on our sense of space, particularly its very real potential for intrusiveness and surveillance, that has made it the subject of public debate and legislation, as well as the latest fashion in military acquisition as surveillance becomes the key component of deterrence. For better or worse, with its annexation by the everyday, television has surrendered its iconic science fictional status to become part of the common cultural landscape—and arguably the most popular purveyor of science fiction.

Film and now television have not just become our primary access to the world but insinuated themselves as the very world in which we live. Certainly, even within the science fiction context, television was not always depicted as extraordinary. In fact, it was, with some prescience, often viewed as a common appliance and thus just a part of the futuristic trappings for many of these narratives.

Just Imagine , for example, shows it used to monitor apartment doors, enabling those inside to quite literally screen visitors. In Just Imagine, The Tunnel, and Things to Come , among other films, the television is also mated to the telephone as a device for personal communication. Additionally, Things to Come shows the video screen, linked to a database of historical images, as a tool for instructing children.

And, perhaps most nearly anticipating contemporary use, all of the films cited above, as well as Men Must Fight and S. But such films typically present these rather commonplace applications as parts of a world still in the offing, a world that is finally not like our own, so even under domestic disguise, television remains an icon of distance, 3 another semantic element of science fiction narrative. The Tunnel, a film about technological efforts to conquer physical space, fittingly offers one of the more striking analyses of the effects built into this new medium that advertised itself as dissolving distance.

The device thus becomes an ironic measure of the great personal distances and strained relationships that his work is producing. In fact, television chronicles the gradual 41 J. Telotte In The Tunnel , the television measures out personal and emotional distance.

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Repeatedly, his wife sees these images that suggest romantic connections and assumes that the TV reports accurately measure changes in his emotional life. Another and perhaps more immediately unsettling version of that effect shows up in the more frequent depiction of television as a component in a panopticon culture. And his own failure to empathize with the workers, his own intellectual and emotional distance from them, is again ironically measured by his very intrusive surveillance. Telotte intimate spaces, of turning its voyeuristic potential back on the viewer, was certainly one of the most common concerns that clustered around this icon.

Although it is more murder mystery than science fiction film, the ominously titled Murder by Television amplifies the anxiety bound up in the introduction of this intrusive new technology. It will make of this earth a paradise we have always envisioned but never seen. In fact, all of the suspects are in various ways linked to efforts at obtaining the new invention for rival governments or concerns.

In fact, a similar conflation occurs in another film released in , The Invisible Ray. It opens with a planetarium-like show of our galaxy many thousands of years ago and of an asteroid striking Earth, bringing with it a special form of radium. The images are the work of the scientist Janos Rukh, who has captured a beam of light from Andromeda—which he describes as a natural broadcasting agent—and fed it into a radiumdriven television transmitter that breaks down the beam into a visual record of the past and projects it onto the ceiling of his laboratory.

After discovering a more powerful form of radium, the Radium X revealed by the light from Andromeda, Rukh harnesses it not to capture images or even to cure blindness, as his rival Dr. Benet does, but rather to emit 46 Lost in Space rays that destroy from a distance, much like the death ray described in Murder by Television.

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Although it is hardly a film about television—in fact, Rukh never names his various devices—The Invisible Ray clearly cobbled together its central technological attraction from the various conceptions that were constellating around television in this era, most notably its ability to send images across great distances here, interstellar distances , the popular sense that this new technology depended upon rather mysterious rays, and the suspicion that, like so many other new technologies, a great danger attached to it. In this instance, television has, in an unspecified near future, become part of the fabric of everyday life, supplanting radio as a primary conduit for national and international news.

Its protagonist, Jeff Shannon, is a former newspaper reporter who has become a star of the new medium. He photographs his own stuff, projects it, and describes it. As a voice announces that a tidal wave is approaching the Atlantic coast, we see broadcast scenes of a storm, of panic in the streets of New York and other cities, and of massive destruction—including the collapse of the Empire State Building.

