I have looked for instance at what they were writing about, and it was Goethe. The only twentieth-century writer that began to show up was Thomas Mann. He was the second Goethe. With the generation of the refugees who had served in the American army who came back and who started their studies after the war. I think there is a marked difference of more self-confidence to face the past and the tradition in a different way. Of course for me the reason to look at it was that Germanistik, except for Thomas Mann, never looked at the exiled writers who lived in America during the time that they were here.
Except for one little series that Harold von Hofe 8 wrote, nobody ever bothered to contact them — Klarmann was another exception, naturally — let alone write about them while they were here and while they could be contacted and while they could be interviewed. This came much later. And I think this sort of abstention from the present is a remarkable fact, as is the coming together of the exiles and the successor generation from Germany, ours, in starting to confront the past and the present and wanting to deal with it.
I would like to pick up on something the previous speaker said, and also on something Dorrit Cohn said. They were radically alienated by the student movement in the s, and the feeling was definitely mutual. I think this is something that should also be addressed in the context. I would like to offer a comment to what Wulf Koepke just said about the position of Thomas Mann in 50 1: I think it needs to be pointed out that the role he assigned to Thomas Mann in the thirties was actually occupied by Gerhart Hauptmann, not by Thomas Mann.
That came much later. It also needs to be pointed out that Thomas Mann was invited by almost every college and university in this country except my own, alas! It was always the Comparative Literature department, or the English department or some other department, rarely the German department. For good reasons, if you go into the personnel constellations in each of those departments. One more quick comment to what Peter Demetz said earlier. There are many other cases where it is unhelpful.
I would like to first of all pick up something that Frank Trommler pointed out very well, and I would like to expatiate a little bit on that love of literature. All these people were displaced writers. This is very, very important. They were creative writers. And because they were creative writers, they were readers of literature, but in a special way. Not like the German scholars of the older school who read literature as scientists, but they read literature identifying with it and so they became excellent teachers, because teachers have to be hams. And the ham is an actor.
And as an actor interprets literature, he is the first critic: So they were artist teachers and artist scholars. I think this did not come out sufficiently. In placing this generation of And I think that differentiates them both from their predecessors, the Germanisten of the old school, but also from their successors, the sociology-minded, textual-minded, very serious scholars. They were not as serious. They were very multi-faceted. And one more thing, something Hans Vaget brought up, about Thomas Mann being taught.
That was a breath of fresh air.
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That was just wonderful. Because before that of course Thomas Mann was never mentioned by the other teachers. Regina Weber at that time struck me as somewhat incredulous: There are several things that were mentioned today that remind me of him. First of all what Professor Sokel just referred to, his creative writing. But certainly what we all know him for, the brilliance of his writing and his essays might also be just a transmutation of his creative skills. Second, what Professor Cohn mentioned, the fact, and here I probably dis- 52 1: I am going through old notes that I took on his seminar on young Goethe, and there were no references made to the politics of those times, let alone to the politics of his time.
When in private conversation one attempted to hear details, let us say of his exile in Switzerland, which is something that I think I know something about myself, my mother having been a refugee in Switzerland — those were conversations that he ducked. I think German literature also stopped for him with Thomas Mann. I do not say that critically, because he had that passion, that love of literature, which he transmitted to us, and he is responsible for having made us discover the love of words like no one else I could think of. Finally, what Professor Demetz said, or phrased in terms of a question: He did not deny it — it was clear who he was — but I do not think that in significant ways this affected his manner of teaching.
Not being an official respondent, I was wondering if I could ask a question. It is actually directed to Professor Seeba and it picks up on what Professor Cohn and the last speaker also mentioned. It seems to me that there is a way in which they do point to something privileged and special about Bildlichkeit, about literature. I have a hard time seeing them as harbingers or precursors of a kind of wider social perspective, and I was just wondering if you might want to elaborate a little bit on that tension.
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And even Politzer in his Grillparzer study would always — as far as I read his book and as I know it from his talks, from his classes, and from many conversations — would always see the author not only as the anonymous [sic] also of a text, but as a living person in a socialhistorical-cultural context. But he would not engage political interpretation, you are correct there, and I think all those who have expressed this are very correct in saying that this generation cannot be seen, possibly with the exception of Egon Schwarz, as politically leftleaning, as supporters of causes which were closer to our hearts in the late sixties.
But what I was trying to say was that this generation anticipated many of the positions which have become theoretical positions now. Which have become conceptualized as theoretical positions, but which were never formulated as theoretical positions. Jeff Peck pointed out that positionality is something that is now possibly differently interpreted than it was by these Jewish critics at the time, but nevertheless I would say that we could use the term positionality for understanding the extent to which they have brought in personal experience, at least implicitly, into their dealings with literature.
And that is something I would miss even now when we have more theoretical discussions of positionality, that in dealing with German literature and German culture, Austrian literature, Austrian culture, today we miss the involvement of personalities who have been very much formed and been informed by their experience and it was certainly our understanding and our knowledge of the extent to which they were really framed, or by which they were guided, to the extent to which they were guided by this experience of the critical situation, of a critical life, of a crisis in life and I think that helped at least me personally very much to find a totally new approach to literature, not as a merely objective field, as I had learned to study in literary scholarship, Literaturwissenschaft, as I was trained in Germany.
I would like to refer to Dr. I am German, and I am at the moment a student at Hebrew College. I grew up in Germany after the war and I was 54 1: The students admired him and we thought his lectures were great, and I personally had to make a few attempts for getting grants. Can you bring some of his poetry? It might be an interesting question: I just want to take issue with the political. There are two things, very briefly.
I do think we have a disagreement here in general, not just between Herrn Seeba and myself, but I think that the voices here have voiced some kind of questioning, friendly questioning, very friendly questioning of this excellent talk: I know that personally from conversations with them, from my contacts with them, and from their works. They were really the old tradition of Austrian patriotism, not Seidlin of course, but Heller and Politzer; they were Kakanian patriots.
So I would say that we have to distinguish between the generation of , and the generation of Egon Schwarz of , and Guy Stern who also belongs to this generation. They were of course left leaning, progressive, and very different and sociologically oriented, and it was an anathema for Heinz Politzer, but particularly for Erich Heller and Oskar Seidlin to bring in sociological considerations.
I remember how Oskar Seidlin responded to an article of mine, 9 which I had written for his Festschrift. I have two comments. I think that it is clear that the Jewish Germanists came to this country with their own likes and dislikes, their literary taste. Heinz Politzer by the way was interested in a different kind of Kakania.
He taught a course at Cornell in and which began with Ein Bruderzwist in Habsburg and ended with Die letzten Tage der Menschheit, so with another kind of Kakania. But I think that many Germanists who came to this country from Germany considered certain German-Jewish writers beyond the pale, and I think this has influenced the writing of literary history up until this day.
With a tribute to Alexander R. U of Wisconsin P, , — Saur, , — Rowohlt, , — University of Pennsylvania, He spent most of his career at the University of Pennsylvania and was best known for his work on Franz Werfel. For a list of publications see Views and Reviews of Modern Literature: Festschrift for Adolf D. He took his degree in German from Strassburg in then emigrated to the United States in the same year. As of he was at the University of Pennsylvania until his retirement in He was also known as a Werfel scholar. For a list of his writings see Mit Goethe: Das Motiv erscheint auf den ersten Blick lauter: Die Nationalsozialisten stehen vor ihren Augen und wie sie viele Deutsche erst zu Juden gemacht haben.
Sie unterscheidet zwischen den Diskursen und den Menschen. Von Juden kann man demzufolge nur spre- 60 2: Ich bevorzuge daher eine dialektische Vorstellung: Ich spreche hier von kulturellen Werten und der Kultur im allgemeinen. In den Epochen, von denen ich hier spreche, steht einem philologischen Ansatz im engeren Sinn den Editionen, biographischen Detailstudien etc.
Daraus entwickelte sich dann auch die Gei4 stesgeschichte zwischen und Ludwig Geiger, auf den ich mich nun konzentriere, schrieb der deutschen Kultur universalisierende Kraft zu: Die Kultur sieht Geiger auch in der Wissenschaft am Werk und kann daher keine rechte Dialektik von Kulturwerten und Wissenschaft entwickeln. Zumindest hinsichtlich seines Programms. Geiger rechnet sie generell der universalisierenden Kultur zu, doch bevorzugt er — darin besteht ei- 62 2: Mit Goethe tat er sich schwer.
Du hast sie in dieser Form nur kennen, we11 nigstens als berechtigt ehren gelernt. Juden unterschieden sich nicht von den Deutschen, sondern von den Christen. Eine der Fragen lautete: Er verliert die Instanz, die das 64 2: Das philologische Dreieck Trennen! Denn die Werte regeln nicht automatisch auch die Forschung. Doch im Seminar sieht es gern anders aus, wilder. Die Institution schafft einen Innenraum, den bestimmte Wissenschaften nutzen. Spezialisierung gibt es nur an der Peripherie, die sich auf die Hierarchie beziehen oder geographisch gemeint sein kann.
Ist Spezialisierung der Quell von institutionellem Erfolg? Im negativen Abdruck von Nietzsches Kritik liest sich das so: Im Zeitalter des Historismus gilt es vor allem, das heterogene Wissen zu meistern: Man tut so, als wolle man lieber einen Grafen als einen Juden, und Roethe nimmt — weil es einen zweiten Schmidt nicht gebe — selbst das Amt auf sich.
Gustav Roethe schrieb an Wolfgang von Oettingen am 7. Geigers Verhaltensmaxime lautet, stets auf die spezifische Situation und auf die einzelne Sache bezogen zu antworten. Sie entspringt dem diszipliniert-defensiven Habitus des Trennens, der einem auch in der Rezension von Hehns antisemitischem Buch begegnet. Als Jude bin ich 38 Partei, als Literarhistoriker bin ich parteilos. Doch der Gegenstand selbst leistet dem nicht Folge. Die Historia von D. Doch Goethe hatte — wie wir wissen — anderes im Sinn als Lessing. Diese Freiheit verdankt er der spekulativen Konstruktion seiner Naturphilosophie.
