The Tao T'i Lun is an eighth century exegesis of the Tao Te Ching , written from a well-educated and religious viewpoint, that represents the traditional scholarly perspective. The devotional perspective of the Tao is expressed in the Ch'ing Ching Ching , a liturgical text that was originally composed during the Han dynasty and is used as a hymnal in religious Taoism, especially among eremites. The Zhuangzi also spelled Chuang Tzu uses literary devices such as tales, allegories, and narratives to relate the Tao to the reader, illustrating a metaphorical method of viewing and expressing the Tao.
What is the Tao?
The forms and variations of religious Taoism are incredibly diverse. They integrate a broad spectrum of academic, ritualistic, supernatural, devotional, literary, and folk practices with a multitude of results. Buddhism and Confucianism particularly affected the way many sects of Taoism framed, approached, and perceived the Tao.
The multitudinous branches of religious Taoism accordingly regard the Tao, and interpret writings about it, in innumerable ways. Thus, outside of a few broad similarities, it is difficult to provide an accurate yet clear summary of their interpretation of the Tao.
It is the source of the Universe and the seed of its primordial purity resides in all things. The manifestation of the Tao is De, which rectifies and invigorates the world with the Tao's radiance. Alternatively, philosophical Taoism regards the Tao as a non-religious concept; it is not a deity to be worshiped, nor is it a mystical Absolute in the religious sense of the Hindu Brahman.
Joseph Wu remarked of this conception of the Tao, "Dao is not religiously available; nor is it even religiously relevant. The self steeped in the Tao is the self grounded in its place within the natural Universe. A person dwelling within the Tao excels in themselves and their activities. However, this distinction is complicated by hermeneutic interpretive difficulties in the categorization of Taoist schools, sects and movements. The Dao , or Way, of Confucius can be said to be 'Truth'. Confucianism regards the Way, or Truth, as concordant with a particular approach to life, politics, and tradition.
It is held as equally necessary and well regarded as De virtue and ren humanity. Confucius presents a humanistic 'Dao'.
Tao: The Way of God - Waysun Liao - Google Книги
He only rarely speaks of the t'ien Dao Way of Heaven. An influential early Confucian, Hsiin Tzu, explicitly noted this contrast. Though he acknowledged the existence and celestial importance of the Way of Heaven, he insisted that the Dao principally concerns human affairs. As a formal religious concept in Confucianism, Dao is the Absolute towards which the faithful move. In Zhongyong The Doctrine of the Mean , harmony with the Absolute is equivalent to integrity and sincerity. The Great Learning expands on this concept explaining that the Way illuminates virtue, improves the people, and resides within the purest morality.
During the Tang dynasty , Han Yu further formalized and defined Confucian beliefs as an apologetic response to Buddhism. He emphasized the ethics of the Way. He explicitly paired 'Dao' and 'De', focusing on humane nature and righteousness. Buddhism first started to spread in China during the first century AD and was experiencing a golden age of growth and maturation by the fourth century AD. Hundreds of collections of Pali and Sanskrit texts were translated into Chinese by Buddhist monks within a short period of time. Dhyana was translated as ch'an and later as zen , giving Zen Buddhism its name.
The use of Chinese concepts, such as Dao, that were close to Buddhist ideas and terms helped spread the religion and make it more amenable to the Chinese people. However, the differences between the Sanskrit and Chinese terminology led to some initial misunderstandings and the eventual development of East Asian Buddhism as a distinct entity. As part of this process, many Chinese words introduced their rich semantic and philosophical associations into Buddhism, including the use of 'Dao' for central concepts and tenets of Buddhism.
Pai-chang Huai-hai told a student who was grappling with difficult portions of suttas , "Take up words in order to manifest meaning and you'll obtain 'meaning'. Cut off words and meaning is emptiness.
Emptiness is the Dao. The Dao is cutting off words and speech. Pai-chang's statement plays upon this usage in the context of the fluid and varied Chinese usage of 'Dao'.
Tao: The Way of God
Words and meaning are used to refer to rituals and practice. The 'emptiness' refers to the Buddhist concept of sunyata. Finding the Dao and Buddha-nature is not simply a matter of formulations, but an active response to the Four Noble Truths that cannot be fully expressed or conveyed in words and concrete associations.