Moreover, they hardly mask a string of dangers revealed here: Of course, like many other B films of the era, S. But coming as it does at the close of the machine age and linking the looming force of television to the sort of media manipulation recently experienced in the Welles broadcast, it helps us better see some of the cultural perceptions of this new technology, as well as its potential subject matter, that were already coming into focus.

Although that translation of private space into the public arena is presented as an accidental practical joke, it further underscores how television might itself become a cultural practical joker, potentially everywhere, as Miller suggests, always 49 J. In these machine age films, television clearly helps to constitute a rather different sort of world, a science fictional realm marked not so much by futuristic cities or rocket travel but by a new sense of space and by technologies that foreground that sense of space.

On a note of optimism, these films suggest the optical expansion of our personal world that television would usher in, and indeed one that was soon visualized in the spate of space operas that populated American television in the late s and s. More of our world and its people could be seen—whether they wished it or not—instantaneously. Yet these films locate a darker possibility as well, finding in that seeing an uncomfortable collapse of space. For even if the prying eye of television could not quite reach everywhere, as The Phantom Empire, Undersea Kingdom, The Invisible Ray, and other works that play fast and loose with the technological facts would suggest, it was certainly seen as compromising our most intimate spaces, as Peaches and Mabel in S.

It is an icon, then, that may help us not only to better gauge the levels of uncertainty and anxiety surrounding such technological developments but also to more accurately measure the extent to which the machine age, in its early fascination with televisual technologies, was already invested in that cinematized world that Virilio describes and that we now obviously inhabit.

Of course, it might well be argued that the film industry was simply casting into a negative light a potential competitor and that television as we have long known it—along with its suspicious brother the cinema— is already a bit out of date, on the verge of being absorbed into the digital world of multimedia and virtual reality. Indeed, recent developments have rendered many of the early cinematic visions of television irrelevant, making those video dreams no longer so outlandish, no longer science fictional, simply ordinary—at least with one key exception.

For that strange relation to space that we find in these early visions of television and the impact of that relation on our sense of self still evoke some50 Lost in Space thing of the authentic atmosphere of science fiction, an atmosphere that inheres in much early SFTV. Perhaps in these early visions of television we are seeing some symptoms of this malady, as space is beginning to slip from our control, to become not something we have technologically mastered but something that might master us.

That fantastic ability to see across oceans and continents, into outer space or through time, in fact, to position the prying eye anywhere our desires might wish,6 finally leaves the figures of these machine age films, not unlike audiences today, strangely unanchored, lost in space as we would see in one of the more popular SFTV series, Lost in Space [—] , and even threatened because of its correlative implications for our most intimate spaces. But for this reason these films still merit our attention as what Jones terms warnings, as they forecast our own science fictional fate as inhabitants of that fictitious topology Virilio describes, and as they point toward a fully realized SFTV that might be seen as another step in the relentless process of cinematization.

It is worth noting that Hugo Gernsback, one of the key figures of early science fiction, edited a variety of journals that took the new medium of television as their primary focus, including Radio and Television, Television, and Television News. Often described as a gadget story, the novel depicts the distant future of , an era largely transformed by the triumphs of science and technology, especially television.

My study A Distant Technology provides an extended discussion of the metaphor of distance across a wide range of machine age science fiction films. It is a trope that runs through the films of many nations in this era and speaks to that cultural reconfiguration of private and public space implicated in the new broadcast technologies. Caught in the quandary between doing his duty and exposing his family 51 J.

Telotte and friends to harm, Jeff winds up trying to avoid his problems by drinking them away in the aptly named Looneyville Bar. This comment gains resonance from the fact that S. The notion that the eye of television can see anywhere, without the aid of a camera, is rather common in films of this era. As The Invisible Ray exaggeratedly suggests, some believed that television was essentially a device for focusing rays of light from remote locations.

Works Cited Boddy, William.

