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He only exposed himself and them to what is commonly expected in any form of warfare—the probability of being killed by the enemy. This is not suicide, rather it is bravery and heroism. Islam has always required perfect chivalry and discipline. For that reason, soldiers are ordered to endure and fight even in the face of tremendous odds.

The Islamic rules of military conduct never permit using civilians as targets or as hostages. Therefore, if a Muslim kills himself, along with innocents, it is a doubly forbidden act.

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Even in times of war, Muslims are not allowed to kill anybody save the one who is indulged in face-to-face confrontation with them. This ruling does not change based on geographical locality. Whoever indiscriminately attacks my Ummah, killing the righteous and wicked among them, sparing not even those firm in faith, and fulfilling not a pledge made with whoever was given a promise of security, has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him.

This shows us very clearly, that those who indiscriminately attack both Muslims and non-Muslims by suicide bombings, killing innocent people, and without focusing on anyone in particular, are rejected completely by the Prophet. Friday , Sep 21st Last update: Its Meaning and Manner. The Classical Islamic Perspective - Page Jihad, Terrorism and Suicide Bombing: Who is Involved in Combat?

Reset user setting Top. The Classical Islamic Perspective. The Meaning of Jihad. Jihad in History and Law. The Jihad of Education. First Legislation of Combative Jihad. While there were few, if any, successful suicide attacks anywhere in the world from the end of World War II until , [1] between and September , a total of 4, suicide attacks occurred in over 40 countries, [2] killing over 45, people. During this time the global rate of such attacks grew from an average of three a year in the s, to about one a month in the s, to almost one a week from to , [3] to approximately one a day from to Suicide attacks tend to be more deadly and destructive than other terror attacks [4] because they give their perpetrators the ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, and because they dispense with the need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams.

Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq. Suicide attacks have been described as a weapon of psychological warfare [7] to instill fear in the target population, [8] a strategy to eliminate or at least drastically diminish areas where the public feels safe, and the "fabric of trust that holds societies together". The motivation of suicide attackers varies. Kamikaze acted under military orders and were motivated by obedience and nationalism.

Before , most attacks targeted forces occupying the attackers' homeland, according to analyst Robert Pape. Suicide attacks include both Suicide terrorism—terrorism often defined as any action "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants" for the purpose of intimidation [11] —and suicide attacks not targeting non-combatants.

An alternative definition is provided by Jason Burke , a journalist who has lived among Islamic militants, and suggests that most define terrorism as 'the use or threat of serious violence' to advance some kind of 'cause', stressing that terrorism is a tactic.

The definition of "suicide" is another issue. Suicide terrorism itself has been defined by one source Ami Pedahzur as "violent actions perpetrated by people who are aware that the odds they will return alive are close to zero".


It may not always be clear to investigators which type of killing is which. Suicide attack campaigns sometimes also using proxy bombers such as alleged in Iraq. The usage of the term "suicide attack" goes back a long way [ citation needed ] but "suicide bombing" dates back to at least when a New York Times article mentions the term in relation to German tactics. Sometimes, to assign either a more positive or negative connotation to the act, suicide bombing is referred to by different terms.

Islamist supporters often call a suicide attack Istishhad often translated as " martyrdom operation " , and the suicide attacker shahid pl. The idea being that the attacker died in order to testify his faith in God, for example while waging jihad bis saif jihad by the sword. The term "suicide" is never used because Islam has strong strictures against taking one's own life. Some efforts have been made to replace the term "suicide bombing" with "homicide bombing", on the grounds that since the primary purpose of such a bombing is to kill other people, homicide is a more apt an adjective than "suicide".

Emeritus Professor Robert Goldney, of the University of Adelaide , has argued in favor of the term "homicide bomber", arguing that studies show that there is little in common between people who blow themselves up, intending to kill as many people as possible in the process, and actual suicide victims. CNN Producer Christa Robinson argued that the term "homicide bomber" reflects only that you have killed other people, but not that you have also killed yourself. In the German-speaking area the term "sacrifice bombing" Ger.