The use of 'Dao' in this context refers to the literal 'way' of Buddhism, the return to the universal source, dharma , proper meditation, and nirvana , among other associations. During the Song dynasty , Neo-Confucians regarded Dao as the purest thing-in-itself. Shao Yong regarded the Dao as the origin of heaven, earth, and everything within them. In contrast, Zhang Zai presented a vitalistic Dao that was the fundamental component or effect of ch'i , the motive energy behind life and the world.
A number of later scholars adopted this interpretation, such as Tai Chen during the Qing Dynasty. Cheng Hao regarded the fundamental matter of li, and thus Dao, to be humaneness.
Developing compassion, altruism, and other humane virtues is the following of the Way. Cheng Yi followed this interpretation, elaborating on this perspective of Dao through teachings about yin-yang interactions , the cultivation and preservation of life; and the axiom of a morally just universe. In total, the Dao is equated with the Absolute. Nothing exists apart from the Principle of Heaven in Neo-Confucianism.
The Way is contained within all things. Thus, the religious life is not an elite or special journey for Neo-Confucians. The normal, mundane life is the path that leads to the Absolute, because the Absolute is contained within the mundane objects and events of daily life.
Noted Christian author C. Lewis used the word Tao to describe "the doctrine of objective value, the belief that certain attitudes are really true, and others really false, the kind of thing the Universe is and the kind of things we are.
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Here the Way refers to the path of righteousness and salvation as revealed through Christ. It typifies the most common Chinese character classification of "radical-phonetic" or "phono-semantic" graphs, which compound a " radical " or "signific" roughly providing semantic information with a " phonetic " suggesting ancient pronunciation. The earliest written forms of dao are bronzeware script and seal script characters from Zhou Dynasty — BCE bronzes and writings. The linguist Peter A. This is supported by textual examples of the use of the primary tao in the verbal sense "to lead" e.
Tao would seem, then, to be etymologically a more dynamic concept than we have made it translation-wise. It would be more appropriately rendered by "lead way" and "lode" "way," "course," "journey," "leading," "guidance"; cf. These Confucian Analects citations of dao verbally meaning "to guide; to lead" are: In Middle Chinese ca.
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In Old Chinese ca. Note that brackets clarify abbreviations and ellipsis marks omitted usage examples. The archaic pronunciation of Tao sounded approximately like drog or dorg. This links it to the Proto-Indo-European root drogh to run along and Indo-European dhorg way, movement. The nearest Sanskrit Old Indian cognates to Tao drog are dhrajas course, motion and dhraj course.
The most closely related English words are "track" and "trek", while "trail" and "tract" are derived from other cognate Indo-European roots. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Tao by Waysun Liao. The Way of God by Waysun Liao. The Way of God 3. Why do we suffer? How can we heal ourselves and our world? What is the purpose of life? What happens when we die? What is the best way to pray? When you understand the way God works, you'll understand the answers to these questions and more. Master Waysun Liao takes you to the inner teachings of Tao wisdom, giving you the keys to its ancient mysteries in simple What is God?
Master Waysun Liao takes you to the inner teachings of Tao wisdom, giving you the keys to its ancient mysteries in simple terms applied to modern life in today's world. Enjoy common sense analogies, humor, diagrams, and passages from texts such as Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching as you start your own Tao journey with Master Liao as your guide. The Way of God, you will unlock the secret to the power of God, the spiritual dimension, and break beyond the limits or our man-made artificial world. Once you know Tao as the Way of God, you will never be the same. About the Author From the age of twelve, Waysun Liao studied with a wandering Taoist and in a Taoist temple until he became a full Taichi and Tao master.
Considered one of the world's foremost authorities on traditional Taoist wisdom and Chi arts, he is the founder and master of one of the oldest Taichi centers in North America, located in Oak Park, Illinois. He is one of the few remaining Tao masters carrying and transmitting the ancient oral traditions concerning the power of Tao, and shares his wisdom with students across the world.
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In addition, he has compiled a complete Taichi learning system on DVD, preserving the ancient temple teachings on moving meditation, the Tao, and internal energy development. Kindle Edition , pages. Published first published October 11th To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Tao , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.