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New Media and Popular Imagination: Past Visions of the American Future. Johns Hopkins University Press, The Lost World of the Fair. A Case of War Neurosis. Science Fiction Film and the Machine Age. Creating an American Television Culture. Technology, Literature, Culture in Modernist America. University of North Carolina Press, Translated by Julie Rose. Indiana University Press, The Logistics of Perception.

Translated by Patrick Camiller. But the process of adapting the literature to television did not always go quite as authors expected. Consider, for instance, the case of Tom Corbett, Space Cadet. A wildly popular series aimed at a juvenile audience, Tom Corbett seemed to have everything a science fiction fan could want: But Heinlein himself was less than thrilled with the show: Did you read them?

The Early Years As participants in a literary genre that emerged with the first television broadcasts, science fiction authors have always been interested in the scientific and social implications of TV. In Hugo Gernsback ushered science fiction into the modern era with the publication of Amazing Stories: The Magazine of Scientifiction. Not surprisingly, authors quickly realized that they could endear themselves to Gernsback by writing about television. For example, in Clare Winger Harris took third prize in an Amazing Stories contest for a story that revolved around visual broadcast technologies, thereby launching both a close friendship with Gernsback and a career that spanned two decades Donawerth When television became a staple of the average American home in the late s and early s, audiences found that they had three 56 Shadows on the Cathode Ray Tube types of science fiction shows to choose from—and that science fiction authors were heavily involved with all of them.

Clarke adapted their own, previously published work for adult-oriented science fiction anthology series including Out There — , Tales of Tomorrow — , and Science Fiction Theatre — In direct contrast to the juvenile series, these early science fiction anthology shows were celebrated by critics and science fiction authors for the faithfulness of their adaptations and the precision of their science.

However, the same qualities that ensured these anthologies would appeal to print science fiction fans also limited their audiences, as many prime-time spectators found them too dry. But the third trend in early SFTV—the production of stand-alone science fiction stories for mixed-genre drama anthologies—seemed just right to audiences and critics alike. The success of these shows may be attributed to the fact that the producers of drama anthologies including Westinghouse Studio One, Playhouse 90, and The Motorola Television Hour consistently chose to adapt previously published stories by authors, such as Ray Bradbury and Judith Merril, who had developed solid reputations both inside and outside the science fiction community.

In this brave new world, even the most familiar aspects of suburban life suddenly become strange: Thus Shadow on the Hearth fulfills one of the primary dictates of golden age science fiction as it was articulated by Astounding editor John W. Keith Booker notes that early SFTV often failed to interest audiences because small budgets prevented screenwriters and directors from creating convincing science fictional sets and special effects 5. Shadow on the Hearth, however, takes place primarily in a suburban home, and by the mids set designers were experts at creating low-cost domestic interiors for sitcoms and dramas alike.

The choice is an effective one, as it allows Nelson to illustrate the terrifying power of nuclear weapons rather than devoting extended screen time to belabored and less viscerally powerful descriptions of them. A nice, normal family? As oatmeal and apple pie! In subsequent scenes, Nelson uses a more jarring directorial style to convey the chaos of nuclear war. He devotes the most screen time to Gladys, using close-up shots to convey her confusion and terror and long shots to emphasize her physical isolation in the home.

Gladys rarely takes center stage in the long shots; instead, Nelson positions her at either the far left or far right of the frame. Furthermore, whereas Nelson sets the opening breakfast scene to a lighthearted musical score reminiscent of those written for family sitcoms, post-bomb scenes unfold to either the sound of screaming sirens or deathly silence. This departure reflects the different demands of writing for print and writing for television. Merril was a self-proclaimed leftist, feminist, and antiwar activist who chose a career in print science fiction because it seemed to be one of the few venues where progressive authors could freely express dissent from the cold war status quo.

Indeed, she recalls writing this novel for just that purpose: Merril most clearly illustrates the danger of atomic age technocultural order with the character of local civil defense leader Jim Turner. Turner is a petty tyrant who uses his newfound power to abandon his family, tyrannize the men under his leadership, and extract sexual favors from the neighborhood women.