Opferanschlag was proposed in by German scholar Arata Takeda. The 1st Century AD Jewish Sicarii sect are thought to have carried out suicidal attacks [17] against Hellenized Jews they considered immoral collaborators. Hashishiyeen were known for their targeting of the powerful, their use of the dagger as a weapon rather than something safer for the assassin such as a crossbow , and for making no attempt to escape after completing their killing. Arnold von Winkelried became a hero in the Swiss struggle for independence when he sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sempach in The earliest known non-military suicide attack occurred in Murchison in New Zealand on 14 July A long-standing dispute between two farmers resulted in a court case, and the defendant Joseph Sewell had sticks of gelignite strapped to his body.

When Sewell excitedly shouted during the court sitting about the other farmer "I'll blow the devil to hell, and I have enough dynamite to do just that", he was ushered out of the building. Sewell detonated the charge when a police officer tried to arrest him on the street, and his body was blown to pieces, but nobody else died from their injuries.

To counter the superior numbers of the Chola dynasty empire's army in the 11th century, suicide squads were raised by the Indian Chera rulers. This helped the Cheras to resist Chola invasion and maintain the independence of their kingdom from the time of Kulothunga Chola I. These warriors were known as the "chavers". Now their primary duty was to assist local rulers in battles and skirmishes.

The rulers of the state of Valluvanad are known to have deployed a number of suicide squads against the ruler of Calicut. In the late 17th century, Qing official Yu Yonghe recorded that injured Dutch soldiers fighting against Koxinga 's forces for control of Taiwan in would use gunpowder to blow up both themselves and their opponents rather than be taken prisoner.

It was considered as part of personal jihad in the Islamic religion of the Acehnese.


The Acehnese work of literature, the Hikayat Perang Sabil provided the background and reasoning for the "Aceh-mord"- Acehnese suicide attacks upon the Dutch. The Japanese suffered 18 dead in the uprising while they slaughtered up to or over Acehnese. Moro Muslims who performed suicide attacks were called mag-sabil , and the suicide attacks were known as Parang-sabil. The idea of the juramentado was considered part of jihad in the Moros' Islamic religion. During an attack, a Juramentado would throw himself at his targets and kill them with bladed weapons such as barongs and kris until he himself was killed.

The Moros performed juramentado suicide attacks against the Spanish in the Spanish—Moro conflict of the 16th to the 19th centuries, against the Americans in the Moro Rebellion — , and against the Japanese in World War II. The Moro Juramentados aimed their attacks specifically against their enemies, and not against non-Muslims in general. They launched suicide attacks on the Japanese, Spanish, Americans and Filipinos, but did not attack the non-Muslim Chinese as the Chinese were not considered enemies of the Moro people. According to historian Stephan Dale, the Moro were not the only Muslims who carried out suicide attacks "in their fight against Western hegemony and colonial rule".

The first known suicide bomber was Russian. One way around that obstacle was to use a human trigger, and this was the technique that assassinated Tsar Alexander II of Russia in Kan-tse-tui or "Suicide squads" [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [ excessive citations ] were frequently used by Chinese armies. In the Xinhai Revolution, many Chinese revolutionaries became martyrs in battle. Huang said, "We must die, so let us die bravely. The 72 Martyrs of Huanghuagang died in the uprising that began the Wuchang Uprising , and were recognized as heroes and martyrs by the Kuomintang party and the Republic of China.

The Huanghuakang was built as a monument to the 72 martyrs. During the January 28 Incident a dare to die squad struck against the Japanese. Suicide bombing was also used against the Japanese. A "dare to die corps" was effectively used against Japanese units at the Battle of Taierzhuang.

A Chinese soldier detonated a grenade vest and killed 20 Japanese soldiers at Sihang Warehouse. Chinese troops strapped explosives like grenade packs or dynamite to their bodies and threw themselves under Japanese tanks to blow them up. During the — Communist Revolution , coolies fighting the Communists formed "Dare to Die Corps" to fight for their organizations, with their lives. Kamikaze , a ritual act of self-sacrifice carried out by Japanese pilots of explosive-laden aircraft against Allied warships, occurred on a large scale at the end of World War II.

About attacks were made and about 50 ships were sunk. Later in the war, as Japan became more desperate, this act became formalized and ritualized, as planes were outfitted with explosives specific to the task of a suicide mission. The Japanese Navy also used piloted torpedoes called kaiten "Heaven shaker" on suicide missions. Although sometimes called midget submarines , these were modified versions of the unmanned torpedoes of the time and are distinct from the torpedo-firing midget submarines used earlier in the war, which were designed to infiltrate shore defenses and return to a mother ship after firing their torpedoes.

Although extremely hazardous, these midget submarine attacks were not technically suicide missions, as the earlier midget submarines had escape hatches. Kaitens, however, provided no means of escape. These 'total missions' were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron. He comments that "thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success". Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff intended to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bomb in , but was unable to complete the attack.

American tanks at Seoul were attacked by North Korean suicide squads, [] who used satchel charges. An Arab Christian military officer from Syria, Jules Jammal , allegedly brought down a French ship with a suicide attack during the Suez Crisis in [] according to Egyptian media, although both French ships with that name were unharmed during the crisis. The concept of self-sacrifice as a means to killing others dates back to antiquity with Samson's suicidal mass killing of the Philistine leaders, [] but the idea of suicide bombing "as a tool of stateless terrorists" was only "dreamed up a hundred years ago by the European anarchists", [] according to author Noah Feldman.

Marine barracks in Lebanon, that it became "tool of modern terrorist warfare". Other parties to the civil war were quick to adopt the tactic, and by factions such as Hezbollah, the Amal Movement , the Ba'ath Party , and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party had carried out around 50 suicide bombings between them. The latter of these groups sent the first recorded female suicide bomber in The LTTE carried out their first suicide attack in July , [] [] and their Black Tiger unit committed 83 suicide attacks from to , killing people, [] including former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi , [] [] [] and the president of Sri Lanka, Ranasinghe Premadasa.

Another non-religious group involved in suicide attacks was the Kurdistan Workers' Party which began their insurgency against the Turkish state in Al-Qaeda carried out its first suicide attack in the mids, [] and they first appeared in Israel and the Palestinian Territories in In early , one analyst Yoram Schweitzer saw a pause in bombing campaigns and argued that "most of the groups that were involved in suicide terrorism either stopped using it or eventually reduced it significantly.

The number of attacks using suicide tactics grew from an average of fewer than five per year during the s to 81 suicide attacks in to in These bombings have tended to have more popular support than in other Muslim countries, and more music videos and announcements that promise eternal reward for suicide bombers can be found on Palestinian television according to Palestinian Media Watch. These attacks resulted in the deaths of people including the 15 hijackers on board the three planes as well as 2, more in and around the targeted buildings. In total, the attacks killed 2, people and injured more than 6, others.

More attacks have been carried out in Iraq as of mid than in any other country. In addition to United States military targets, they attacked many civilian targets such as Shiite mosques , international offices of the UN and the Red Cross. Iraqi men waiting to apply for jobs with the new army and police force were targets. In the lead up to the Iraqi parliamentary election , on January 30, , suicide attacks upon civilian and police personnel involved with the elections increased. There were also reports of the insurgents co-opting disabled people as involuntary suicide bombers.

Other major locations of suicide attack are Afghanistan 1, attacks as of mid [6] and Pakistan attacks. In Europe four Islamist suicide bombers exploded home-made peroxide explosives on three London underground trains and a bus on 7 July , during the morning rush hour. Since , al-Shabaab and its predecessor, the Islamic Courts, have carried out major suicide attacks in Somalia, [] [] the worse year so far being with 16 attacks and over killed. The organizations work to guarantee individual suicide bombers that they "will be remembered as martyrs dying for their communities".

Its goal is not to produce a negative psychological effect only on the victims of the actual attack, but on the entire target population. The technique has also been called "the atomic weapon of the weak". But right now, we can only tackle the fire with our bare hands and sacrifice ourselves. A major reason for the popularity of suicide attacks despite the sacrifice involved for its perpetrators is its tactical advantages over other types of terrorism.

The ability to conceal weapons, make last-minute adjustments, increased ability to infiltrate heavily guarded targets, lack of need for remote or delayed detonation, escape plans or rescue teams. The element of suicide itself helps increase the credibility of future attacks because it suggests that attackers cannot be deterred. Bruce Hoffman describes the characteristics of suicide bombing, as "universal": They are less complicated and compromising than other kinds of terrorist operations.

They guarantee media coverage. The suicide terrorist is the ultimate smart bomb. Perhaps most important, coldly efficient bombings tear at the fabric of trust that holds societies together. Studies of who becomes a suicide attacker and what motivates them have often come to different conclusions.

They are not sufficiently different from everyone else.

Terror and Suicide Attacks

Insights into homegrown jihadi attacks will have to come from understanding group dynamics, not individual psychology. Small-group dynamics can trump individual personality to produce horrific behavior in otherwise ordinary people. Suicides want to hurt or kill their targets because they hold them responsible for all bad things that has happened to them or in the world or simply just because they want to escape misery and poverty. Based on biographies of more than seven hundred foreign fighters uncovered at an Iraqi insurgent camp, researchers believe that the motivation for suicide missions at least in Iraq was not "the global jihadi ideology", but "an explosive mix of desperation, pride, anger, sense of powerlessness, local tradition of resistance and religious fervor".

A study of the remains of suicide bombers in Afghanistan for the first part of by Afghan pathologist Dr. Also in contrast to earlier findings of suicide bombers, the Afghan bombers were "not celebrated like their counterparts in other Arab nations. Afghan bombers are not featured on posters or in videos as martyrs.

Anthropologist Scott Atran 's research has found that the attacks are not organized from the top down, but occurs from the bottom up. That is, it is usually a matter of following one's friends, and ending up in environments that foster groupthink. Atran is also critical of the claim that terrorists simply crave destruction; they are often motivated by beliefs they hold sacred, as well as their own moral reasoning.

Robert Pape , director of the Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism, found the majority of suicide bombers came from the educated middle classes. Humam Balawi , who perpetrated the Camp Chapman attack in Afghanistan in , was a medical doctor. A study by German scholar Arata Takeda analyzes analogous behavior represented in literary texts from the antiquity through the 20th century Sophocles ' s Ajax , Milton 's Samson Agonistes , Friedrich Schiller 's The Robbers , Albert Camus 's The Just Assassins and comes to the conclusion "that suicide bombings are not the expressions of specific cultural peculiarities or exclusively religious fanaticisms.

Instead, they represent a strategic option of the desperately weak who strategically disguise themselves under the mask of apparent strength, terror, and invincibility. To what extent attackers are motivated by religious enthusiasm, by resistance to perceived outsider oppression or some combination of the two is disputed. Beneath the religious rhetoric with which [such terror] is perpetrated, it occurs largely in the service of secular aims. Suicide terrorism is mainly a response to foreign occupation rather than a product of Islamic fundamentalism Though it speaks of Americans as infidels, al-Qaida is less concerned with converting us to Islam than removing us from Arab and Muslim lands.

Alternately, another source found that at least in one country Lebanon from — it was Islamists who influenced secular nationalists—their use of suicide attack spreading to the secular groups. Five Lebanese groups "espousing a non-religious nationalist ideology" followed the lead of Islamist groups in attacking by suicide, "impressed by the effectiveness of Hezbollah's attacks in precipitating the withdrawal of the 'foreigners' from Lebanon".

Other researchers contend that Pape's analysis is flawed, particularly his contention that democracies are the main targets of such attacks. Mia Bloom agrees with Pape that competition among insurgents groups is a significant motivator, arguing the growth in suicide as a tactic is a product of "outbidding", i. According to Atran [] and former CIA case officer Marc Sageman , [] support for suicide actions is triggered by moral outrage at perceived attacks against Islam and sacred values, but this is converted to action as a result of small-world factors such as being part of a football club with other jihadis.

Millions express sympathy with global jihad according to a Gallup study involving more than 50, interviews in dozens of countries, 7 percent or at least 90 million of the world's 1. Updating his work in a book Cutting the Fuse , Pape reported that a fine-grained analysis of the time and location of attacks strongly support his conclusion that "foreign military occupation accounts for The same logic can be seen in Afghanistan. An enormous spike in suicide terrorism only occurred later in as NATO moved into the south and east, which had previously been controlled by the Taliban and locals were more likely to see NATO as a foreign occupation threatening local culture and customs.

What connection the high percentage of suicide attacks executed by Islamist groups since has to do with the religion of Islam is disputed. Specifically, scholars, researchers, and others, disagree over whether Islam forbids suicide in the process of attacking enemies or the killing of civilians. According to a report compiled by the Chicago Project on Suicide Terrorism, of suicide terror attacks from to involved Islamist groups or took place in Muslim-majority lands. Islamic suicide bombing is a fairly recent event. It was totally absent from the — Afghan jihad against the Soviet Union, [] an asymmetrical war where the mujahideen fought Soviet warplanes, helicopters and tanks primarily with light weapons.

According to author Sadakat Kadri, "the very idea that Muslims might blow themselves up for God was unheard of before , and it was not until the early s that anyone anywhere had tried to justify killing innocent Muslims who were not on a battlefield. Since then, the "vocabulary of martyrdom and sacrifice", videotaped pre-confession of faith by attackers have become part of "Islamic cultural consciousness", "instantly recognizable" to Muslims according to Noah Feldman , [] while the tactic has spread through the Muslim world "with astonishing speed and on a surprising course".

First the targets were American soldiers, then mostly Israelis, including women and children. From Lebanon and Israel, the technique of suicide bombing moved to Iraq, where the targets have included mosques and shrines, and the intended victims have mostly been Shiite Iraqis. Not long ago, a bombing in Lashkar Gah, the capital of Helmand Province , killed Muslims, including women, who were applying to go on pilgrimage to Mecca.

Overall, the trend is definitively in the direction of Muslim-on-Muslim violence. By a conservative accounting, more than three times as many Iraqis have been killed by suicide bombings in just three year —6 as have Israelis in ten from — Recent research on the rationale of suicide bombing has identified both religious and sociopolitical motivations. Since martyrdom is seen as a step towards paradise, those who commit suicide while discarding their community from a common enemy believe that they will reach an ultimate salvation after they die.

Other alleged rewards for those dying in jihad are feeling no pain from the cause of their death, [] being cleansed of all sin and brought directly to paradise, not having to wait for the Day of Judgement. Others such as As'ad AbuKhalil maintain that "the tendency to dwell on the sexual motives" of the suicide bombers "belittles" the bombers "sociopolitical causes", and that the alleged "sexual frustration" of young Muslim men "has been overly emphasized in the Western and Israeli media" as a motive for terrorism.

Islamist militant organisations including al-Qaeda , Hamas and Islamic Jihad argue that despite what some Muslims claim is Islam's strict prohibition of suicide and murder, [] [] suicide attacks fulfill the obligation of jihad against the "oppressor", "martyrs" will be rewarded with paradise, and have the support of some Muslim clerics. Clerics have supported suicide attacks largely in connection with the Palestinian issue. Prominent Sunni cleric Yusuf al-Qaradawi previously had supported such attacks by Palestinians in perceived defense of their homeland as heroic and an act of resistance.

Jihad, Terrorism and Suicide Bombing: The Classical Islamic Perspective

The Quranic verse used by Zarein Ahmedzay an Afghanistan-born New York City cab driver who traveled to Waziristan for terrorist training and discussed possible suicide bombing target locations in crowded parts of Manhattan in support of his actions was 9: Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their wealth for the price of Paradise, to fight in the way of Allah, to kill and be killed.

It is a promise binding on the truth in the Torah , the Gospel and the Qur'an. Supporters of the Taliban insist their attacks are "martyrdom operations" and not suicide. The June issue of the Taliban magazine Azan extolled the virtues of suicide attacks, claiming that "suicide bombing" is a "false term" for jihad martyrdom attacks. The articles maintains that Abu Huraira a companion of the Muhammad and Umar ibn Khattab the third caliph of Islam , approved acts in which the Muslims knew would lead to certain death, and that the Islamic prophet Muhammad also approved of such acts according to authors Maulana Muawiya Hussaini and Ikrimah Anwar cited numerous Hadith of Muhammad on the authority of Islamic jurist Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj.

Others such as Middle East historian Bernard Lewis disagree, noting. The first, if conducted in a properly authorized [ jihad ], was a passport to heaven; the second to damnation. The blurring of their previously vital distinction was the work of some twentieth-century theologians who outlined the new theory which the suicide bombers put into practice. The difference between engaging in an act where the perpetrator plans to fight to the death but where the attack does not require their death, is important to at least one Islamist terror group — Lashkar-e-Taiba LeT.

While the group extols "martyrdom" and has killed many civilians, LeT believes suicide attacks where the attackers dies by their own hand such as by pressing a detonation button , are haram forbidden. Its "trademark" is that of perpetrators fighting "to the death" but escaping "if practical". A number of Western and Muslim scholars of Islam have posited that suicide attacks are a clear violation of classical Islamic law and characterized such attacks against civilians as murderous and sinful.

According to Bernard Lewis , "the emergence of the now widespread terrorism practice of suicide bombing is a development of the 20th century. It has no antecedents in Islamic history, and no justification in terms of Islamic theology, law, or tradition. A number of respected Muslim scholars have provided scholastic refutations of suicide bombings, condemning them as terrorism prohibited in Islam and leading their perpetrators to hell.

The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al Shaykh , issued a fatwa on September 12, that suicide bombings are "great crimes" and bombers are "criminals who rush themselves to hell by their actions". Al Shaykh described suicide bombers as "robbed of their minds The sectarian or ignorant utterances made by some of these people would benefit none other than the greedy, vindictive and envious people. Hence, we would like to draw attention to the seriousness of the attacks on Muslims or those who live under their protection or under a pact with them", Al Shaykh said, quoting a number of verses from the Qur'an and Hadith.

In , following a series of bombings by the banned putfit Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh JMB Ubaidul Haq , the chief cleric of Bangladesh led a protest of ulema denouncing terrorism. These bombers are enemies of Islam. In January , Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei , a Shia Marja high ranking cleric , decreed a fatwa against suicide bombing, declaring it a "terrorist act". Ihsanic Intelligence, a London-based Islamic think-tank, published their two-year study into suicide bombings in the name of Islam, The Hijacked Caravan , [] which concluded that,.

The technique of suicide bombing is anathema, antithetical and abhorrent to Sunni Islam. It is considered legally forbidden, constituting a reprehensible innovation in the Islamic tradition, morally an enormity of sin combining suicide and murder and theologically an act which has consequences of eternal damnation. The classical jurists, nearly without exception, argued that those who attack by stealth, while targeting noncombatants in order to terrorize the resident and wayfarer, are corrupters of the earth.

The legal term given to people who act this way was muharibun those who wage war against society , and the crime is called the crime of hiraba waging war against society. The crime of hiraba was so serious and repugnant that, according to Islamic law, those guilty of this crime were considered enemies of humankind and were not to be given quarter or sanctuary anywhere Those who are familiar with the classical tradition will find the parallels between what were described as crimes of hiraba and what is often called terrorism today nothing short of remarkable.

Furthermore, hijacking methods of transportation or crucifying people in order to spread fear are also crimes of hiraba.

Importantly, Islamic law strictly prohibited the taking of hostages, the mutilation of corpses, and torture. According to Charles Kimball, chair of the Department of Religion at Wake Forest University , "There is only one verse in the Qur'an that contains a phrase related to suicide" 4: O you who have believed, do not consume one another's wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent.

And do not kill yourselves. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful. Some commentators posit that "do not kill yourselves" is better translated "do not kill each other", and some translations e. Shakir reflect that view.

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  • Other Muslims have also noted Quranic verses in opposition to suicide, to taking of life other than by way of justice i. The international community considers the use of indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations [] and the use of human shields [] [] as illegal under international law. Support by Muslims for "suicide bombing and other forms of violence that target civilians in order to defend Islam", has varied over time and by country. Suicide operatives are overwhelmingly male in most groups, but among Chechen rebels [] and the Kurdistan Workers Party PKK women form the majority of the attackers.

    Female suicide bombers have been observed in many predominantly nationalist conflicts by a variety of organizations against both military and civilian targets. In February , however, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin , the religious leader of Hamas , issued a fatwa, giving women permission to participate in suicide attacks.

    During the s the greatest number of female suicide attacks in any single year was five. According to a report issued by intelligence analysts in the U. Another study of suicide bombers from and July by Lindsey A. Consequently, terrorist organizations recruit and motivate women to participate in suicide attacks, using traditional attitudes of honor and feminine harmlessness and vulnerability among target populations to insert attackers were they can cause a maximum of death and destruction.

    By stumbling or calling out in distress more victims may be drawn to the explosion. The woman bomber carriers are not permitted to hold and control the detonator, which are still held by the men in charge. About 70 percent joined with friends, 20 percent with kin. Seeking friendship, they began hanging out after services at the Masjad al-Quds and other nearby mosques in Hamburg , in local restaurants and in the dormitory of the Technical University in the suburb of Harburg. They wanted to go to Chechnya , then Kosovo. Hamas 's most sustained suicide bombing campaign in —04 involved several members of Hebron's Masjad mosque al-Jihad soccer team.

    Most lived in the Wad Abu Katila neighborhood and belonged to the al-Qawasmeh hamula clan ; several were classmates in the neighborhood's local branch of the Palestinian Polytechnic College. Their ages ranged from 18 to At least eight team members were dispatched to suicide shooting and bombing operations by the Hamas military leader in Hebron, Abdullah al-Qawasmeh killed by Israeli forces in June and succeeded by his relatives Basel al-Qawasmeh, killed in September , and Imad al-Qawasmeh, captured on October 13, In December , Hamas declared a halt to suicide attacks.

    On January 15, , the son of Mahmoud al-Zahar , the leader of Hamas in the Gaza Strip , was killed another son was killed in a assassination attempt on Zahar. Three days later, Israel Defense Minister Ehud Barak ordered Israel Defense Forces to seal all border crossings with Gaza, cutting off the flow of supplies to the territory in an attempt to stop rocket barrages on Israeli border towns.

    Nevertheless, violence from both sides only increased. On February 4, , two friends Mohammed Herbawi, Shadi Zghayer , who were members of the Masjad al-Jihad soccer team, staged a suicide bombing at commercial center in Dimona, Israel. Herbawi had previously been arrested as a year-old on 15 March shortly after a suicide bombing on Haifa bus by Mamoud al-Qawasmeh on March 5, and coordinated suicide shooting attacks on Israeli settlements by others on the team March 7, , Muhsein, Hazem al-Qawasmeh, Fadi Fahuri, Sufian Hariz and before another set of suicide bombings by team members in Hebron and Jerusalem on May 17—18, Fuad al-Qawasmeh, Basem Takruri, Mujahed al-Ja'abri.

    Although Hamas claimed responsibility for the Dimona attack, the politburo leadership in Damascus and Beirut was clearly initially unaware of who initiated and carried out the attack.

    What You Don't Understand about Suicide Attacks

    It appears that Ahmad al-Ja'abri, military commander of Hamas's Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades in Gaza requested the suicide attack through Ayoub Qawasmeh, Hamas's military liaison in Hebron, who knew where to look for eager young men who had self-radicalized together and had already mentally prepared themselves for martyrdom. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam were thought to have mastered the use of suicide terrorism and had a separate unit, "The Black Tigers", consisting "exclusively of cadres who have volunteered to conduct suicide operations".

    The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant utilizes suicide attacks against government targets before they attack. The attackers can use a wide range of methods, from suicide vests and belts to bomb trucks and cars and APCs filled to the brim with explosives. Usually, the suicide bomber involved in a "martyrdom operation" will record his last words in a martyrdom video before they start their attack and will be released after the suicide attack was done.

    A study published by The Guardian in analyzed attacks done between December and November and compared the military tactic to those used by kamikaze operations.

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    Suicide bombings are often followed by heightened security measures and reprisals by their targets. Because a successful suicide bomber cannot be targeted, the response is often a targeting of those believed to have sent the bomber. In the West Bank the IDF has at times demolished homes that belong to families whose children or landlords whose tenants had volunteered for such missions whether successfully or not. A widescale re-occupation of the West Bank and blockading of Palestinian towns; "targeted assassinations" of militants, an approach used since the s ; raids against militants suspected of plotting attacks, mass arrests, curfews, and stringent travel restrictions; and physical separation from Palestinians via the km mile " security barrier " in and around the West Bank.

    The "heightened security measures" also affected the target populations. During the bombing campaign Israelis were questioned by armed guards and given a quick pat down before being let into cafes. One of the first bombing campaigns utilizing primarily suicide attacks had considerable success.

    In the early s Hezbollah used these bombing attacks targeting first foreign peacekeepers and then Israel. The result in both cases was withdrawal from Lebanon by the targets. Other groups have had mixed results. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam LTTE pioneered the use of suicide bombings against civilian and political targets and in were called by Yoram Schweitzer "unequivocally the most effective and brutal terrorist organization ever to utilize suicide terrorism". It is more difficult to determine whether Palestinian suicide bombings have proved to be a successful tactic.

    Hamas "came to prominence" after the first intifada as "the main Palestinian opponent of the Oslo Accords " "the US-sponsored peace process that oversaw the gradual and partial removal of Israel's occupation in return for Palestinian guarantees to protect Israeli security" [] according to the BBC. Hamas's suicide bombings of Israeli targets from — there were 14 suicide attacks killing —not all of which were attributed to Hamas [] "were widely" credited for the popularity among Israelis of the hardline Netanyahuof, [] who — like HAMAS — was a staunch opponent of the Oslo accords, but an even stauncher enemy of HAMAS.

    The efficacy of suicide bombing however, does not appear to have demonstrated by the al-Aqsa Intifada. During this Intifada, the number of suicide attacks increased markedly, [] but petered out around following harsh Israeli security measures mentioned above such as "targeted assassinations" of Palestinians reportedly involved in terrorism, and the building of a " separation barrier " that severely hampered Palestinian travel, but with no withdrawal by the Israelis from any occupied territory.

    The drop in suicide bombings in Israel has been explained by the many security measures taken by the Israeli government, [] [] especially the building of the "separation barrier", [] [] [] and a general consensus among Palestinians that the bombings were a "losing strategy". Since the attacks, Western nations have diverted massive resources towards stopping similar actions, as well as tightening up borders , and military actions against various countries believed to have been involved with terrorism.

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    Assessment of risk Crisis hotline list Intervention Prevention Suicide watch. Asphyxiation Hanging Train Cop Seppuku. List of suicides Suicide in antiquity List of suicides in the 21st century. Banzai charge Kamikaze Suicide attack Suicide mission. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism". Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original PDF on June 23, Retrieved July 11,