Denn alles zu wissen verhindert die Form. Die Entscheidung erzeugt die unterscheidbaren Gestalten. Daher ist die Geschichte Goethes Gegner: Um die Welt zu gestalten, unterstellt er die Traditionen aus dieser Welt seiner naturphilosophischen Konstruktion, die auch den Faust, Zweiter Teil bestimmt: Das hat Geiger nicht wahr haben wollen und liebt in Goethe seinen Lessing. Denn die Kultur ist zu schwach, um sich gegen ihren eigenen Antisemitismus zu wehren.
Gedanken sind universal, doch wenn aus ihnen literarische Werke geschaffen werden, kehrt das Leben mit seinen Vorurteilen wieder ein. Sie sind zu schwach, sich dagegen zu wehren. Heteronome kulturelle Werte, die in die Texte aufgenommen werden, behalten viel von ihrem alten Sinn. Geigers Haltung in den Berliner Vorlesungen ist ebenso verzweifelt wie trotzig. Camden House, , 65— Suhrkamp, , Germanistische Literaturwissenschaft vor und nach , hrsg. Metzler, , — Presses universitaires du Septentrion, Mit einem Bildnis Berlin: Reimer, , — Ludwig Geiger, Geschichte der Juden in Berlin: Ludwig Geigers Erinnerung an die zweite Rabbinerversammlung in Frankfurt am Mohr, , Geiger, Die Deutsche Literatur und die Juden, Enterprises, , 55— Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte bis Fischer, , 44— Ludwig Geiger hat mich besucht, u.
Die Entwicklung der Germanistik bei Wilhelm Scherer. Lang, , — Emanzipation und Akkulturation —, Bd. Beck, , Ein deutsch-israelisches Symposion, hrsg. Suhrkamp, , — Winfried Menninghaus und Klaus R. Julius Bab, Goethe und die Juden Berlin: Personen, Sachen, Begriffe A-K, hrsg. Doch das Leben Goethes ist ebenso exoterisch wie eine kulturgeschichtliche Idee.
Mai , in Briefe der Jahre —, Bd. Beck, , Nr. Friedmar Apel Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker-Verlag, , — Unter dem Stichwort Ludwig Geiger las ich folgendes: Diese schlug sich eindeutig auch in ihren wissenschaftlichen Interessen, in ihrem literarischen Kanon nieder. Die endlich aufleuchtende Sonne deutscher Herrlichkeit blendet fast zu sehr. Das deutsche Volk verliert den zweideutigen Titel der Dichter und Denker.
Dieses erstreckte sich von Themen Amir Eshel: Jahrhunderts bis hin zur Geschichte der Juden in Berlin Zwischen Lernen und Verlernen, auf der Suche nach einem nie ganz erreichbaren Fixpunkt der inneren Geographie: Es scheint mehr bestimmt stolpernd zu ma13 chen, als begangen zu werden. Am Oved Publishers, , —, hier Briefe von und an Michael Bernays Berlin: Ehlermann, , —80, hier Writings on Jewish Heritage and Renaissance, vol. Am Oved Publishers, , —42, hier — Mai , Peter Szondi: Suhrkamp, , — Februar , Peter Szondi: Fischer Verlag, , Sein Vorschlag dazu ist eine kritische Fachgeschichte, die die vom Philologen getroffene Wahl des Gegenstandes als Wertung versteht.
Dazu eine generelle Anmerkung: Sie werden demontiert und neu formuliert, und erst dann folgen Antworten und Stellungnahmen. Auch hier haben die meisten die ihnen vorgelegten Fragen zuerst einmal kritisiert und umformuliert, bevor sie sie beantworteten. Die Reaktionen gingen wieder in die gleiche Richtung: Es gibt einen Brief an Karl Wolfskehl, in dem Berend schrieb: Bei Goethe ist das nicht so. Anders als Geiger wollte er ihn aber nicht interpretieren, sondern in der Edition seiner Schriften selbst sprechen lassen.
Er scheint ihn regelrecht zu vermeiden. Noch ein Wort zur Rolle der Editionsphilologie. Berend hatte unmittelbar nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg drei Versuche unternommen, sich zu habilitieren, und ist dreimal abgewiesen worden. Berend hatte bereits in den Jahren nach den Plan einer historischen Gesamtausgabe entworfen und sich damit an Roethe gewandt, der vermitteln sollte. Gegen diesen bayerischen Nationalismus trat Roethe an. Eine letzte Bemerkung zur Rolle des bayerischen Partikularismus.
Das war die Literatur von Frauen. Alle anderen wurden bis ins zwanzigste Jahrhundert meistens nur von Doktorandinnen bearbeitet. Die beiden Dinge zusammen: Ich spreche nicht als Jude, sondern als Literaturhistoriker. Als Jude bin ich 10 Partei, als Literaturhistoriker bin ich parteilos. Talking about identity politics it became again clear through this talk, how important positionality is. I would like to join Mr. Of course it is a justified reaction to a universalism that was not universal. We have to get back to the nineteenth century in many ways and to the Enlightenment and to a real public sphere, where identity politics will no longer be necessary.
Die Nazis sind undeutsch. I am the one who is German. Over the years he slowly had to acknowledge his marginality in this culture. Geiger was for a time associated with this project. Max Koch was also Jewish, but a very ardent nation12 alist. He underwent some of the same tensions that have been discussed here. The battle between nationalism and cosmopolitanism was fought out to some extent in turn-of-the-century Germany over the field of Comparative Literature, which never really got very far in spite of these early efforts of Max Koch, which were somewhat misguided.
I think the classic text here is the review by Benedetto Croce in La 94 2: But there were other forces also at work. There were Jewish comparatists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Incidentally the allusion to Peter Szondi is I think quite apt here too, because Szondi thought of himself essentially not as a Germanist, but as a comparatist and did very important work in the study of Comparative Literature. But in Germany the field had hard going in a large part, because of the pressures of cultural nationalism when someone had the temerity to ask for a chair in Comparative Literature at the turn of the century.
Well, we need more chairs for Germanistik, how could we afford such a luxury? And this is the story, it seems to me in large part, until shortly after the Second World War when the situation had radically changed. But there was obviously an opportunity missed here. I think the fact that Jewish scholars were drawn toward comparative study — and this has been the case in the United States since the Second World War also to some extent — I think that the awareness of the incentive of a cosmopolitan approach to literature was certainly not limited to Jewish scholars but seized on by them.
It may be that their Jewishness rendered them somewhat more disposed to do so. Nur eine kurze Anmerkung zu dem Kanon. Erzberger, Friedrich Naumann, Prof. Ludwig Geiger, Hermann Bahr, Prof. Dezember Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach. Seine Briefe und Dichtungen von —, 3 Theile, hrsg.
Nomos, , vor allem 46— Maurersche Buchhandlung, und , Stuttgart: Cotta, und Leben und Briefe einer deutschen Frau Stuttgart: Ehlermann, , —, hier Breslau was one of the few German universities in which it was possible for a Jew to hold this post. Syndikat, , — A Tradition in Ruins Disclaimer: Soweit wir wissen, waren die Frauen nicht miteinander bekannt. Sie bewegten sich in unvereinbaren politischen und theoretischen Welten und kannten die Arbeiten der anderen wahrscheinlich nicht.
Das beginnt bereits bei einem gemeinsamen Interesse, das die Autorinnen noch in Deutschland entwickelten: Rahel Levin Varnhagen und Rosa Lux2 emburg. In ihre Leben griff die Geschichte mit einer Gewalt ein, der sich keine entziehen konnte. Es wird im folgenden also um Texte gehen, die nicht im Kontext der Wissenschaft als Beruf, sondern dem eines kritischen Denken als Berufung entstanden sind.
November an Carl Friedrich von Reinhard. Goethe und Charlotte von Stein von als Motto voranstellt. Aus der Pandora zitiert sie Prometheus, der sagt: Was aber nehmen die Autorinnen mit aus Deutschland und was zieht in den Jahren nach der Flucht ihre Aufmerksamkeit auf sich? Ebenso wie Bertha Badt-Strauss sah sie nun einen wesentlichen Teil ihrer Arbeit darin, deutschsprachige Schriftsteller an die Sprache ihres neuen Landes zu vermitteln. Beide begannen sehr schnell, auf Englisch zu publizieren. Mitgeschleppt werden all die unsichtbaren Lasten, die man nicht loswird. Und gleichzeitig liegt darin eine Chance.
Dies war einfacher als die Sprache zu wechseln, und gleichzeitig war es viel schwieriger: Geburtstag von Margarete Susman an diese schrieb: Er versteht sie nur als Interpretin seiner eigenen Arbeit, nicht als Theoretikerin eigenen Rechts. Hiob oder Die Vier Spiegel.
Juni entschieden aus: Haben Sie herzlichen Dank. Seit vielen Jahren litt sie an Multipler Sklerose und 28 konnte sich eine solche Arbeit sicher nicht mehr zutrauen. Ein kurzer Aufsatz im Aufbau ist es, der den Kontext ihrer sonstigen Publikationen umso nachhaltiger sprengt. Und der Heilige, 29 gelobt sei ER, befreite uns aus ihrer Hand.
Aber daneben stellt sich doch sofort die Frage: Hatten denn nicht wir, die deutschen Juden, an diesem Geist, diesem Wesen teil? Haben wir nicht in jenem Lande mitgelebt, seine Schicksale mitgetragen, seine Gedanken mitgedacht? Sprechen wir nicht seine Sprache? Haben wir nicht alles, was wir wissen und selber sind, in deutscher Sprache empfangen? Nannten wir uns nicht und waren wir nicht Deutsche? Wir mussten uns selbst zerreissen, um nicht mehr Deutsche zu sein, und wir haben 31 es getan.
Hannah Arendt hat also in der Adressierung ihres Buches an ihre verlorene Heimat einen anderen Akzent gesetzt als in dem Buch, das ihren Namen als Autorin in der neuen Welt etablierte. Denn diese impliziert eine scharfe Trennung theoretischer und litera- Barbara Hahn: Die Deutung einer grossen Liebe: Doch wer liebt wen?
Sie verbrannte ihre Briefe an Goethe am Ende ihres Lebens, und daher ist sie so stumm wie die Frau im kulturtheoretischen Modell Europas, das Mar36 garete Susman in den 20er Jahren entworfen hatte. Susman arbeitet mit verschobenen Darstellungsformen oder besser gesagt: Wechsel der Schreibweisen nach Die Wege der drei Autorinnen in der Emigration gehen weit auseinander, wenn wir die Schreibweise ihrer Texte betrachten.