When Gladys resists and offers to take evacuees into her own home instead, Turner vengefully denies her request: Gladys is aided by another stock science fiction protagonist: Garson Levy is a nuclear physicist turned math teacher under surveillance by the U. At first Levy seems astoundingly ordinary: In return, the scientist helps Gladys fix her gas leak, defend her home from marauders, and secure medical attention for her daughters.

In the end, however, all this heroism seems to be for naught. If she depicted a postholocaust future where scientists could solve all the problems associated with nuclear war, then there would be no reason to protest that kind of war in the first place. But by demonstrating that even the heroic efforts of such women and men might not be enough to guarantee survival in a postnuclear future, she makes a strong case for peace activism in the present. Each broadcast includes information about the progress of the war and the actions that civil defense units have taken to secure America.

Thus CONELRAD takes the place at the center of the family previously occupied by Jon Mitchell, suggesting that although nuclear war might split the family apart, civil defense will knit it back together again. One answer lies in the historical evolution of broadcast technologies. During the war, however, government officials worked closely with radio producers to create programs to boost home front morale.

TV executives were quick to create partisan programming in part because they feared persecution by the House Committee on Un-American Activities, but also because they truly believed that television would enhance democracy. This was a particularly useful state of affairs for the Office of Civil Defense, which defined civil defense as a public service and could therefore encourage broadcast executives to produce high-quality propaganda at low cost Stocke 46— In many cases, this was a mutually profitable situation. This Turner is no ignorant despot but a conscientious, well-trained official who takes his work seriously.

Much like the radio in earlier scenes, then, Turner represents both the benevolence of civil defense and its centrality to the nuclear family in the nuclear age. He spends much of his time hiding off screen because he believes that Turner wants to arrest him for his antiwar activities. In the end, viewers learn that Turner is looking for Lee because the government desperately needs his expertise. Thus Lee turns out to be something of a self-involved fool, and the message is made clear: This tendency in visual science fiction goes a long way to explaining what happened when The Motorola Television Hour adapted Shadow on the Hearth for television.

The shift in emphasis from the scientist-hero to his action-adventure counterpart also makes sense in terms of the economic forces brought to bear on much visual science fiction. In the case of early SFTV producers, this frequently meant borrowing from the familiar action-oriented Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers film serials of the s. In direct contrast to her print counterpart, the televised Gladys finds herself repelled by Lee and almost ridiculously attracted to Turner. Vital facts for civilians, effects of radiation, community organization—you think of everything!

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Lee is suspect because he demands that Gladys think for herself. Turner, however, knows how to treat a lady in distress—just offer her clearly defined guidelines for action, thereby alleviating the need for thought. We will oftentimes do things for others that we would never dream of doing for ourselves. Instead, they focus on the social and moral dramas engendered by these conditions.

The Essential Science Fiction Television Reader (Essential Readers in Contemporary Media)

As such, they both preserve the golden age dictate to put a human face on science and technology and modify it in ways that have historically guaranteed the largest broadest television viewing audience possible. Similar patterns inform the stand-alone, made-for-TV movies that eventually replaced cold war mixed-genre drama anthologies. Finally, while government-sponsored science fiction programming all but vanished after , the tendency to celebrate swashbuckling heroes engaged in militaristic derring-do is still very much a part of SFTV.

This is particularly evident in action-adventure SFTV series. More recently, the producers of The Secret Adventures of Jules Verne , a twenty-two-episode show built around the clever premise that science fiction godfather Jules Verne actually experienced everything he wrote about, updated this formula to imagine Verne as part of a governmentendorsed group sworn to do battle with the League of Darkness, an international terrorist organization. Written by David Davidson. Directed by Ralph Nelson. Grumbles from the Grave. Television and the Red Menace: The Video Road to Vietnam.

