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In this quest, students select a Francophone country, discover information about it and share it with the other students. The final goal is to learn about Francophone countries. This quest is meant to be solved during the trip to France. Students encounter many different challenges linked to the basic communication skills reviewed in Quest 2. The final goal is to practise the language in an authentic situation. Students select a current issue social, environmental, etc. The final goal is to learn how to present arguments and debate about ideas. At each level of this quest, students explore a part of francophone culture, such as music, plastic arts, and literature.

For each domain, they select which artist or artwork they want to talk about. The final goal is to discover different areas of francophone culture. Students select a francophone film and present it through different angles. At the last level, students act a sequence of the film.


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The final goal is to learn more about francophone cinema. The more they use the application, the more quests they will be able to access. Some examples of the tasks developed for the research project are as follows:. These tasks are solved individually. They promote good habits for learning a foreign language and are meant to encourage the practice and the development of the four language competencies. Specifically, while performing these tasks, the students can listen to, read, write, and speak the foreign language.

Some examples of check-ins are as follows:. Not all the tasks lead to a production; some are used to prepare for another task eg, searching for information, selecting a topic, etc. On the group page, they can access a detailed summary of their current status in each quest and compare their progress to the progress made by the other teams. This last social aspect, being part of a class, is also found on the application's message board. Students can use this function to share links or simply to write short messages in the foreign language. The teacher can also comment and write messages. The message board and the teams' blogs offer the students different arenas to communicate in and about the foreign language.

It focuses on how the concept of learner autonomy is operationalised in the design, particularly by offering more choices to learners. The application offers a structure where students can make decisions at each step, as follows: Which task do I want to work on? Do I want to work on individual or collaborative tasks? How do I want to solve this task, with which media? Which topic do I want to work on?

It meant that during the same lesson, some students could work alone, while others worked in pairs; some students could even do both in the course of the same session. The interplay between individual and collaborative work has been identified as crucial in promoting the emergence of learner autonomy Lewis, Giving students the choice of working method was essential in the design of the application.

However, as one of the goals of the project was to encourage collaborative work, the set of quests was placed as the central element in the application. The quests offered a rich variety of tasks and choices of progression, so each group would be able to create its own learning path. The individual tasks check-ins were short and less flexible in comparison. The list of nine check-ins was kept identical throughout the school year.

No specific order was imposed, so some students might have been working on Quest 1 while others were on Quest 3 in the same session. The application's gamified structure with a system of locked items that needed to be unlocked limited the students' range of action by offering fewer tasks to choose from at first and more tasks once the learner became a more advanced user.

Not only could the students choose among the different tasks from the unlocked quests, but they could also select in which way they wanted to perform the tasks. Many tasks were open-ended and could be solved by writing a text, filming a video, recording a podcast, taking pictures, making a quiz, and so on, according to the students' creativity and interest. The tasks could be performed by using different media and with varying depths or levels of quality.


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Some students might write shorter texts with simpler syntax, while others would write longer and more advanced compositions. To ensure that the students could perform the tasks in any way they wished, the application was designed as a simple task manager with an accompanying blog. The blog's open format could contain many different types of media and was not directly linked to the task and the level structure of the application. The students could post their productions at any time and in any format. They could also post additional productions or messages, if they wished.

On the application, they could mark tasks as completed and follow their progress. In the teachers' feedback and through them, their students' feedback , a recurring point was that the students felt more motivated to write when they could choose the topic themselves. The relevance of the tasks and their relation to life outside the classroom were also central ideas of the AOA, with the aim of developing engaged and autonomous learners. The pedagogical content was designed to give students the opportunity to select the topic they wanted to work on in some of the quests, while keeping them more guided in others.

For example, Quest 1 let them choose any theme of their interest, and in Quest 3, they could select which Francophone country they wanted to study.

Chjapitre Histoire du français - Les emprunts et la langue française

The students could choose to solve quest tasks or check-ins anytime during the week if they wanted. This possibility was kept open even though the application was expected to be mainly used in the classroom under the teacher's guidance. These expectations were linked to the initial context analysis, which revealed that although they participated in the class, the students would not always do their assigned homework or only do so partly.

Several types of data eg video recording, interview, data log from the application were collected in a yearlong fieldwork study in order to provide a detailed overview of the participants' experience and of their use of the application. The class comprised second-year students of an upper-secondary VG2 in the Norwegian system medium-sized school around students in a suburb of Oslo and a teacher, hereafter referred to as Mari. The 13 students were around 16 years old, at the time of the study, and had been studying French for three years.