Nie bewegte sie sich schreibend Barbara Hahn: Diese Gesellschaft funktioniert nach den Regeln der Demokratie. Anders Margarete Susmans Schreibkonzept. Jahrhunderts suspendierte, versuchte Margarete Susman mit ihrem Schreiben einen Halt zu finden. Jeder einzelne Ge- 3: Bertha Badt-Strauss, Barbara Hahn: Keiner ihrer eigenen Texte ist jemals fertig, abgeschlossen, erledigt. Und doch liegt in diesem offenen Verfahren eine Begrenzung.
Vor allem nicht zur Politik. Hannah Arendt trennt Philosophie und Politik, sie trennt Geschichtsschreibung von literarischen Schreibweisen. So unwahrscheinlich es also ist, gerade ein solches Leben biographisch zu bearbeiten, findet Peter Nettl doch Punkte der Synthetisierung. Ihr gelingt keine Geschichtsschreibung, wenn sie Rahel Levins Lebens skizziert. Sie will in ihrem Text etwas anderes versuchen: Jeder Brief ist selbst schon eine Mischung aus narrativen und reflektierenden Momenten, aus philosophischen und politischen Gedankensplittern, die nie in ein System gebracht werden.
Rosa Luxemburg trennte Diskurse. Und es gab Leidenschaften, die sich nicht in die Welt der Texte integrieren liessen. Hannah Arendt konnte wie Rahel Levin nicht trennen. Dieses Textverfahren, das sie aus Barbara Hahn: An einer Frage ohne Antwort. Eine zerbrochene Tradition ist nicht einfach durch eine andere zu ersetzen. Den Bruch zu lesen, bleibt immer noch aufgegeben. Ein Dank zu ihrem Rahel und ihre Zeit: Rentsch, ; Rahel Varnhagen: Beck, , —65 und — Zitiert wird im folgenden aus der vierten Auflage, hrsg.
Barbara Hahn Frankfurt am Main: Frauen in den Kulturwissenschaften. Hannah Arendt, Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess, ed. Liliane Weissberg Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, , 3—69, hier 39— Allerdings sagt Epimetheus hier: Piper, , Harcourt and Brace, Die beiden Ausgaben unterscheiden sich bekanntlich erheblich; auf die Unterschiede kann hier nur kurz eingegangen werden.
Es bleibt die Muttersprache: Piper, , 44—70, hier 58— Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, , Luchterhand, , Susman hatte Die Stimme spricht im Morgen rezensiert, vgl. Luchterhand, , hier Bd. Die englische Fassung von Arendts Rezension war bereits erschienen; vgl. Auflage , nach der im folgenden zitiert wird, hier Essays und Briefe, hrsg.
Ingeborg Nordmann Frankfurt am Main: Metropol-Verlag, , — Diederichs, und 3. Margarete Susman, Vom Geheimnis der Freiheit. Piper, , 49— A Social History, ed. Campus, , 29— Charles sleeps on, nor wakens he for aught. Bequemlichkeit, Leichtigkeit, lindern, mildern. Translated by Moncrief 41 LVIII Passes the night and opens the clear day; That Emperour canters in brave array, Looks through the host often and everyway; "My lords barons," at length doth Charles say, "Ye see the pass along these valleys strait, Judge for me now, who shall in rereward wait.
Charles the King will never lose by me, German along: Feld, Reihe, Array, Matrix, Aufstellung. Thinkest the glove will slip from me hereafter, As then from thee the wand fell before Charles? LXI "Right Emperour," says the baron Rollanz, "Give me the bow you carry in your hand; Neer in reproach, I know, will any man Say that it fell and lay upon the land, As Guenes let fall, when he received the wand.
Vorwurf, Tadel, vorwerfen, lay: Translated by Moncrief 43 He tugs his beard, his chin is in his hand Tears fill his eyes, he cannot them command. Give him the bow your hands have bent, at first; Then find him men, his company are worth. Good valiant Franks, a thousand score I'll keep. Translated by Moncrief 45 That the Emperour lose not a single man.
Franks passed that day all very sorrowful, Fifteen leagues round the rumour of them grew. When they were come, and Terra Major knew, Saw Gascony their land and their seigneur's, Remembering their fiefs and their honours, Their little maids, their gentle wives and true; There was not one that shed not tears for rue. Beyond the rest Charles was of anguish full, In Spanish Pass he'd left his dear nephew; Pity him seized; he could but weep for rue.
Up to his side comes cantering Duke Neimes, Says to the King: So great my grief I cannot but complain. France is destroyed, by the device of Guene: This night I saw, by an angel's vision plain, Between my hands he brake my spear in twain; Great fear I have, since Rollant must remain: I've left him there, upon a border strange. If he's lost, I'll not outlive that shame. And with him Franks an hundred thousand mourn, German apace: Translated by Moncrief 47 Who for Rollanz have marvellous remorse. Barons from Spain King Marsilies hath called, Counts and viscounts and dukes and almacours, And the admirals, and cadets nobly born; Within three days come hundreds thousands four.
In Sarraguce they sound the drums of war; Mahum they raise upon their highest tow'r, Pagan is none, that does not him adore. They canter then with great contention Through Certeine land, valleys and mountains, on, Till of the Franks they see the gonfalons, Being in rereward those dozen companions; They will not fail battle to do anon. LXIX Marsile's nephew is come before the band, Riding a mule, he goads it with a wand, Smiling and clear, his uncle's ear demands: Verfasser unbekannt, sogleich, so gleich, bald, alsbald.
I'll slay him clean with my good trenchant lance, If Mahumet will be my sure warrant; Spain I'll set free, deliver all her land From Pass of Aspre even unto Durestant. Charles will grow faint, and recreant the Franks; There'll be no war while you're a living man. LXX Marsile's nephew, holding in hand the glove, His uncle calls, with reason proud enough: Choose now for me eleven more baruns, So I may fight those dozen companions. Hastes into view Malprimis of Brigal, Faster than a horse, upon his feet can dart, Before Marsile he cries with all his heart: Before Marsile aloud has he shouted: Before Marsile his vaunting boast hath made: Mahum's more worth than Saint Peter of Rome; Serve we him well, then fame in field we'll own.
See here my sword, that is both good and long With Durendal I'll lay it well across; Ye'll hear betimes to which the prize is gone. Franks shall be slain, whom we descend upon, Charles the old will suffer grief and wrong, No more on earth his crown will he put on. Before Marsile he cries amid the press: Of good vassals will Charles be richly bled. Into the pass ye'll go to Rencesvals, Give me your aid, and thither lead my band. We will assault Olivier and Rollant, The dozen peers from death have no warrant, For these our swords are trusty and trenchant, In scalding blood we'll dye their blades scarlat.
Franks shall be slain, and Chares be right sad. Terra Major we'll give into your hand; Come there, Sir King, truly you'll see all that Yea, the Emperour we'll give into your hand. For his beauty the ladies hold him dear; German assault: Translated by Moncrief 53 Who looks on him, with him her heart is pleased, When she beholds, she can but smile for glee. Comes through the press, above them all cries he, "Be not at all dismayed, King Marsilie! See here the sword, whose hilt is gold indeed, I got in gift from the admiral of Primes; In scarlat blood I pledge it shall be steeped. Franks shall be slain, and France abased be.
To Charles the old, with his great blossoming beard, Day shall not dawn but brings him rage and grief, Ere a year pass, all France we shall have seized, Till we can lie in th' burgh of Saint Denise. Right to the ground his hair swept either way; He for a jest would bear a heavier weight Than four yoked mules, beneath their load that strain.
Says Chemubles "My sword is in its place, At Rencesvals scarlat I will it stain; Find I Rollanz the proud upon my way, I'll fall on him, or trust me not again, And Durendal I'll conquer with this blade, Franks shall be slain, and France a desert made. LXXIX Ready they make hauberks Sarrazinese, That folded are, the greater part, in three; And they lace on good helms Sarragucese; Gird on their swords of tried steel Viennese; Fine shields they have, and spears Valentinese, And white, blue, red, their ensigns take the breeze, They've left their mules behind, and their palfreys, German blue: Brise, Hauch, Briese, Wind.
Sturzbad, Regenschauer, Duschen, grain: Fleck, beflecken, flecken, Beize, keenly: Besatz, Beschlag, Borte, Spitzenkante, stones: Vertrauen, sich verlassen auf, palfreys: Zuversicht, zutrauen, betrauen mit, rain: Regen, regnen, der Regen. Dusche, Brause, Schauer, Treuhand, Trust, vertrauen mit. Translated by Moncrief 55 Their chargers mount, and canter knee by knee. A thousand horns they sound, more proud to seem; Great is the noise, the Franks its echo hear.
For our King's sake well must we quit us here; Man for his lord should suffer great disease, Most bitter cold endure, and burning heat, His hair and skin should offer up at need. Now must we each lay on most hardily, So evil songs neer sung of us shall be. Christians are right indeed. Evil example will never come of me. LXXX Oliver mounts upon a lofty peak, Looks to his right along the valley green, The pagan tribes approaching there appear; He calls Rollanz, his companion, to see: Echo, Widerhall, widerhallen, widerschallen, Klankwiderhall, hallen, echoen, schallen.
Knie, das Knie, Krummholz. They'll smite our Franks with fury past belief, He knew it, Guenes, the traitor and the thief, Who chose us out before the King our chief. Their helmets gleam, with gold are jewelled, Also their shields, their hauberks orfreyed, Also their swords, ensigns on spears fixed. Rank beyond rank could not be numbered, So many there, no measure could he set. In his own heart he's sore astonished, Fast as he could, down from the peak hath sped Comes to the Franks, to them his tale hath said.
Gainst us their shields an hundred thousand bore, German astonished: Translated by Moncrief 57 That laced helms and shining hauberks wore; And, bolt upright, their bright brown spearheads shone. Lords of the Franks, God keep you in valour! So hold your ground, we be not overborne! If we must die, then perish one and all.