Shadow on the Hearth. Merril, Judith, and Emily Pohl-Weary. Better to Have Loved: The Life of Judith Merril. Between the Lines, Make Room for TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America. University of Chicago Press, Scott and Christopher D. University Press of America, The Mechanics of Wonder: The Creation of the Idea of Science Fiction. Liverpool University Press, One place they looked was movies.

Considering the variety of demographics, the networks early on opted to air inexpensive science fiction programs, such as Captain Video and His Video Rangers — and Tom Corbett, Space Cadet — , aimed largely at juvenile audiences, knowing that parents often watched with their children. Although these shows were primarily Earthbound and had minimal special effects budgets visual effects were often performed in-camera , it was quickly demonstrated that there was a large audience for these shows, with Captain Video attracting as many 3.

By the early s, though, with a thirst for diverse programming, networks were willing to gamble on science fiction shows. Who is chosen often determines the success or failure of a series. Of the twenty science fiction television SFTV shows that have been adapted from films, nine ran for one season or less Beyond Westworld holds the record for the shortest run, with only three shows broadcast , and four lasted just two seasons.

What follows is an examination of how producers, narrative patterns, visual effects, demographics, and financing impacted three adaptation series: A key difference between Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea and most other adaptation efforts is that this series had continuity and a controlling creative presence in Irwin Allen.

Like the Emmy Award—winning producer-writer David E. Prior to making the film Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Allen had worked in magazines, radio, and advertising and had then turned his attention to documentary films. During World War II, real-life disasters replaced those on the screen, but after the war, science fiction films focused on new forms of disaster: Whereas many of these filmmakers looked to the skies, Allen looked to the seas.

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Nelson and Commodore Lucius Emery Peter Lorre believe that firing an atomic missile into the belt at a precise spot and moment will end the catastrophe, but scientists and members of the United Nations disagree and try to stop him. As Nelson attempts to carry out his plan, the Seaview loses its communication system; encounters a minefield, a hostile UN submarine, and a giant squid; overcomes a mutiny, a religious fanatic, and a saboteur; yet manages to launch the missile, extinguish the flames, and save the world.

Allen, however, was less interested in whether his audiences found his science fiction shows thought provoking or attuned to political or ecological issues than he was in entertainment, broadly construed. Fancying himself a showman in the mold of Cecil B. DeMille, Allen sought to offer entertainment with simple plots of good versus evil, easily identifiable characters, well-known supporting character actors, lots of action and spectacle, and innovative effects and gadgetry, but with modest production costs. Allen was able to flourish and survive in this environment by reusing sets, plots, and stock film footage, in the process bringing something of a cinematic look to his series on the small box.

On the way the submarine encounters a shark, a giant octopus, and an enemy agent. How much a show costs is obviously a determining factor in greenlighting any television series, but budget is especially important in adapting science fiction films, given all that is typically needed to create visual spectacles. Special effects take time and money to create, and most series try to shoot one episode a week.

Noting the relative paucity of SFTV in the late s despite the obvious cultural interest in space, Oscar Godbout explained that well-done visual effects simply cost too much and took too much time to complete. In a diving bell accident, Jason, Carol, Nelson, and Captain Crane find themselves swept up in a current and deposited in the Mesozoic jungle they were seeking, and there find giant lizards and spear-carrying natives who sacrifice humans to a fire god. Aided by 73 Gerald Duchovnay a native girl, they free another scientist who is being held captive and eventually escape to an iceberg, where the Seaview rescues them just before the hidden world is destroyed.

In fact, some viewers wrote in to TV Guide to complain about the thefts Abbott He asked me to write a story around it. This approach worked for most of his TV audience and allowed Allen to spend his budget in other areas, thus making a series like Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea consistently look like a more expensive production than it was. When the Seaview finds the saucer, McGraw orders it to fire torpedoes at the ship, but Nelson hesitates, thinking the saucer may be trying to communicate with them.

Subsequently, Nelson is taken aboard the spaceship, where he encounters an alien who appears to be his double it notes that its real appearance would offend humans and who explains that the alien craft, while studying Earth, has suffered a ruptured fuel line. Throughout, Tobin urges action, and military jets bomb the spaceship.

Working as peacemaker, Nelson helps the aliens to refuel their saucer, which escapes Earth just in time to avoid another attack.


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These images would, in turn, become a new stock element, eventually resurfacing in subsequent shows. Although Allen, who coscripted the original film with Charles Bennett, did some of the writing including the story and pilot , he hired many of the same writers for his shows. Basehart had extensive experience in the theater and international cinema.

As the series progressed, he wished for more demanding scripts and periodically tired of not being able to explore more facets of his character. Still, he understood the challenge of his role: Drawing on these assets, the series attracted a large enough audience to stay afloat for four years, a relatively long run for a science fiction show in a time when even the more challenging and thought-provoking Star Trek would last but three — By the end of the second season, Allen had become fully engaged with a new series, Lost in Space, and was already preparing a third, Time Tunnel.

As a result, he provided less attention and money to Voyage, the plots saw more and more monsters, and the creative energy seemed to disappear. The series began a slow slide downward, and by season four, some of the narratives practically seemed parodies of earlier shows. Paley did not like the idea [Phillips and Garcia ]. After Roddy McDowall agreed to reprise his role, success seemed assured. One element that was missing was the continuity provided by a creative force like Irwin Allen.

Although Arthur Jacobs, producer of all the Planet of the Apes movies, had been working on a television series since , he died of a heart attack in , just as the series was taking shape, and that loss proved substantial. Sundance both , took over as producer. This group worked with the executive producer, Herb Hirschman, to mold stories that, like the film, were intended to comment on contemporary society. About the violent side of human nature. About the horrors of the police state. Much like the Earth they left, the ape civilization is marked by specific class distinctions, each embodied in an individual figure.

Urko, for example, represents the military class, and Zaius the ruling class. Another ape, Galen Roddy McDowall , befriends Virdon and Burke, helps them escape incarceration and certain death, and joins them as a fugitive and companion in adventure. However, in subsequent weeks the ratings noticeably dipped.

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Although it was considered the second-most-popular show among two- to eleven-year-olds, that audience was not the demographic The principals in the failed Planet of the Apes series: The reasons for that shortfall were difficult to discern. Written by Robert Hammer, the episode opens with Galen, Burke, and Virdon coming upon a ruined city where they encounter other humans, although no one will talk to them. When spotted by an ape patrol, they flee in different directions, but Virdon is captured, along with a native woman, Arne, and a young boy, Kraik Jackie Earle Haley , and all are imprisoned.

In prison Virdon becomes a source of wisdom for the boy, instructing him in the general rules he should live by: Leaving Arne and Kraik safe at a nearby farm, Virdon, Galen, and Burke set out on the road once again. What the episode offered audiences was a small morality play, one in which a boy begins to bond with adults, learns something of family life, and discovers the power—and danger—of knowledge.


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  8. Supporting these lessons, Arne and Virdon discuss their past lives and the family ties that can never be reestablished although Arne is always looking longingly at Virdon. The acting was also problematic. Perhaps most important of all, there was little in the way of technology apart from the holographic device, which looked like a vending machine or thoughtful ideas that would appeal to science fiction enthusiasts, and after the pilot episode, the funding for visual effects was negligible. Obviously, a number of hurdles are involved in putting on any television series, but especially one drawn from a strong and coherent prior text like Planet of the Apes.

    Editorial policies and production models ot Italian TV fiction. The essential HBO reader pp. University Press of Kentucky. Modeling perceived influences on journalism: Evidence from a cross-national survey of journalists. Processing fads and fashions: An organization-set analysis of cultural industry systems. The American Journal of Sociology , 77 4 , — Inside the writers' room: Conversations with American TV writers: