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Your notification has been sent Lulu Staff has been notified of a possible violation of the terms of our Membership Agreement. We were unable to complete your request. By Derek Sikkema Paperback: In return, Mahone's people endorsed Conservatives for the legislative races. Mahone's plan worked, as the voters in elected Walker and defeated the proposed disfranchisement of ex-Confederates. When the new legislature ratified the 14th and 15th amendments to the U.
Constitution, Congress seated its delegation, and Virginia Reconstruction came to an end in January The Radical Republicans had been ousted in a non-violent election. Suffering from widespread destruction and difficulties in adapting to free labor, white Virginians generally came to share the postwar bitterness typical of the southern attitudes.
In addition to those that were rebuilt, new railroads developed after the Civil War. In , under railroad baron Collis P. In the s, the Pocahontas Coalfield opened up in far southwest Virginia, with others to follow, in turn providing more demand for railroads transportation. In , the Virginian Railway opened, built for the express purpose of hauling coal from the mountains of West Virginia to the ports at Hampton Roads.
The growth of railroads resulted in the creation of new towns and rapid growth of others, including Clifton Forge , Roanoke , Crewe and Victoria. The railroad boom was not without incident: With the invention of the cigarette rolling machine, and the great increase in smoking in the early 20th century, cigarettes and other tobacco products became a major industry in Richmond and Petersburg.
Tobacco magnates such as Lewis Ginter funded a number of public institutions. A division among Virginia politicians occurred in the s, when those who supported a reduction of Virginia's pre-war debt "Readjusters" opposed those who felt Virginia should repay its entire debt plus interest "Funders". Virginia's pre-war debt was primarily for infrastructure improvements overseen by the Virginia Board of Public Works , much of which were destroyed during the war or in the new State of West Virginia. After his unsuccessful bid for the Democratic nomination for governor in , former confederate General and railroad executive William Mahone became the leader of the "Readjusters", forming a coalition of conservative Democrats and white and black Republicans.
The so-called Readjusters aspired "to break the power of wealth and established privilege" and to promote public education. The party promised to "readjust" the state debt in order to protect funding for newly established public education, and allocate a fair share to the new State of West Virginia. Its proposal to repeal the poll tax and increase funding for schools and other public facilities attracted biracial and cross-party support. The Readjuster Party was successful in electing its candidate, William E. Cameron as governor, and he served from to Mahone served as a Senator in the U.
Congress from to , as well as fellow Readjustor Harrison H. Riddleberger , who served in the U. Senate from to Readjusters' effective control of Virginia politics lasted until , when they lost majority control in the state legislature, followed by the election of Democrat Fitzhugh Lee as governor in The Virginia legislature replaced both Mahone and Riddleberger in the U.
In , the exception to Readjustor and Democratic control was John Mercer Langston , who was elected to Congress from the Petersburg area on the Republican ticket. He was the first black elected to Congress from the state, and the last for nearly a century. He served one term. A talented and vigorous politician, he was an Oberlin College graduate. He had long been active in the abolitionist cause in Ohio before the Civil War, had been president of the National Equal Rights League from to , and had headed and created the law department at Howard University , and acted as president of the college.
When elected, he was president of what became Virginia State University. While the Readjustor Party faded, the goal of public education remained strong, with institutions established for the education of schoolteachers. In , the state acquired a bankrupt women's college at Farmville and opened it as a normal school. Growth of public education led to the need for additional teachers. In , two additional normal schools were established, one at Fredericksburg and one at Harrisonburg , and in , one at Radford. After the Readjuster Party disappeared, Virginia Democrats rapidly passed legislation and constitutional amendments that effectively disfranchised African Americans and many poor whites, through the use of poll taxes and literacy tests.
They created white, one-party rule under the Democratic Party for the next 80 years. White state legislators passed statutes that restored white supremacy through imposition of Jim Crow segregation. In , Virginia passed a new constitution that reduced voter registration. The Progressive Era after brought numerous reforms, designed to modernize the state, increase efficiency, apply scientific methods, promote education and eliminate waste and corruption. A key leader was Governor Claude Swanson —10 , a Democrat who left machine politics behind to win office using the new primary law.
Swanson's coalition of reformers in the legislature, built schools and highways, raised teacher salaries and standards, promoted the state's public health programs, and increased funding for prisons. Swanson fought against child labor, lowered railroad rates and raised corporate taxes, while systematizing state services and introducing modern management techniques. The state funded a growing network of roads, with much of the work done by black convicts in chain gangs. After Swanson moved to the U. Senate in he promoted Progressivism at the national level as a supporter of President Woodrow Wilson , who had been born in Virginia and was considered a native son.
Swanson's statewide organization evolved into the "Byrd Organization. The State Corporation Commission SCC was formed as part of the Constitution, over the opposition of the railroads, to regulate railroad policies and rates. The SCC was independent of parties, courts, and big businesses, and was designed to maximize the public interest. It became an effective agency, which especially pleased local merchants by keeping rates low. Virginia has a long history of agricultural reformers, and the Progressive Era stimulated their efforts.
Rural areas suffered persistent problems, such as declining populations, widespread illiteracy, poor farming techniques, and debilitating diseases among both farm animals and farm families. Reformers emphasized the need to upgrade the quality of elementary education. With federal help, in they set up a county agent system today the Virginia Cooperative Extension that taught farmers the latest scientific methods for dealing with tobacco and other crops, and farm house wives how to maximize their efficiency in the kitchen and nursery.
Some upper-class women, typified by Lila Meade Valentine of Richmond, promoted numerous Progressive reforms, including kindergartens, teacher education, visiting nurses programs, and vocational education for both races. Middle-class white women were especially active in the Prohibition movement.
Virginia women got the vote in , the result of a national constitutional amendment. In higher education, the key leader was Edwin A. Alderman , president of the University of Virginia , — His goal was the transformation of the southern university into a force for state service and intellectual leadership. Alderman successfully professionalized and modernized the state's system of higher education. He promoted international standards of scholarship, and a statewide network of extension services.
Joined by other college presidents, he promoted the Virginia Education Commission, created in Alderman's crusade encountered some resistance from traditionalists, and never challenged the Jim Crow system of segregated schooling. While the progressives were modernizers, there was also a surge of interest in Virginia traditions and heritage, especially among the aristocratic First Families of Virginia FFV.
Attended by numerous federal dignitaries, and serving as the launch point for the Great White Fleet , the Jamestown Exposition also spurred interest in the military potential of the area. The site of the exposition would later become, in , the location of the Norfolk Naval Station. The proximity to Washington, D.
Ruined America: The Exodus of Richard Braxton
At the same time, heavy shipping traffic made the area a target for U-boats , and a number of merchant vessels were attacked or sunk off the Virginia coast. Temperance became an issue in the early 20th century. In , a statewide referendum passed to outlaw the consumption of alcohol. This was overturned in After , tourism began to grow with the development of Colonial Williamsburg. By , new highway bridges crossed the lower Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James Rivers, bringing to an end the long-distance steamboat service which had long served as primary transportation throughout the Chesapeake Bay area.
Ferryboats remain today in only a few places. Blacks comprised a third of the population but lost nearly all their political power. The electorate was so small that from to government employees and officeholders cast a third of the votes in state elections.
This small, controllable electorate facilitated the formation of a powerful statewide political machine by Harry Byrd — , which dominated from the s to the s. The economic stimulus of the World War brought full employment for workers, high wages, and high profits for farmers.
Virginia sent , men and 4, women to the services. The buildup for the war greatly increased the state's naval and industrial economic base, as did the growth of federal government jobs in Northern Virginia and adjacent Washington, DC. The Pentagon was built in Arlington as the largest office building in the world. Additional installations were added: Hill and Fort Pickett opened, and Fort Lee was reactivated.
The Newport News shipyard expanded its labor force from 17, to 70, in , while the Radford Arsenal had 22, workers making explosives. Turnover was very high—in one three-month period the Newport News shipyard hired new workers as 8, others quit. In addition to general postwar growth, the Cold War resulted in further growth in both Northern Virginia and Hampton Roads. With the Pentagon already established in Arlington, the newly formed Central Intelligence Agency located its headquarters further afield at Langley unrelated to the Air Force Base.
Other sites in Northern Virginia included the listening station at Vint Hill. Due to the presence of the U. Virginia also witnessed American efforts in the Space Race. Interstate highway system begun in the s and the new Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel in helped transform Virginia Beach from a tiny resort town into one of the state's largest cities by , and spurring the growth of the Hampton Roads region linked by the Hampton Roads Beltway.
As the century drew to a close, Virginia tobacco growing gradually declined due to health concerns, although not at steeply as in Southern Maryland. A state community college system brought affordable higher education within commuting distance of most Virginians, including those in remote, underserved localities. Localities such as Danville and Martinsville suffered greatly as their manufacturing industries closed.
In , Irene Morgan refused to give up her seat on an interstate bus and was arrested in Middlesex County, Virginia pursuant to Virginia's segregation laws. Morgan appealed her case up to the Supreme Court and, in , won Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia , which struck down segregation interstate buses. Virginia continued to enforce interstate bus segregation, and in , activists organized a series of integrated rides, the Journey of Reconciliation , through Virginia and other states of the Upper South in an act of civil disobedience against Virginia's defiance of the Supreme Court's ruling.
Another Supreme Court ruling involving Virginia, Boynton v. Virginia , desegregated interstate bus terminals. Along with the bus desegregation cases, Virginia was a contestant in the Supreme Court ruling that invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage, Loving v. The state government orchestrated systematic resistance to federal court orders requiring the end of segregation. The state legislature even enacted a package of laws, known as the Stanley plan , to try to evade racial integration in public schools.
Prince Edward County even closed all its public schools in an attempt to avoid racial integration, but relented in the face of U. By the s, Northern Virginia and the Hampton Roads region had achieved the greatest growth and prosperity, chiefly because of employment related to Federal government agencies and defense, as well as an increase in technology in Northern Virginia. Shipping through the Port of Hampton Roads began expansion which continued into the early 21st century as new container facilities were opened. Coal piers in Newport News and Norfolk had recorded major gains in export shipments by August The subsequent growth of defense projects has also generated a local information technology industry.
In recent years, intolerably heavy commuter traffic and the urgent need for both road and rail transportation improvements have been a major issue in Northern Virginia. The Hampton Roads region has also experienced much growth, as have the western suburbs of Richmond in both Henrico and Chesterfield Counties. Virginia served as a major center for information technology during the early days of the Internet and network communication.
Internet and other communications companies clustered in the Dulles Corridor. By , the Washington area had the largest amount of Internet backbone and the highest concentration of Internet service providers. While short-lived, The Source was one of the first online service providers alongside CompuServe. On hand for the launch of The Source, Isaac Asimov remarked "This is the beginning of the information age. AOL maintained a Virginia headquarters until the then-struggling company moved in In , former Governor of Virginia Mark Warner gave a speech and interview in the massively multiplayer online game Second Life , becoming the first politician to appear in a video game.
In , Virginia became the first state to pass legislation on Internet safety, with mandatory educational courses for to year-olds.
Virginia was targeted in the September 11, attacks , as American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked and crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County. In , by a slight margin in the Virginia Governor's race , the state of Virginia broke a long acclaimed streak of choosing a governor against the incumbent party within the White House. For the first time in more than thirty years will the Governor and the President be from the same party. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cities - Politics - Slavery Virginia portal v t e. Native American tribes in Virginia.
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Derek Sikkema (Author of Ruined America)
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of the Jamestown Settlement — Religion in early Virginia. Virginia in the American Revolution. History of the United States — History of slavery in Virginia. Virginia in the American Civil War. Restored government of Virginia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Roaring Twenties and Great Depression. Massive resistance and Stanley plan. History of Virginia on stamps.
Coming ashore at Jamestown issue Jamestown centennial. Mount Vernon, home of G. Washington issue Army-Navy series. Stratford Hall, birthplace of Robert E. Lee issue Army-Navy series. Historical outline of Virginia. The New York Times. Ambler and Festus P. An engraving after John White watercolor. Sparsely wooded field in background suggests the region's savanna. Retrieved August 17, The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail, Milanich February 10, Laboring in the Fields of the Lord: Spanish Missions And Southeastern Indians. University Press of Florida.
Retrieved June 25, The Siouan Tribes of the East. Retrieved 27 January The Creek Indians and their World. The University of North Carolina Press. Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved October 9, Conquistadors at Saltville in ?: A Review of the Archeological and Documentary Evidence. Retrieved 30 March Hudson; Carmen Chaves Tesser Indians and Europeans in the American South, University of Georgia Press. Retrieved June 30, The Deadly Politics of Giving: University of Alabama Press. Bogger April 1, The First Four Centuries. University of Virginia Press.
Retrieved March 18, The Atlantic World and Virginia, Retrieved 17 February Names on the Land: Breen, "Looking Out for Number One: A History of the People p. Washburn, The Governor and the Rebel: Gentry and Common Folk: Political Culture on a Virginia Frontier, The Settling of North America p Selby, The Revolution in Virginia, p The Chesapeake Gentry, s.
Breen, "Horses and gentlemen: The cultural significance of gambling among the gentry of Virginia.
History of Virginia
A Journey of Discovery. Settlers seeking clear title had to know whether to file paperwork and pay fees to the colonial government in Williamsburg or the land office of the Fairfax family. If the colony could extinguish the Northern Neck grant somehow, revenues would flow to Williamsburg rather than to Leeds Castle.
The trip lasted over two years during which time Fairfax reasserted his claim to the Proprietary and made arrangements for the survey of the boundaries. Historic Pittsburgh General Text Collection. Retrieved 16 September Historic Pittsburgh Text Collection. Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved May 30, Bond and Joan R. Slavery in the Colonial Chesapeake. Methodism and the Southern Mind, Ragosta, "Fighting for Freedom: The People Debate the Constitution, — pp.
Hill and Wang, , p. Oxford University Press, , p. Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Archived from the original PDF on June 23, Retrieved March 23, Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved December 4, S Constitution requires permission of the old state for a new state to form. Zimring, "'Secession in Favor of the Constitution': A Study in Reconstruction Politics See also Heinemann et al. Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: A History of Virginia, — p Bond, No Easy Walk to Freedom: Reconstruction and the Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment Praeger, p.
In order to gain public education, black delegates had to accept segregation in the schools. The new Underwood Constitution was approved overwhelmingly, but the disfranchisement clauses were rejected by 3: The new legislature was controlled by the Conservative Party, which soon absorbed the "True Republicans". Blake, William Mahone of Virginia: Lindgren, "Virginia Needs Living Heroes": Retrieved July 28, Retrieved March 17, Retrieved March 20, Trialblazer For All Mars Research".
The Desegregation of Virginia Tech". Archived from the original on April 13, His parents re-mortgaged the family home in order to help pay the settlement. Earning enough money from his record store, Branson in launched the record label Virgin Records with Nik Powell. The name "Virgin" was suggested by one of Branson's early employees because they were all new at business. Virgin signed such controversial bands as the Sex Pistols , which other companies were reluctant to sign.
Virgin Records also introduced Culture Club to the music world. Branson's first successful entry into the airline industry was during a trip to Puerto Rico. His flight was cancelled, so he decided to charter his own plane the rest of the way and offer a ride to the rest of the stranded passengers for a small fee in order to cover the cost. In , Virgin purchased the gay nightclub Heaven. The recording was a series of sheep baa-ing along to a drum-machine-produced track and reached number 42 in the UK charts in He formed Virgin Holidays in In , Branson took what many saw as being one of his riskier business exploits by entering into the railway business.
A series of disputes in the early s caused tension between Virgin Atlantic and British Airways , which viewed Virgin as an emerging competitor. Virgin subsequently accused British Airways of poaching its passengers, hacking its computers, and leaking stories to the press that portrayed Virgin negatively. Branson distributed his compensation the so-called "BA bonus" among his staff. On 25 September , Branson announced the signing of a deal under which a new space tourism company, Virgin Galactic , will license the technology behind SpaceshipOne —funded by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen and designed by aeronautical engineer Burt Rutan —to take paying passengers into suborbital space.
In , Branson said that he planned to take his two children, year-old Holly and year-old Sam, on a trip to outer space when they ride the SpaceShipTwo rocket plane on its first public flight, then planned for Branson wrote in his autobiography of the decision to start an airline. My interest in life comes from setting myself huge, apparently unachievable challenges and trying to rise above them Branson's next venture with the Virgin group was Virgin Fuels , which was set up to respond to global warming and exploit the recent spike in fuel costs by offering a revolutionary, cheaper fuel for automobiles and, in the near future, aircraft.
Branson has stated that he was formerly a global warming sceptic and was influenced in his decision by a breakfast meeting with Al Gore. On 21 September , Branson pledged to invest the profits of Virgin Atlantic and Virgin Trains in research for environmentally-friendly fuels. A new company was launched with much fanfare and publicity on 8 February , under the name Virgin Media. The decision to merge his Virgin Media Company with NTL was to integrate both of the companies' compatible parts of commerce. Branson used to own three-quarters of Virgin Mobile, whereas now he owns 15 percent of the new Virgin Media company.
In , Branson formed Virgin Comics and Virgin Animation, an entertainment company focused on creating new stories and characters for a global audience. Virgin Atlantic was given immunity for tipping off the authorities and received no fine—a controversial decision the Office of Fair Trading defended as being in the public interest. On 9 February , Branson announced the setting up of a new global science and technology prize—The Virgin Earth Challenge —in the belief that history has shown that prizes of this nature encourage technological advancements for the good of mankind.
This removal must have long-term effects and contribute materially to the stability of the Earth's climate. Branson also announced that he would be joined in the adjudication of the prize by a panel of five judges, all world authorities in their respective fields: Hansen , and James Lovelock. On 10 January , Branson's Virgin Healthcare announced that it would open a chain of health care clinics that would offer conventional medical care alongside homeopathic and complementary therapies, a development that was welcomed by Ben Bradshaw , the UK's health minister.
The BMA warned the plan would "damage clinical objectivity", there would be a financial incentive for GPs to push patients toward the Virgin services at the centre. Branson later stated an interest in Formula One , but claimed that, before the Virgin brand became involved with Honda or any other team, Formula One would have to develop a more economically efficient and environmentally responsible image. At the start of the Formula One season on 28 March, it was announced that Virgin would be sponsoring the new Brawn GP team,  with discussions also under way about introducing a less "dirty" fuel in the medium term.
In , Virgin Hotels was launched under the Virgin Group. In February , Branson announced the first Virgin hotel would open in Edinburgh. Branson and Tony Fernandes , owner of Air Asia and Lotus F1 Racing , had a bet for the F1 season where the losing team's boss should work on the winner's airline during a charity flight dressed as a stewardess. Fernandes escaped as the winner of the bet, as Lotus Racing ended tenth in the championship, while Virgin Racing ended twelfth and last.
Branson kept his word after losing the bet, as he served his duty as a stewardess on an Air Asia flight between Perth and Kuala Lumpur on 12 May In , Branson became patron of the UK's Gordon Bennett gas balloon race, which has 16 hydrogen balloons flying across Europe.
In April , Virgin Care commenced a five-year contract for provision of a range of health services which had previously been under the aegis of NHS Surrey, the local primary care trust. In July , Branson announced plans to build an orbital space launch system , designated LauncherOne. The contract was awarded to FirstGroup after a competitive tender process overseen by the Department for Transport. Branson had expressed his concerns about the tender process and questioned the validity of the business plan submitted by FirstGroup.
When Virgin Rail lost the contract, Branson said he was convinced the civil servants had "got their maths wrong". In October, after an investigation into the bidding process, the deal was scrapped. The Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin announced there were "significant technical flaws" in the process and mistakes had been made by transport staff. Virgin Rail continues to operate the West Coast line. In September , Branson announced his investment in drone company 3D Robotics stating, "It's amazing to see what a little flying object with a GoPro attached can do.
Before they came along the alternative was an expensive helicopter and crew. I'm really excited about the potential 3D Robotics sees in drones. They can do a lot of good in the world, and I hope this affordable technology will give many more people the chance to see our beautiful planet from such a powerful perspective.
In , Branson launched the "Foodpreneur" food and drink-focused start-up competition. Winners were provided with mentorship from Branson, legal support, and brand counseling. The winners were given the opportunity to pitch Target Corporation buyers. In , Virgin Group invested in Hyperloop One , developing a strategic partnership between the two. Branson joined the board of directors,  and in December , became its chairman. In October , Branson appeared on the Season 9 Premiere of Shark Tank as a guest investor,  where he invested in Locker Board,  a sustainable line of skateboards invented by year-old, Carson Kropfl.
In May , it was announced that he would become a partner in a private equity fund that will be co-managed by Metric Capital. The fund will seek out consumer goods firms to invest in. It was a gruelling month-long challenge where they hiked, biked and kayaked across Europe and had a near-miss on Mont Blanc when a rockfall rained down on them as they crossed the perilous Gouter Couloir.
Branson made several world record-breaking attempts after , when in the spirit of the Blue Riband he attempted the fastest Atlantic Ocean crossing. His first attempt in the "Virgin Atlantic Challenger" led to the boat capsizing in British waters and a rescue by RAF helicopter, which received wide media coverage. Some newspapers called for Branson to reimburse the government for the rescue cost. In late , they made a record-breaking flight from Morocco to Hawaii but were unable to complete a global flight before Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones in Breitling Orbiter 3 in March In March , Branson set a record by travelling from Dover to Calais in a Gibbs Aquada in 1 hour, 40 minutes and 6 seconds, the fastest crossing of the English Channel in an amphibious vehicle.
The previous record of six hours was set by two Frenchmen. After being intercepted by the Coast Guard and asked what their intentions were, Clarkson remarked ".. She eventually continued to St. He was also the star of a reality television show on Fox called The Rebel Billionaire: Branson's Quest for the Best , in which sixteen contestants were tested for their entrepreneurship and sense of adventure and only lasted one season. His high public profile often leaves him open as a figure of satire—the AD series Zenith features a parody of Branson as a super villain , as the comic's publisher and favoured distributor and the Virgin group were in competition at the time.
He has a cameo appearance in several films: Around the World in 80 Days , where he played a hot-air balloon operator, and Superman Returns , where he was credited as a 'Shuttle Engineer' and appeared alongside his son, Sam, with a Virgin Galactic -style commercial suborbital shuttle at the centre of his storyline. He also has a cameo in the James Bond film Casino Royale Here, he is seen as a passenger going through Miami Airport security check-in and being frisked — several Virgin Atlantic planes appear soon after.
British Airways edited out Branson's cameo in their in-flight screening of the movie. Branson and his mother were also featured in the documentary film Lemonade Stories. Branson is a Star Trek fan and named his new spaceship VSS Enterprise in honour of the Star Trek spaceships, and in , reportedly offered actor William Shatner a ride on the inaugural space launch of Virgin Galactic.
In an interview in Time magazine, published on 10 August , Shatner claimed that Branson approached him asking how much he would pay for a ride on the spaceship. In response, Shatner asked "how much would you pay me to do it? He later doused political satirist and talk show host Stephen Colbert with water from his mug. Branson subsequently took a retaliatory splash from Colbert. The interview quickly ended, with both laughing  as shown on the episode aired on Comedy Central on 22 August Branson then made a cameo appearance in The Soup , playing an intern working under Joel McHale who had been warned against getting into water fights with Stephen Colbert, and being subsequently fired.