If Charles hear, he'll turn his armies round. With Durendal I'll lay on thick and stout, In blood the blade, to its golden hilt, I'll drown. Felon pagans to th' pass shall not come down; I pledge you now, to death they all are bound. Bolzen, Riegel, Schraube, horn: Blitz, Bolz, Mutterbolzen, Zuriegeln, perish: Rather stout blows with Durendal I'll lay, With my good sword that by my side doth sway; Till bloodied o'er you shall behold the blade.
If Charles hear, where in the pass he stands, I pledge you now, they'll turn again, the Franks. Never by me shall men reproach my clan. When I am come into the battle grand, And blows lay on, by hundred, by thousand, German behold: A muster great they've made, this people strange; We have of men a very little tale. Rather I'll die than shame shall me attain. Therefore strike on, the Emperour's love to gain.
Good are the counts, and lofty their language. Sprache, die Sprache, Rede. Streik, streiken, Streichen, schlagen, treffen, klopfen, indenAusstandtreten, imponieren, hauen, greifen, schlag. On the olifant deign now to sound a blast; Were the King here, we should not fear damage. Only look up towards the Pass of Aspre, In sorrow there you'll see the whole rereward. Who does this deed, does no more afterward. Evil his heart that is in thought coward! We shall remain firm in our place installed; From us the blows shall come, from us the assault.
That Emperour, who left us Franks on guard, A thousand score stout men he set apart, And well he knows, not one will prove coward. Man for his lord should suffer with good heart, Of bitter cold and great heat bear the smart, German apart: Translated by Moncrief 61 His blood let drain, and all his flesh be scarred. So, if I die, who has it afterward Noble vassal's he well may say it was. To Christendom good service offering. Battle you'll have, you all are bound to it, For with your eyes you see the Sarrazins. Pray for God's grace, confessing Him your sins!
For your souls' health, I'll absolution give So, though you die, blest martyrs shall you live, Thrones you shall win in the great Paradis. That Archbishop God's Benediction gives, For their penance, good blows to strike he bids. King Marsilies hath bargained for us cheap; At the sword's point he yet shall pay our meed. XCI To Spanish pass is Rollanz now going On Veillantif, his good steed, galloping; He is well armed, pride is in his bearing, He goes, so brave, his spear in hand holding, He goes, its point against the sky turning; A gonfalon all white thereon he's pinned, German absolved: Translated by Moncrief 63 Down to his hand flutters the golden fringe: Noble his limbs, his face clear and smiling.
Proudly he looks towards the Sarrazins, And to the Franks sweetly, himself humbling; And courteously has said to them this thing: Pagans are come great martyrdom seeking; Noble and fair reward this day shall bring, Was never won by any Frankish King. Your olifant, to sound it do not deign, Since from Carlun you'll never more have aid. He has not heard; no fault of his, so brave. Those with him there are never to be blamed.
So canter on, with what prowess you may! Lords and barons, firmly your ground maintain! Be minded well, I pray you in God's Name, Stout blows to strike, to give as you shall take. They canter forth, God! Pagans and Franks, you'ld see them now engaged. Betrayed you has he that to guard you ought; Mad is the King who left you in this post. So shall the fame of France the Douce be lost, And the right arm from Charles body torn. His steed he spurs, gallops with great effort; He goes, that count, to strike with all his force, The shield he breaks, the hauberk's seam unsews, Slices the heart, and shatters up the bones, German acclaim: Translated by Moncrief 65 All of the spine he severs with that blow, And with his spear the soul from body throws So well he's pinned, he shakes in the air that corse, On his spear's hilt he's flung it from the horse: So in two halves Aeroth's neck he broke, Nor left him yet, they say, but rather spoke: A madman Charles is not, No treachery was ever in his thought.
Strike on, the Franks! Ours are the foremost blows. For we are right, but these gluttons are wrong. XCIV A duke there was, his name was Falfarun, Brother was he to King Marsiliun, He held their land, Dathan's and Abirun's; Beneath the sky no more encrimed felun; Between his eyes so broad was he in front A great half-foot you'ld measure there in full. His nephew dead he's seen with grief enough, Comes through the press and wildly forth he runs, Aloud he shouts their cry the pagans use; German blow: Hals, Nacken, Genick, ficken, miteinander schlafen, Liebe machen, Geschlechtsverkehr haben, sich lieben, bumsen, Ausschnitt.
Right well we'll overcome. This is the day when they their death shall meet. Translated by Moncrief 67 Spurs of fine gold he pricks into his steed, To strike that king by virtue great goes he, The hauberk all unfastens, breaks the shield, Thrusts his great spear in through the carcass clean, Pins it so well he shakes it in its seat, Dead in the road he's flung it from his spear.
Your companions all on this spot we'll keep, I tell you news; death shall ye suffer here. Fail none of you at need! Ours the first blow, to God the glory be! XCVI And Gerins strikes Malprimis of Brigal So his good shield is nothing worth at all, Shatters the boss, was fashioned of crystal, One half of it downward to earth flies off; Right to the flesh has through his hauberk torn, On his good spear he has the carcass caught. XCVII And his comrade Gerers strikes the admiral, The shield he breaks, the hauberk unmetals, And his good spear drives into his vitals, So well he's pinned him, clean through the carcass, Dead on the field he's flung him from his hand.
Translated by Moncrief 69 And Anseis has let his charger run; He goes to strike Turgis of Turtelus, The shield he breaks, its golden boss above, The hauberk too, its doubled mail undoes, His good spear's point into the carcass runs, So well he's thrust, clean through the whole steel comes, And from the hilt he's thrown him dead in dust.
Miete, mieten, Pacht, vermieten, Pachtzins, verleihen, Mietzins. Sattel, satteln, Bettschlitten, der Sattel. Of their dozen peers ten have now been killed, No more than two remain alive and quick, Being Chernuble, and the count Margariz. CIII Margariz is a very gallant knight, Both fair and strong, and swift he is and light; He spurs his horse, goes Oliver to strike, And breaks his shield, by th'golden buckle bright; Along his ribs the pagan's spear doth glide; German buckle: Schnalle, zuschnallen, Spange, anschnallen, festschnallen, schnallen.
Translated by Moncrief 71 God's his warrant, his body has respite, The shaft breaks off, Oliver stays upright; That other goes, naught stays him in his flight, His trumpet sounds, rallies his tribe to fight. The count Rollanz no way himself secures, Strikes with his spear, long as the shaft endures, By fifteen blows it is clean broken through Then Durendal he bares, his sabre good Spurs on his horse, is gone to strike Chemuble, The helmet breaks, where bright carbuncles grew, Slices the cap and shears the locks in two, Slices also the eyes and the features, The hauberk white, whose mail was close of woof, Down to the groin cuts all his body through To the saddle; with beaten gold 'twas tooled.
Upon the horse that sword a moment stood, Then sliced its spine, no join there any knew, Dead in the field among thick grass them threw. After he said "Culvert, false step you moved, From Mahumet your help will not come soon. No victory for gluttons such as you. Helm, der Helm, Sturmhaube.
Die selige Christina von Stommeln by Arnold Steffens
In blood his arms were and his hauberk steeped, And bloodied o'er, shoulders and neck, his steed. CVI And Oliver has cantered through the crush; Broken his spear, the truncheon still he thrusts; Going to strike a pagan Malsarun; Flowers and gold, are on the shield, he cuts, German baronage: Translated by Moncrief 73 Out of the head both the two eyes have burst, And all the brains are fallen in the dust; He flings him dead, sev'n hundred else amongst.
In such a fight, there's little strength in wood, Iron and steel should here their valour prove. Where is your sword, that Halteclere I knew? Golden its hilt, whereon a crystal grew. CVII Then Oliver has drawn his mighty sword As his comrade had bidden and implored, In knightly wise the blade to him has shewed; Justin he strikes, that Iron Valley's lord, All of his head has down the middle shorn, The carcass sliced, the broidered sark has torn, The good saddle that was with old adorned, And through the spine has sliced that pagan's horse; Dead in the field before his feet they fall.
CVIII That count Gerins sate on his horse Sorel, On Passe-Cerf was Gerers there, his friend; They've loosed their reins, together spurred and sped, And go to strike a pagan Timozel; One on the shield, on hauberk the other fell; And their two spears went through the carcass well, A fallow field amidst they've thrown him dead.
I do not know, I never heard it said Which of the two was nimbler as they went. Esperveris was there, son of Borel, And him there slew Engelers of Burdel. And the Archbishop, he slew them Siglorel, The enchanter, who before had been in hell, Where Jupiter bore him by a magic spell.
Then Turpin says "To us he's forfeited. Such blows, brother Olivier, I like well. Translated by Moncrief 75 CIX The battle grows more hard and harder yet, Franks and pagans, with marvellous onset, Each other strike and each himself defends. Charles the Great weeps therefor with regret. No succour shall they get. Evil service, that day, Guenes rendered them, To Sarraguce going, his own to sell.
After he lost his members and his head, In court, at Aix, to gallows-tree condemned; And thirty more with him, of his kindred, Were hanged, a thing they never did expect. Bedauern, bereuen, etwas bedauern, leid tun, beweinen, beklagen, betrauern. The Franks have lost the foremost of their band, They'll see no more their fathers nor their clans, Nor Charlemagne, where in the pass he stands.
Torment arose, right marvellous, in France, Tempest there was, of wind and thunder black, With rain and hail, so much could not be spanned; Fell thunderbolts often on every hand, And verily the earth quaked in answer back From Saint Michael of Peril unto Sanz, From Besencun to the harbour of Guitsand; No house stood there but straight its walls must crack: In full mid-day the darkness was so grand, Save the sky split, no light was in the land. Beheld these things with terror every man, And many said: Hagel, hageln, anreden, anrufen, ansprechen.
Trauer, Trauernd, betrauernd, Trauern, beweinend. Spannweite, Spanne, Messspanne, Spannfeld. Schrecken, Schreck, Grauen, Entzetzen, Entsetzen. Wind, wickeln, einwickeln, aufziehen, der Wind, rollen, winden. In Chronicles of Franks is written down, What vassalage he had, our Emperour. King Marsilies and his great host draw round. Twenty columns that king had numbered.
With gleaminag gold their helms were jewelled. Shone too their shields and sarks embroidered. Sounded the charge seven thousand trumpets, Great was the noise through all that country went. Battle we'll have, both long and keenly set, Never has man beheld such armies met. With Durendal my sword I'll strike again, And, comrade, you shall strike with Halteclere. These swords in lands so many have we held, Battles with them so many brought to end, No evil song shall e'er be sung or said.
And the Archbishop speaks to them, as he can: For God I pray you fly not hence but stand, Lest evil songs of our valour men chant! Far better t'were to perish in the van. Certain it is, our end is near at hand, Beyond this day shall no more live one man; German bad: Gesang, singen, Kirchenlied, skandieren. Translated by Moncrief 79 But of one thing I give you good warrant: Blest Paradise to you now open stands, By the Innocents your thrones you there shall have.
CXIV A Sarrazin was there, of Sarraguce, Of that city one half was his by use, 'Twas Climborins, a man was nothing proof; By Guenelun the count an oath he took, And kissed his mouth in amity and truth, Gave him his sword and his carbuncle too. Terra Major, he said, to shame he'ld put, From the Emperour his crown he would remove. He sate his horse, which he called Barbamusche, Never so swift sparrow nor swallow flew, He spurred him well, and down the reins he threw, Going to strike Engelier of Gascune; Nor shield nor sark him any warrant proved, The pagan spear's point did his body wound, He pinned him well, and all the steel sent through, From the hilt flung him dead beneath his foot.
Schwalbe, schlucken, Rauchschwalbe, Schluck, wegschlucken, Bauernschwalbe, herunterschlucken, hinunterschlingen, hinunterschlucken, runterschlucken, schlingen. Next he has slain the duke Alphaien, And sliced away Escababi his head, And has unhorsed some seven Arabs else; No good for those to go to war again.
Fuhr, fuhrst, fuhren, fuhrt, trieben an, triebt an, triebt, triebst an, triebst, trieben, trieb an. He'd pledged his oath by county Guenelon, Gave him his sword, a thousand coins thereon. He sate his horse, which he called Gramimond, Never so swift flew in the air falcon; He's pricked him well, with sharp spurs he had on, Going to strike e'en that rich Duke, Sanson; His shield has split, his hauberk has undone, The ensign's folds have through his body gone, Dead from the hilt out of his seat he's dropt: He sate his horse, which he called Salt-Perdut, Never so swift was any beast could run.
And Anseis upon the shield he struck, German armour: Tier, Biest, Bestie, Vieh, Getier. Translated by Moncrief 83 The scarlat with the blue he sliced it up, Of his hauberk he's torn the folds and cut, The steel and stock has through his body thrust. Then say the Franks: One thou hast slain for whom my heart is sad. He sate his horse, the which he called Marmore, Never so swift was any bird in course; He's loosed the reins, and spurring on that horse German bidding: Kompass, der Kompass, Zirkel.
To the pagan says: One hast thou slain that dearly thou'lt repay. Translated by Moncrief 85 Grandonie was both proof and valiant, And virtuous, a vassal combatant. Struck him the count, with so great virtue, that To the nose-plate he's all the helmet cracked, Sliced through the nose and mouth and teeth he has, Hauberk close-mailed, and all the whole carcass, Saddle of gold, with plates of silver flanked, And of his horse has deeply scarred the back; He's slain them both, they'll make no more attack: The Spanish men in sorrow cry, "Alack!
Beyond all men thy people are hardy! Then had you seen such sorrowing of clans, So many a slain, shattered and bleeding man! Biting the earth, or piled there on their backs! The Sarrazins cannot such loss withstand. Will they or nill, from off the field draw back; By lively force chase them away the Franks. CXXV Their martyrdom, his men's, Marsile has seen, So he bids sound his horns and his buccines; Then canters forth with all his great army. Canters before a Sarrazin, Abisme, German bids: Translated by Moncrief 87 More felon none was in that company; Cankered with guile and every felony, He fears not God, the Son of Saint Mary; Black is that man as molten pitch that seethes; Better he loves murder and treachery Than to have all the gold of Galicie; Never has man beheld him sport for glee; Yet vassalage he's shown, and great folly, So is he dear to th' felon king Marsile; Dragon he bears, to which his tribe rally.
CXXVI That Archbishop begins the fight again, Sitting the horse which he took from Grossaille -- That was a king he had in Denmark slain; -That charger is swift and of noble race; Fine are his hooves, his legs are smooth and straight, German beheld: Flamme, Funkeln, lodern, Feuermeer, Feuersbrunst, flackern, flammen, Flammenmeer, lichterloh brennen, Blesse. Pfennig, Penny, Groschen, Heller, Deut. Zeuge, bezeugen, mitmachen, vorzeigen, zeigen, zeugen von, Zeugnis.
b-literatur, Biosensor, Friedrich Balck
Translated by Moncrief 89 Well can he strike with lance and well with spear. And the Archbishop lays on there with his spear. Those that are dead, men well may hold them dear. In charters and in briefs is written clear, Four thousand fell, and more, the tales declare. Gainst four assaults easily did they fare, But then the fifth brought heavy griefs to bear.
They all are slain, those Frankish chevaliers; Only three-score, whom God was pleased to spare, Before these die, they'll sell them very dear. Schlachten, abschlachten, erschlagen, Gemetzel, Schlachtung. Wort, Vokabel, Datenwort, Formulieren. King and friend, wherefore are you not here? How, Oliver, brother, can we achieve?
And by what means our news to him repeat? So wind your horn but not by courage rash, Seeing that both your arms with blood are splashed. Translated by Moncrief 91 Then says Rollant: Were the King here, we had not borne such damage. Nor should we blame those with him there, his army.
Vassalage comes by sense, and not folly; Prudence more worth is than stupidity. Here are Franks dead, all for your trickery; No more service to Carlun may we yield. My lord were here now, had you trusted me, And fought and won this battle then had we, Taken or slain were the king Marsilie.
In your prowess, Rollanz, no good we've seen! Charles the great in vain your aid will seek -None such as he till God His Judgement speak; -- German beard: No help it were to us, the horn to blow, But, none the less, it may be better so; The King will come, with vengeance that he owes; These Spanish men never away shall go. Our Franks here, each descending from his horse, Will find us dead, and limb from body torn; They'll take us hence, on biers and litters borne; With pity and with grief for us they'll mourn; They'll bury each in some old minster-close; No wolf nor swine nor dog shall gnaw our bones.
Translated by Moncrief 93 Rollant hath set the olifant to his mouth, He grasps it well, and with great virtue sounds. So Charles heard, and all his comrades round; Then said that King: Out of his mouth the clear blood leaped and ran, About his brain the very temples cracked. Loud is its voice, that horn he holds in hand; Charles hath heard, where in the pass he stands, And Neimes hears, and listen all the Franks.
Then says the King: Now are you old, blossoming white and blanched, Yet by such words you still appear infant. You know full well the great pride of Rollant Marvel it is, God stays so tolerant. No race neath heav'n in field him dare attack. Nay, wherefore hold we back? Terra Major is far away, our land. CXXXV The count Rollanz, though blood his mouth doth stain, And burst are both the temples of his brain, His olifant he sounds with grief and pain; Charles hath heard, listen the Franks again. Battle is there, indeed I see it plain, He is betrayed, by one that still doth feign.
Equip you, sir, cry out your old refrain, That noble band, go succour them amain! Translated by Moncrief 95 Enough you've heard how Rollant doth complain. His charger mounts each baron of the host; They spur with haste as through the pass they go. Nor was there one but thus to 's neighbour spoke: They've stayed too long below. CCXXXVII That even-tide is light as was the day; Their armour shines beneath the sun's clear ray, Hauberks and helms throw off a dazzling flame, And blazoned shields, flowered in bright array, Also their spears, with golden ensigns gay.
That Emperour, he canters on with rage, German bid: Angebot, bieten, Gebot, bitten, Ansage, ersuchen, reizen, Kostenvoranschlag. Kleid, anziehen, ankleiden, kleiden, bekleiden, verbinden, Kleidung, sichanziehen, das Kleid, Robe, anlegen.
Typee (Webster's German Thesaurus Edition)
Schwimmer, schwimmen, Floss, schaukeln, gleiten, treiben, Prunkwagen. Sporn, anspornen, Ansporn, Abzweigleitung. Kept him till Charles should call for him again. Trumpets they blew in rear and in the van, Till all again answered that olifant. Translated by Moncrief 97 That Emperour canters with fury mad, And all the Franks dismay and wonder have; There is not one but weeps and waxes sad And all pray God that He will guard Rollant Till in the field together they may stand; There by his side they'll strike as well they can.
No good there is in that; They're not in time; too long have they held back. Barons of France, in haste they spur and strain; There is not one that can his wrath contain That they are not with Rollant the Captain, Whereas he fights the Sarrazins of Spain. If he be struck, will not one soul remain. Sixty men are all now in his train!
Never a king had better Capitains. And all your souls redeem for Paradise! And let you there mid holy flowers lie! Better vassals than you saw never I. Douce land of France, o very precious clime, Laid desolate by such a sour exile! Barons of France, for me I've seen you die, And no support, no warrant could I find; God be your aid, Who never yet hath lied!
I must not fail now, brother, by your side; Save I be slain, for sorrow shall I die. Sir companion, let us again go strike! Mitte, mittel, in der Mitte, Mittler, viertelspatium. Translated by Moncrief 99 With twenty-four of all they rated highest; Was never man, for vengeance shewed such liking. Such valour should he shew that is bred knightly, And beareth arms, and a good charger rideth; In battle should be strong and proud and sprightly; Or otherwise he is not worth a shilling, Should be a monk in one of those old minsters, Where, day, by day, he'ld pray for us poor sinners.
Marsile you'd seen go as a brave baron, Sitting his horse, the which he calls Gaignon; He spurs it well, going to strike Bevon, That was the lord of Beaune and of Dijon, His shield he breaks, his hauberk has undone, German beginning: Anfang, anfangend, Beginn, beginnend, Anbrechend. Verteidigung, Abwehr, Nachhut, Wehr, Landesverteidigung. So wrongfully you've slain my companions, A blow you'll take, ere we apart be gone, And of my sword the name I'll bid you con. Pagans cry out "Assist us now, Mahom! God of our race, avenge us on Carlon!
Into this land he's sent us such felons That will not leave the fight before they drop. Though fled be Marsilies, He's left behind his uncle, the alcaliph German avail: Translated by Moncrief Who holds Alferne, Kartagene, Garmalie, And Ethiope, a cursed land indeed; The blackamoors from there are in his keep, Broad in the nose they are and flat in the ear, Fifty thousand and more in company. Strike on, my lords, with burnished swords and keen; Contest each inch your life and death between, That neer by us Douce France in shame be steeped.
When Charles my lord shall come into this field, Such discipline of Sarrazins he'll see, For one of ours he'll find them dead fifteen; He will not fail, but bless us all in peace. For so I recommend. CXLV Franks are but few; which, when the pagans know, Among themselves comfort and pride they shew; Says each to each: Charles the great should not have left you so; He's done us wrong, small thanks to him we owe; I've well avenged all ours on you alone.
Translated by Moncrief Strikes the alcaliph on his helm's golden mount; Flowers and stones fall clattering to the ground, Slices his head, to th'small teeth in his mouth; So brandishes his blade and flings him down; After he says: Thou'lt never say that Charles forsakes me now; Nor to thy wife, nor any dame thou'st found, Thou'lt never boast, in lands where thou wast crowned, One pennyworth from me thou'st taken out, Nor damage wrought on me nor any around. CXLVII Oliver feels that death is drawing nigh; To avenge himself he hath no longer time; Through the great press most gallantly he strikes, He breaks their spears, their buckled shields doth slice, Their feet, their fists, their shoulders and their sides, Dismembers them: Charles ensign he'll not forget it quite; Aloud and clear "Monjoie" again he cries.
Seufzen, Seufzer, Gier, Sucht. My companion, gallant for such ill fate! Neer shall man be, against thee could prevail. France the Douce, henceforth art thou made waste Of vassals brave, confounded and disgraced! Our Emperour shall suffer damage great. Abfall, Verschwendung, verschwenden, vergeuden, verschwende, verschwendet, verschwendest, vergeudest, vergeudet, vergeude, Ausschuss. Translated by Moncrief So much he's bled, his eyes are dim and weak; Nor clear enough his vision, far or near, To recognise whatever man he sees; His companion, when each the other meets, Above the helm jewelled with gold he beats, Slicing it down from there to the nose-piece, But not his head; he's touched not brow nor cheek.
This is Rollanz, who ever held you dear; And no mistrust was ever us between. I struck you now: CL Oliver feels death's anguish on him now; And in his head his two eyes swimming round; Nothing he sees; he hears not any sound; German asks: Verzeihung, Begnadigung, Vergebung, verzeihen, entschuldigen, amnestieren, Entschuldigung. And he is dead, may stay no more, that count.
Rollanz the brave mourns him with grief profound; Nowhere on earth so sad a man you'd found. CLI So Rollant's friend is dead whom when he sees Face to the ground, and biting it with's teeth, Begins to mourn in language very sweet: Together we have spent such days and years; No harmful thing twixt thee and me has been. Now thou art dead, and all my life a grief. Dead are the Franks; he'd all of them to lose, Save the Archbishop, and save Gualter del Hum; He is come down out of the mountains, who Gainst Spanish men made there a great ado; Dead are his men, for those the pagans slew; Will he or nill, along the vales he flew, And called Rollant, to bring him succour soon: Gentle count, brave soldier, where are you?
For By thy side no fear I ever knew. Gualter it is, who conquered Maelgut, And nephew was to hoary old Drouin; My vassalage thou ever thoughtest good. Broken my spear, and split my shield in two; Gone is the mail that on my hauberk grew; This body of mine eight lances have gone through; I'm dying. Six volumes of Vermischte Schriften were published from to ; the Schriften in Auswahl, with an essay by A.
A-Z 33 Blunck, Hans — A writer of prose, poetry and plays, Hans Blunck born in Altona became identified with Blut und Boden literature and the cult of North-German earnestness, mission and superiority. From to Blunck was president of the newlyformed Reichsschrifttumskammer; relations between him and Joseph Goebbels became strained, and Hanns Johst replaced him. A ten-volume edition of his writings appeared in Blunck was pronounced a Nazi sympathizer and collaborator by the Denazification Tribunal in The Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben fifteen vols appeared from to ; Dramen und Lustspiele two vols , also in ; Das Gesamtwerk four vols between and Bobrowski, Johannes —65 Bobrowski was born in Tilsit and grew up in Memel, and all his poetry and much of his prose result from the effort to reconstruct through memory the landscape and childhood experiences of this frontier area, in which Poles, Lithuanians, Russians and Jews had lived in close proximity for generations.
Bobrowski was both conservative in his debt to poets such as Klopstock mainly ignored in the twentieth century and, in the context of GDR writing, in his Christian commitment, and modernist in his development of free verse and of a fragmentary prose form which allows several voices and perspectives to emerge. Along with Peter Huchel he is a master of the humanized landscape. Despite his circumscribed themes his influence is present in the work of several writers, incl. Bobrowski wrote his earliest poems as a soldier in Russia, some of which appeared in the periodical Das innere Reich before the end of the war, but the majority of his poems can be dated to the years — The award in the latter year of the prize of Gruppe 47 after his second reading before the group and the publication of his first collection Sarmatische Zeit made him known in the West.
Ganz neue Xenien , the last a series of satirical epigrams on figures in the contemporary German literary landscape. Haufe, appeared from The attitudes which find consistent expression in both his fiction and his public writings e. All present the senselessness of war by adopting the perspective of the ordinary soldier whose only escape from the horrors of combat, the total subordination to his superiors and the souldestroying boredom of military routine is the memory or fantasy of private happiness.
In Und sagte kein einziges Wort the predicament of the soldier come home, forced by inadequate housing to meet his wife in hotel rooms, is exacerbated by the unsympathetic attitude of the better off and contrasted with ecclesiastical pomp and tasteless advertising. Their accounts, in throwing light on the separate stages of her biography, add up to a panorama of the period to , placing Gruppenbild firmly in the tradition of the Zeitroman. Acts of terrorism by the Rote Armee Faktion better known as the Baader-Meinhof group forced the authorities in the Federal Republic to mobilize state power to an extent unprecedented in its history in order to arrest, try and convict them.
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While the anti-terrorist campaign undoubtedly had the support of public A companion to twentieth-century german literature 36 opinion, it occasionally led to excesses which undermined rights guaranteed by the constitution as those suspected of sympathizing with or sheltering terrorists were subjected to police surveillance and vilified by sections of the press.
He responded with three works: Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum oder: For all his faults, parochialism, sentimentality, black-and-white characterization, he demonstrated that the novel is still able to show how people relate to one another as members of a family, a community and a nation. A collected edition, Werke, in ten volumes, appeared in Bonsels, Waldemar — Traveller, publisher and writer of popular novels and stories, Bonsels made his reputation with Die Biene Maja und ihre Abenteuer , a charming account of a queen bee and the adventures that befall it.
A year before his death he republished, under the title Das vergessene Licht, an earlier pseudo-Christian novel. Borchardt, Rudolf — An author remembered for his essays and translations, Borchardt was one of a group of writers R. The neo-romantic aspects of his earlier poetry Jugendgedichte increasingly gave way to classical forms. Borchardt was an accomplished linguist and translated from Greek, English and Italian: Borchardt was a close associate of Hugo von Hofmannsthal.
Vermischte Gedichte appeared in The novel Vereinigung durch den Feind hindurch was published in Vienna: Borchardt, who was partly Jewish, was arrested by the Gestapo, but later released; he died in the Tyrol at the end of the war. He also wrote numerous poems, only a few of which were eventually published. Die traurigen Geranien made available further unpublished material. His first novel Der zweite Tag , in which the impressions received on a train journey are registered in minute detail, bare of symbol and metaphor, can be associated with the Cologne school of realism including Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner.
The poems, eventually collected in Gedichte — , show the influence of the Americans W. Politics, reflection on the function of poetry and moments of satisfaction and hope contrasted with fear of the impersonal forces of the state are further topics in the later poems. In taking up a Third World theme, it marks a significant departure from what was in danger of becoming a new provincialism and can be compared with similar works by Uwe Timm and F.
The play Rotter concerns the self-imposed conformity of an underprivileged figure determined to prove himself in both the Third Reich and the early years of reconstruction. Liebe macht Tod is a variation of Romeo and Juliet. Braun, Felix — A fervent literary disciple of Hofmannsthal, Felix Braun was a minor writer associated with the Viennese cultural scene at the turn of the century his autobiography Das Licht der Welt.
Geschichte eines Versuches, als Dichter zu leben gives a sympathetic and informative account of meetings with Hofmannsthal, Rilke, Wildgans, Ginzkey, Mell, Stefan Zweig, Werfel and others. He travelled widely, living in Italy and also in exile in England. His verse dramas betray much sensitivity but little dramatic talent: Braun was also an accomplished anthologist: The collections Wir und nicht sie , Gedichte , extended and Gegen die symmetrische Welt are marked by mastery of numerous short forms and a critical dialogue with earlier German poets.
The dialectic of past and present, of Utopian hope and reality is treated in manifold variations, culminating in the last volume in fragmentary forms which appear to reflect a fear of stagnation. More recently he has widened this latter theme to embrace revolutionary change elsewhere and at different periods and developed more radical approaches to it: His continuing debt to his literary predecessors is evident in his other plays: Bodenloser Satz presents the decline of the GDR through an account of environmental pollution.
Texte in zeitlicher Folge appeared in eight volumes between and Brecht, Bertolt — Brecht was one of a group of young dramatists who emerged during the early years of the Weimar Republic and whose works frequently awarded the Kleist prize created theatrical scandals by their fearless outspokenness and reluctance to conform to accepted standards.
Through collaboration with Feuchtwanger and others Brecht, with cunning and undeniable talent, kept abreast of the modern techniques of a man like Piscator. It was after the enormous success of this work, a work that the audience seemed bent on enjoying at all costs, that Brecht tended to the extremes of dogmatism which he felt were necessary to convey his social message: What makes Mann ist Mann , the Dreigroschenoper and Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny — 9 such good entertainment is the plenitude of ebullient characters, rooted in a fantastic Victorian, Anglo-American or Anglo-Indian world never found in reality but culled from the legends of the roaring twenties, or the heyday of the British Raj; Brecht never ceased to admire the world of boxers, lumberjacks, colonial soldiers and gangsters, which he may, in part, have derived from the expressionist cult of vital, atavistic forces.