The French class consisted of four periods a week three hours , of which at least one had been dedicated to the application. Other data sources have a complementary status see Table 2. The same researcher was present in the classroom during 15 lessons—three before the application was introduced and 12 while the students were using the application. The researcher took notes of the different events and activities happening during the French class, the digital tools used by the teacher and the students, and their sitting placements while using the application.

Used in the analysis of this study, these field notes were additional data sources to contextualise and clarify other data sources see Table 2 for an overview of data types. The students were interviewed in their own teams by the researcher. Four interviews were held with a total of nine students out of the 13 who participated in the project. The students were asked about their daily use of the application, their working habits in their teams, and what they thought of the different functions of the resource. They were also invited to suggest improvements or new functions for a future iteration of the application.

The interviews lasted from 27 to 53 minutes, depending on the group. These short interviews were recorded after each fieldwork session and focused on what happened in the class while the students were using the application, as well as the teacher's experience of the project. The data was automatically gathered by the application's server throughout the year. It consisted of timestamps on when a specific action was performed and by whom, for example, when a specific quest task was marked as completed by a team of students or when a specific check-in task was completed by a student.

The raw JSON files were extracted from the database. They were then converted and sorted on a spreadsheet document and gave information on each group's and student's activity on the application. These artefacts consisted of blog articles containing texts, pictures, videos, and quizzes, for example.

An inventory of the types of media used was conducted on each of the four blogs to analyse their multimodality. The codes were created according to what the students were saying, the feelings they were expressing, and specific expressions they were using. The coding nodes were then grouped under thirteen categories, three of which were selected for this study: The strategies category was divided into three sub-categories—selecting, organising, and completing—each referring to different steps in using the application and working on the quests see Table 3.

The analysis of the interview data revealed that the three categories selected were particularly interesting in showing how the students were using the application in relation to the potential emergence of learner autonomy, in other words in showing in which ways the gamified application was supporting the students' autonomous learning. Each category brings forth a different aspect of autonomous learning that could be expressed with the following questions: What types of strategies did the students use strategies?

Did they take the initiative agency?

Apprenez norvégien en 5 jours - Conversation pour les débutants

Did they have different learning paths differentiated learning? The quotes selected for this study were translated from Norwegian to English by the researcher. How the students organised their work on the tasks eg, collaborative or individual work. Table 4 summarises the groups' activities in the quests. It shows how many tasks each group performed in the different quests and which quests they unlocked. They all started by accessing Quest 1 only and unlocked Quests 2 and 3 after completing the first level of Quest 1.

The teacher unlocked Quest 4 for all groups before their class trip to France. The number of quests and the amount of tasks developed exceeded the time allotted to working with the application, which explained why the students mostly worked with Quests 1 to 4.

Programmes de coopération

Quests 5, 6 and 7 were created to offer different pathways to groups that would manage to complete one of the first four quests. For example, Quest 5 would be unlocked by completing Quest 2, Quest 6 by completing Quest 3, and so on. Table 5 presents a summary of the amount of check-in tasks performed by each student. They followed different learning paths in the application. This is also clear on Table 5.

Group 4, for example, decided to focus on the quests, hence the zero check-in tasks solved for Nora, Maja, and Ingrid. In addition, Table 5 also shows that even in the same group, the students experienced the application differently. The following analysis examines three individual students who were particularly active on the application or in their respective groups: Sindre for group 2, Ida for group 3, and Nora for group 4.

They each represent three different types of students' use of the application revealed in the analysis of data. Sindre was selected as he was one of the students who were taking a more competitive approach to the tasks see Cruaud, , for other examples of students being competitive in a friendly way.

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Ida represents the students that were the most active on the application and especially on the message board. Finally, Nora was selected to represent students that were taking a more collaborative approach to working with the application. A short presentation about each group introduces each student case.

Sindre, Marianne, Elsa, and Peter. It was the only group that managed to unlock another quest; by completing Quest 3, they unlocked Quest 6. In the video data, Group 2's members can be seen using different strategies to perform the tasks, working individually or in pairs. During the interviews, Sindre talked about their working methods and the strategies they used to organise their work on the tasks:. First, we find out which tasks we've been working on [during the previous session], so we're not taking the same task It seems to me that they have found a good way of working together.

Everyone is contributing in their own way. Sindre was drawing the image and taking care of the design, whereas Peter was on Google Translate to find a good slogan. All the students were using their own abilities Mari, T1. He would answer when the teacher asked him a question but he would not volunteer to answer otherwise, especially if he had to speak French. His competence in French was low. Surprisingly, the data log showed that Sindre did many individual tasks.

He had the second highest amount of completed check-ins of the whole class. He also contrasted a lot with the other three members of his group, who completed 0, 2, and 3 tasks, respectively. The check-in tasks he completed varied, but the two he chose the most often were regarde look at a video in French and participe take part in the class conversation. He started using the check-in function in November, when most students first gave it a try after the teacher reminded them of its existence.

The start of the year had been busy with the preparation for the trip to France, and the students had mostly focused on the quests. Sindre kept doing the check-ins regularly throughout the year. In the interview at the end of the school year, he even stated that he liked the check-ins and that there could have been more of them. In the observation data before the project started, Sindre was often passive and uninterested, but after the application was introduced, he often appeared to be the most focused student of his group. He even stayed several times after class, when all the students had left, to finish a task.

Une journée (5/16)

When asked if he ever used the application outside of the French class, he answered:. Yes, I did it a bit. It was like in free periods before the French class, or I would stay after class to finish something, but uh it was mostly like I don't have to do something, so I'll do the application I.

In the interviews, he also explained why he had written comments on other teams' blogs: The data log and these first comments showed that Sindre started being active in the French class after the introduction of the gamified application and that he seemed to be using the application in a different way than his three teammates: Several elements in the interview data could be linked to this new interest. He mentioned one reason why he did many check-ins:. Collecting badges also pushed him to work more during the French class:.

When I understood that I was getting closer to a new one [badge] I would do a bit more than I needed to get the next one. It was kind of motivating I. He started taking more initiative and following what the others were doing, either to compete against his friends from other groups or to draw inspiration for his own work:.


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En grec, s a disparu entre deux voyelles: En allemand, tandis que Gast: Mais elle a ses caprices: Cependant il faut y distinguer deux choses: Il y a conflit entre ces deux conceptions. Dans un cas comme Krantz: Mais le parler des adultes en offre aussi. Nous en rappellerons quelques-uns. Mais en latin on coupait somno-lentus , comme succu-lentus , etc. Sans doute les choses ne se passent pas toujours aussi simplement: Tel est le processus agglutinatif: Nous avons dit p. On a sans doute raison de dire que lat.

On a vu pp. Ainsi zeug- avec ses formes alternantes zeug- zeuk- zug- , voir p. Non, car il faut distinguer phleg-: Cela est encore plus frappant en latin, en grec, en allemand. Il en va tout autrement du suffixe: On sait voir p. Les motifs de ce choix sont divers: Ces influences sont contestables voir p.

Que va-t-il se passer? Schmidt et que le chapitre suivant justifiera. Quand ces concordances sont suffisamment nombreuses on peut par approximation parler de dialecte. Les peuples ont toujours connu des mouvements de va-et-vient. Le changement de t en z pron. On peut aller plus loin: Dans les limites que nous venons de tracer, nos reconstitutions conservent donc leur pleine valeur.

En voici un exemple: Kuh , sanscrit gau-s etc. Le trait le plus remarquable concerne la constitution des racines voir p. Analyse objective, sv. Circuit de la parole et ses subdivisions, 27 sv. Climat et changements linguistiques, , Conservation des formes linguistiques, deux facteurs de —, Bally et Sechehaye, Avec la collaboration de. Objet de la linguistique. Place de la langue dans les faits de langage. Place de la langue dans les faits humains. Linguistique de la langue et linguistique de la parole.

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Nature du signe linguistique. Loi synchronique et loi diachronique. Y a-t-il un point de vue panchronique? Rupture du lien grammatical. Effacement de la composition des mots. Good sea view from the rooms and terrace. Vous pourrez profiter du bar sur place. Clarion Hotel Air is a minute walk from Stavanger Airport. Amazing service and also friendly staff willing to help.

It is also close to the airport within walking distance. Il propose une connexion Wi-Fi gratuite et un bureau d'excursions. La situation calme et sereine. Veuillez saisir une adresse e-mail valide. Veuillez indiquer une destination pour lancer la recherche.