Brecht needed also the stimulus of collaboration, which stemmed from a sincere desire to discuss and learn rather than from paucity of invention, as the critic Alfred Kerr claimed, who sought constantly to detect plagiarism. Brecht wrote closely with Klabund, who would later give Brecht the idea for Der kaukasische Kreidekreis. After the burning of the Reichstag Brecht fled to Vienna; he attended the meeting at Sanary-sur-mer of exiled writers, and thence moved to Denmark, to the province of Svendborg, where he watched events in Germany most closely.
Brecht continued to work relentlessly: A-Z 43 The view that Brecht, deprived of a theatre, turned his attention to formulating a Marxist aesthetic of drama, a theoretically determined system, is erroneous: His theoretical writings reflect the way in which he meditated upon his own work: The tone is light, frequently wryly humorous, often curious, but always allowing for movement and renewal; a rare intelligence is at work which questions, worries, retreats, adapts and restates. Theatre, literature and politics, society and even landscape are discussed: The Messingkauf dialogues, a four-handed conversation piece, relate more directly to theatrical problems, and stress above all the need for lightness of touch, Spiel, and a kind of elegance in acting which contains sobriety within it.
The rapier thrust is preferred to the sabre blow, the elliptical precision of Chinese art to Germanic ponderousness and an athletic form of acting to the pretentiously histrionic. This was to be the play with which the Berliner Ensemble opened in ; it has remained in the repertoire ever since and has been staged by the leading theatres throughout the world. Every scene, and there are twelve of them, is supposed to stand as a self-contained unit indeed, in theory they should be virtually interchangeable , but a cumulative effect is undeniable, and there are moments that are conventionally dramatic, which enthral, rather than alienate, the audience.
Brecht did not approve of the reactions of the audience after the first performance: He had been forced, he A companion to twentieth-century german literature 44 claimed, to overstate the differences between the conventional theatre and his own in order that certain abuses be rectified: As early as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny he had, in fact, stressed that an overschematic differentiation between dramatic and epic was unsuitable: In he had written a conventional play—admittedly not one of his best—on Aristotelian lines, Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar, which provided opportunity for splendid acting on the part of the heroine.
Brecht turned on the critics and admonished them to look at his plays as plays, without preconceived ideas or theories. Brecht utterly rejected the Christian idea of original sin: His initial concern was to show Galileo as a man determined to live, whose cunning recantation enables the truth to be heard despite the strictures of the Church. The issues are intellectual, but the play provides magnificent theatre, especially in the scene of the dressing of the Pope, the transformation of man to institution as each layer of clothing is added.
The Soviet purges sickened him, as did the American situation: There is undoubtedly a sense of isolation, but not of paralysis: The theme of goodness occupied him once again, but the basic theme concerns the rightness of giving the child or the disputed land to those best able to tend or cultivate it. The play is most successful in the portrayal of the judge Azdak, a figure compounded of the vitality and amoral zest of Baal, of Puntila and, to a lesser extent, of Galileo himself.
Brecht returned to Europe at the end of The setting up of his own Theater am Schiffbauerdamm brought little comfort: It is perhaps significant that Brecht wrote nothing of original merit for the theatre after his return to East Berlin; he adapted, produced and modified, turning his attention, amongst other things, to Waiting for Godot and Pineapple Poll. He withdrew again into poetry and wrote, in the Buckower Elegien, some of his finest. With economy, grace and sobriety he evoked a world of trees and water, silence and serenity, far from the turmoil of Berlin.
Before his premature death in he had suggested that his epitaph might contain the lines: The following editions of his work should be noted: A companion to twentieth-century german literature 46 Brinkmann, Rolf Dieter —75 Brinkmann, whose early death in a road accident on a visit to London put an end to a career which may or may not have been in the doldrums, began in association with the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner, etc. Never political, he combined crude vitalism, linguistic virtuosity and an obsession with the surface detail of everyday life; only the last of these features, however, was taken up and developed by others e.
While his poetry already seems dated and undisciplined, his final major prose work Rom. Blicke may prove to be a seminal work in its combination of verbal and photographic commentary, besides maintaining the strong German tradition of literature portraying the metropolis. Britting, Georg — Poet, playwright and writer of narrative prose, Britting started to write after the First World War he was badly wounded in He collaborated on many expressionist journals Die rote Erde, Der Sturmreiter, Der silberne Spiegel and edited his own, Die Sichel, with Josef Achmann, who contributed the graphic designs.
Britting greatly admired Georg Heym; he also wrote grotesque versions of biblical themes Hiob, Kain, Jor auf der Flucht, etc. During the Second World War Britting turned increasingly to nature poetry, leaving behind the excesses of expressionism and the parodistic elements of Hamlet. Short stories also appeared: Lob des Weines, a collection of twenty poems, appeared in Britting turned to traditional themes and structures, although his imagery remained fresh and striking.
Broch insisted upon an intellectualization of the novel, on working out, by sheer intellectual effort, the troubles of the world. Theoretical essays alternated with works of imagination: Both Broch and Musil embarked upon vast novels that would encompass the problems of the age, combining rationalism and mysticism. The Schlafwander trilogy —2 , encyclopedic and polyhistorical novels, have as their concern the disintegration of values and the decay of European civilization in the period — The first, Pasenow oder die Romantik, has been compared with Fontane, but the secure ground of the nineteenth century has been left far behind: The second, Esch oder die Anarchie, portrays the insubstantiality of the existence of the small book-keeper Esch, who is able neither to escape from Europe nor to come to terms with it; the third, Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit, portrays violence and anarchic forces which destroy the narcissistic world of the heroine.
The realization of the helplessness of the word when faced by the unspeakable will be a concern of many writers in the twentieth century, especially in German-speaking countries. The fourth novel, Die Schuldlosen , treats twentieth-century themes and uses certain dates , and as points of reference: The novel is uncomfortably suspended between political allegory and romantic myth.
The character of Mutter Gisson with her Demeterlike qualities fails to convince, the symbolism being forced and obtrusive, but the description of mass psychology is masterful. The speculative study on A companion to twentieth-century german literature 48 Massenpsychologie stands comparison with the essay Masse und Macht by Elias Canetti as one of the most perceptive analyses of the relationship between the individual self and the corporate whole.
Broch, of Jewish parentage, was arrested when the Nazis invaded Austria, but was released on the intervention of writers like James Joyce. He settled in America and wrote his last novels there. The Gesammelte Schriften ten vols appeared between and reprinted ; the Kommentierte Werkausgabe 13—17 vols appeared from to His early story Tod den Toten! As a Jew, Brod became a Zionist in , and he became especially interested in the more conservative faith of his co-religionists from the eastern provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Brod emigrated to Tel Aviv in and died there in In that year his autobiography Streitbares Leben appeared, which contains enlightening references to Kafka and also to Franz Werfel, of whose conversion to Christianity see Das Lied von Bernadette Brod did not approve.
He produced three volumes of war poetry, Aus meiner Kriegszeit. Gedichte , Kamerad, als wir marschierten. Kriegsgedichte and Soldaten der Erde. A war novel, Bunker Geschichte einer Kameradschaft , was widely read it was translated into English as Pillbox Gesamtausgabe der Gedichte in Eine Auswahl der Gedichte appeared in Bronnen, Arnolt originally Bronner, — Dramatist and novelist, Bronnen was one of the most extreme of the young talented writers who made the opening years of the Weimar Republic a fascinating and often disturbing experience.
His play Vatermord written in , performed in Berlin in was the first of many scandals that surrounded his name; the portrayal of brutal violence and uninhibited sexuality outraged the audience. Die Geburt der Jugend is a chaotic description of anarchic youth; the older generation is annihilated by sexually demented adolescents. In his comedy Die Exzesse the erotic desires of the woman, Hildegarde, find satisfaction in contemplation of intercourse with a goat.
Katalaunische Schlacht looks back to the war as a time of frenzied and erotic ecstasy. Rheinische Rebellen is an overtly nationalist play; Ostpolzug , a monodrama, fuses ancient and modern in its portrayal of Alexander the Great. Bronnen worked for the film industry in the s, also the Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft.
His relations with the Nazis were, however, strained. His autobiography Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll appeared in ; Tage mit Brecht posthumously in Bruckner, Ferdinand pseudonym of Theodor Tagger, — Primarily a dramatist, Bruckner achieved fame in with his play Krankheit der Jugend, a crass and naturalistic portrayal of adolescent sexuality, much indebted to Freud. Bruckner used techniques made famous by Erwin Piscator; his greatest success was Elisabeth von England , where the stage is again split between the two realms, Catholic Madrid and Protestant London, with both antagonists praying to the same god for victory.
Bruckner also turned his attention, with less success, to classical themes Timon and Pyrrhus und Andromache perf. A very successful play was Die Rassen , one which exploits the generation conflict and also the tension between Jew and Aryan. Bruckner emigrated to America in and returned to Europe in , spending the last years of his life in Berlin. Dramatische Werke and Schauspiele nach historischen Studien were both published in An edition of Dramen appeared in Brust was helped by Kurt Wolff; he lived in isolation in Memel and moved to Cranz after the Lithuanian occupation.
Brust shares with many expressionists a predilection for crass and often shocking climaxes. Brust turned towards a portrayal of pseudoreligious experiences in a series of other plays Cordatus. He died in obscurity, isolation and poverty at the age of forty-three; the Nazis initially tolerated his writing, believing him to be an acceptable poet of East Prussian life, although later his work was condemned as degenerate.
The Dramen — ed. Horst Denkler appeared in Since then he has written stories Ein schwarzer, abgrundtiefer See , extended and Babylon and novels which concentrate on human foibles and idiosyncrasies in domestic and professional contexts, although social and political pressures, implicitly criticized, are present in various forms. Essays Kritiken Glossen Unpolitische Betrachtungen zu Literatur und Politik demonstrate individual interests Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and more general concerns of his generation ecology, post-history, apocalypse , the latter present also in Bericht aus dem Innern der Unruhe.
Gorlebener Tagebuch , on demonstrations against nuclear power. Central to the rest of his work is his relationship to the American continent and in particular Haiti, which he visited for the first time in and where he has ancestral links. In the reportages Aus der neuen Welt. An informative document on Burckhardt is the Festschrift which appeared on his seventieth birthday, Dauer im Wechsel Burger, Hermann —89 Burger studied in Zurich, wrote dissertations on Paul Celan and contemporary Swiss literature and taught for a while at the Federal Technical University in Zurich.
His chief works, Schilten. Burger shares with the Austrian Thomas Bernhard and with other contemporary Swiss writers e. Meyer the theme of death as the ultimate threat to personal identity, which he treats with an even greater degree of linguistic virtuosity and reflective intensity. He committed suicide in Brunsloben and Menzenmang volume I and volume II, chapters 1—7 of the planned tetralogy Brenner on the scion of a cigar manufacturing dynasty in search of his childhood appeared in and Der unsichtbare Held, a Nibelungen drama, appeared in the same year.
A companion to twentieth-century german literature 54 Burte published poems in Alemannic dialect Madlee ; a further anthology appeared in Die Seele des Maien. Burte received much acclaim for his work, the Kleist prize for Wildfeber and other distinctions during the Third Reich. The sinologist Peter Kien, obsessed by his own private library, and retreating ever further into a state of solipsism, is ultimately destroyed by fire, ancient symbol of transformation.
The other characters, Pfaff, Theresa Krumbholz and Fischerle, are also utterly self-centred and convinced of their own importance. The idea for the novel came to Canetti in when he witnessed the burning of the Palace of Justice by a mob in Vienna. Canetti moved to Paris in and to London in the following year. In he published Masse und Macht, a sociological, anthropological study of crowds and power: A collection of aphorisms made between and , Aufzeichnungen, appeared in Das Geheimnis der Uhr.
Aufzeichnungen — appeared in In Canetti was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 56 Carossa, Hans — Son of a doctor, Hans Carossa studied medicine in Munich and Leipzig, then settled as a medical practitioner in Bavaria. Verwandlungen einer Jugend is a less successful sequel. The novel Geheimnisse des reifen Lebens uses the diary form to explore human relationships. After the war Carossa attempted to explain his situation at that time in Ungleiche Welten Further autobiographical details of his life appeared in Aufzeichnungen aus Italien ; a scattering of short stories appeared in the s.
His poetry is unassuming and traditional: In his work Carossa eschews modernist experimentation; he appealed to the educated middle-class German reader with his cultivation of humanistic values derived from Goethe. Unlike his parents Celan escaped deportation when his home was occupied by the Nazis, but awareness of the Holocaust is at the centre of his work, his approach to the problems of language and communication in general long a preoccupation of writers from the linguistic melting-pot of Central Europe and the Balkans being linked to the impossibility of conveying the extreme physical and existential exposure of the persecuted.
These, together with translations of twentyone sonnets by Shakespeare and poems by Char, Supervielle, Michaux, Yessenin, Mandelstam, Block and others, were assembled in the provisional Gesammelte Werke in five volumes. Despite the increasing number of exegeses see the Celan-Jahrbuch: He was a man of mystical tendency whose experience of the Holocaust placed obstacles in the way to religious enlightenment; the distortion and reversal of normal syntactical relationships which are a marked feature of his work are related to this central paradox.
However, he remained attached to Jewish culture, as is evident especially in late poems set in Jerusalem. Gesammelte Werke five volumes appeared in His defence of members of the Baader-Meinhof group during the seventies influenced along with Kafka the fragmentary novel Die Herren des Morgengrauens He has also produced works which owe their origin to experiences in Italy Malavita. Mafia zwischen A companion to twentieth-century german literature 58 gestern und morgen and Briganten , a play on Mayakovsky Weltmeisterschaft im Klassenkampf and radio plays.
Csokor, Franz Theodor — Csokor is known primarily as an Austrian expressionist dramatist. He worked in theatres in St Petersburg before settling in his native Vienna: After the First World War Csokor turned to historical and social problems: After Csokor fled into eastern Europe; he was finally arrested in Yugoslavia, and interned. A selection of his works, Du bist gemeint, with a foreword by Erhard Buschbeck, appeared in The Zeuge einer Zeit.
Ein paar Schaufeln Erde. Czechowski, Heinz — Czechowski witnessed the destruction of Dresden, which became the subject of several poems and autobiographical sketches. His melancholy free verse belongs to a tradition of nature poetry which originates in the eighteenth century and is imbued with an awareness of how his predecessors have responded to the same mainly Saxon landscapes and the effects on them of industrial development. In all these one can detect a movement from a positive depiction of everyday life in the GDR and a straightforward autobiographical approach to the expression of a more complex subjectivity, sceptical of conventional views of progress.
Nachtspur consists of poems and prose from to His vast epic Das Nordlicht, which took him twelve years to write, was published in The works that follow Das Nordlicht, particularly the collection of sketches Mit silberner Sichel , contain much talented writing: Dichtungen und Schriften appeared in , and Gedichte in In the following year his best-known work appeared, Ultra Violett. He travelled extensively; a collection of Novellen again, greatly influenced by Jugendstil topoi appeared in Die acht Gesichter am Biwasee.
Japanische Liebesgeschichten it was reprinted in and was extremely popular. In the same year his second novel, Raubmenschen, was published: Dauthendey responded sensitively to the Orient and popularized the culture of the Far East: Erlebnisse aus Java and Letzte Reise appeared posthumously.
His Gesammelte Werke six vols appeared in Degenhardt, Franz Josef — Degenhardt became known in the s as author, composer and performer to his own guitar accompaniment of protest songs, of which there have been numerous recordings and publications, incl. As a novelist he is associated with the realists published by the Autoren-Edition incl. Fuchs, Timm , who aim to raise political consciousness in a wide readership by showing how political forces impinge on the lives of ordinary people. Dehmel, Richard — A student of the natural sciences, philosophy and economy, Dehmel took up writing in the Berlin of the s and reflected in his poetry the main preoccupations of the following two decades: Nietzscheanism, naturalism, impressionism, Jugendstil and a latent expressionism.
His poetry is marked by a powerful sensuality, compassion and a keen intellect. Dehmel stresses in many poems the joy to be found in sexual love, together with hope for true emancipation in the future. Dehmel also wrote plays: His work is at its best in the portrayal of sensuous love and in its sincere, humanitarian beliefs. Although exempt from enlistment due to injuries received at school after a fall from a horizontal bar , Dehmel joined the army in he was over 50 at the time: Dehmel was in close contact with the major writers of his day; he contributed to the leading literary journals.
Gesammelte Werke ten vols appeared from to a three-volume selection in A posthumous autobiography, Mein Leben, was published in In appeared Dichtungen, Briefe, Dokumente. His awareness of the forces at work in contemporary society and of how their interaction affects individual lives underlies all his novels. In Adenauerplatz a security guard employed to watch over a shopping and business complex in an anonymous German city is forced to confront the contradictions of his position as a refugee from Chile after the fall of Allende when he is drawn into collusion with a plot by friends to burgle an international wheeler-dealer with a stake in the political status quo in South America; having become aware of the ramifications of Third World exploitation he decides to abandon his job and return to Chile.
Mogadischu Fensterplatz is a fictional treatment from the perspective of an ordinary passenger of the hijack carried out by members of the Baader-Meinhof group in Somalia in and reflects a deepening concern with Third World topics evident also in the work of Born and Timm.
Die Birnen von Ribbeck , a story consisting of a single sentence seventy pages long, describes the impact of the opening of the Wall on a farm in provincial GDR made famous by a ballad of Fontane. This work, a collection of highly charged utterances, preaches an extreme form of militant Catholicism: The publication of Part One met with little interest, the exception being Karl Wolfskehl, who looked back on it with great pleasure during his New Zealand exile. Das Werk six volumes was published in Dinter, Artur — A student of the natural sciences, Dinter became a teacher, then turned to the theatre; he became increasingly anti-Semitic and reached notoriety with a trilogy of novels published between and The first of these was much acclaimed and widely read; in crudely sensational terms it describes the poisoning of the blood of a German woman, Johanna, through once having had intercourse with a Jew.
The child born to Johanna and her husband Hermann, both blond and Germanic, is dark and of Jewish appearance. Hermann kills the Jew and returns to find that his wife has killed the child and has committed suicide. A collection of Novellen appeared in , bearing the title of the first story, Die Ermordung einer Butterblume, an account of mental disturbance and, in fact, little more than a catalogue of neuroses. Wallenstein two vols , which appeared in , deals with the historical figures of the Thirty Years War but also hints at wider issues—the role of the individual during a time of massive upheaval.
Man and nature are locked in a gigantic struggle: Comparisons have been made with Manhattan Transfer and Ulysses Hans Henny Jahnn and others referred in their reviews to the Irish novelist: Biberkopf sinks from one stage of degradation to another: Babylonische Wandrung curses the sin of pride and portrays with grotesque humour the passage of the hero through the Babylon of Western civilization in a journey of selfexploration and expiation.
The work appears formless a fusion of mythology, history, modern events, statistical facts and popular songs , but an inexhaustible richness cannot be denied. In he became a convert to Roman Catholicism and after the war he returned to Paris, working in the cultural department of the French military government his son Wolfgang had been killed in the war, fighting as a French soldier. Questions are asked concerning the possibility of responsible action and the ultimate meaning of human existence. Doderer, Heimito von — Born near Vienna, Doderer enlisted in the Austrian army as a young man and became a Russian prisoner of war in Doderer studied history at Vienna University, received his doctorate in and dedicated himself to creating an epic description of the city he knew so well.
He had published a book of poems, Gassen und Landschaften, in , also a short novel, Die Bresche, in , but Doderer felt that he needed the breadth of the full-scale novel to do his subject Vienna justice. Other novels, Ein Mord, den jeder begeht , Der Umweg and Die erleuchteten Fenster , are best regarded as sophisticated detective stories and thrillers, meant for a wide readership. The hero is one Melzer, former imperial officer, now senior official in the new republic. The years —11 and —5 are compared and contrasted.
The book is felt to lack social awareness, despite the rich clutter A-Z 67 of its scenario. Doderer is concerned with a process which he calls Menschwerdung: