GLC analysis showed the presence of significantly different p fatty acid s from series palmitic C Linoleic acid was the principal ranging from Among the varieties Jati seed oil was highest in unsaturated fatty acid s. All varieties contained large amounts of lipid Except for the ash content, there were significant differences p nutritional value. Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L.
Tobacco seeds are light brown to black in color, tiny and tough in texture. Tobacco seeds are the waste product of the tobacco leaf industries. Every year huge quantities are being disposed of but these seeds were found to be potentially rich in oil, The nutritional value of tobacco seed oil is better than groundnut and cotton seed oils and comparable to safflower oil. Refined tobacco seed oil is used as an edible oil in some European countries Talaqani et al. Fats and oils are also very important indigenous raw materials for many edible and non-edible purposes. The physico-chemical properties of fats or oils are directly related to their glyceride composition and chemical constitution Abu Sayeed et al.
Hence knowledge of these compositional factors is important in connection with research aimed at finding alternative uses for tobacco seeds and the important of these fat and fat products for specific uses. Moreover, researches have been carried out on the characterization of seed oil and nutritional composition s of tobacco seeds Mukhtar et al.
The present study was conducted to determine physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of seed oil and compare some important nutrients found in three varieties Gidri, Virginia and Jati of tobacco seeds cultivated in an experimental plot located at Nilphamari district, Bangladesh.
Collection and Processing of Plant Specimens Tobacco seeds were collected in March, from ripe fruits of the plant grown in an experimental plot located at Jaldhaka in the district of Nilphamari, Bangladesh. The varieties reported herein, which were all cultivated in homogeneous conditions and were varied morphologically from each other, were Gidri, Virginia and Jati.
The seeds were separated from the fruits and washed several times with water to remove the foreign materials. All chemicals and biochemicals used were of analytical grade unless otherwise specified and results were expressed on dry weight basis. The crude oil thus obtained was fractionated in a column packed with neutral alumina in petroleum ether using petroleum ether-diethylether Smoke point was estimated according to the methods of AOCS Iodine value was determined according to the method of Wijs while percentage of unsaponifiable matter and Reichert-Meissl value were determined according to the method of Ranganna Saponification value, saponification equivalent, acid value, percentage of Free Fatty Acid FFA , ester value and peroxide value were determined according to the methods described by Williams Separation of Glycerides The oil was separated into mono-, di- and triglycerides by silica gel mesh column chromatography.
The solvent systems used to elute the column were similar to those described by Gofur et al. For quantitative determination of glyceride classes, the sample mg in 4. Elution was monitored by TLC. The weight percentage of each glyceride class was determined by gravimetric method. Diglycerides were calculated by subtracting the weight of Free Fatty Acid FFA as determined by standard method Williams, from the weight of diglyceride fraction. Fractionation of Lipids A total of mg of lipids extracted from tobacco seeds by the method of Bligh and Dyer was fractionated into three major lipid groups: Neutral lipids were eluted with diethyl ether, glycolipids with acetone and phospholipids with methanol Rouser et al.
Solvents were evaporated by vacuum rotary evaporator. Lipids in different classes were identified by comparing their R f values with those of standards and percentages of these fractions were determined by gravimetric method. Separation of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids Separation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid s from about 48 g of oil was carried out by lead-salt ether method Abu Sayeed et al.
Briefly, the oil was saponified with alcoholic caustic soda to obtain soap solution. A slight excess of lead acetate solution was added to the soap solution to form lead salts of fatty acid s, which were then separated. The precipitated lead salts of saturated fatty acid s so formed were separated from the solution of lead salts of unsaturated fatty acid s by filtration. The lead salts of the unsaturated fatty acid s were obtained by removing the ether from the ethereal solution.
Each group of lead salts was suspended in water and treated with sufficient hydrochloric acid to form fatty acid s and lead chlorides. The mixture was then extracted with ether which was subsequently evaporated to obtain the different fatty acid s. Fatty acid Composition of Oil Fatty acid composition of tobacco seed oil was determined as their methyl esters prepared by boron-trifluoride methanol complex method Morrison and Smith, Nitrogen carrier gas was used at a flow rate of 30 mL min Fatty acids were separated on a 1.
The peaks were identified by comparison with standard fatty acid methyl esters. Lipid content was estimated by the method of Bligh and Dyer using a solvent mixture of chloroform and methanol 2: Total protein content determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method AOAC, and calculated from total nitrogen using the formula: Water soluble protein was determined by the method of Lowry using bovine serum albumin as the standard.
Starch content Clegg, and total carbohydrate Rahim, were also measured. Mean values were compared at p Solvent extraction of three different varieties Gidri, Virginia and Jati of tobacco seeds yielded an average of about Information on detailed characteristics of seed oil and nutritional composition s of seeds from other plant sources are too scanty for meaningful comparisons. As can be seen from Table 1 , specific gravities of the tobacco seed oils 0. Refractive indices of the oils in the present investigations were found to be 1.
The experimental values are in good agreement with the values 1. Specific gravity and refractive index are very stable parameters and should be used for checking the identity of oils. Highest values are obtained with increasing degree of unsaturation, as well as with larger molecular weights Deuel, ; Peach and Tracey, No significant difference p refractive index and pour point was found for the different seed oil samples. Flash, fire and smoke points of Gidri seed oil appeared to be significantly higher p fatty acid s Mattil Karl et al.
As shown in Table 2 , iodine values of the tobacco seed oils were determined to be Specific gravity and iodine value were all characteristic of highly unsaturated oils and significantly lower p fatty acid s in this oil compared to those contained in the other samples. In general, the greater the degree of unsaturation i. Therefore, seed oil from Gidri tobacco, in contrast to other varieties in the present investigations has lower tendency to become rancid by oxidation.
Saponification values of the oils in the three samples were in the range The present saponification values are in good agreement with Significantly lower p fatty acid s require the most alkali for saponification, so that the saponification value is inversely proportional to the mean of the molecular weights of the fatty acid s in the glycerides present.
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- Magic Ponies: A Twinkle of Hooves.
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- Unsaponifiable Matter in Plant Seed Oils ||.
- Unsaponifiable Matter in Plant Seed Oils.
Since many oils have somewhat similar values, the saponification value is not, in general, as useful for identification purposes as the iodine value Egan et al. Moreover, saponification value outside the range of indicates that the fatty acid has a mass higher or lower than the average size of the more common fats Williams, These comparatively low saponification values as reckoned, indicate the presence of higher proportion of higher molecular weight fatty acid s.
The percentage of free fatty acid s 1. Ester values of oils in the three samples were calculated as Amounts of unsaponifiable matters under the present investigations were lower than the value 1. Unsaponifiable matter includes hydrocarbons, higher alcohols and sterols e. No significant inter-variety differences p -1 which were determined in normal laboratory conditions. Fresh oils usually have peroxide values well below to 10 mEq kg A rancid taste often begins to be noticeable when the peroxide value is in between 20 and 40 mEq kg In interpreting these data, however, it is necessary to take into account the particular oil or fat involved Egan et al.
Lower peroxide value as obtained indicating that tobacco seed oils are quality oil. Reichert-Meissl values of the samples were assayed as 0. At p The total amount of oil was separated into mono-, di- and triglyceride fractions by means of column chromatography and the results are shown in Table 3. The triglycerides content varied from Significantly higher p Mesua ferrea seed oil Abu Sayeed et al.
No significant difference p et al.
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Mono and particularly diglycerides occur naturally in oils and fats, where their presence is initially due to partial hydrolysis of the oil by enzyme action in the fruit or seed. Monoglyceride are surface-active materials, that is to say they have both polar, water-soluble and non-polar, fat-soluble groups. It is for this reason that the higher monoglycerides are of great importance as emulsifiers in the food industry. They are particularly valuable for producing stable oil-in-water emulsions and they are also crystal promoters.
Thus, a fat containing a small amount of monoglyceride will set quickly to a micro-crystalline matrix. This property makes the monoglycerides useful in preventing oil exudation from fatty materials Devine and Williams, This variation may be attributed to the seed sources including location, variety, cultural practice during production, soil type or a combination of two or more of these factors.
Species D to K. Species L to N. Species O to Q. Species R to Z. Other works carriedout on plant oils supplied by firms are also listed. However, to reflect a lack ofcertainty about the plant used and its transformation, the work done on oils fromcompanies are specified in a section origins of samples. With few exceptions, theanalyses oil contents, unsaponifiable matter contents etc.
For each plant, the country of origin of organ sample is specified if reported bythe authors. Due to changes in botanical nomenclature, the book includes an index ofcorrespondence between the synonyms used by authors of publications and Latinnames valid in Sometimes, a trivial plant name in a paper was too ambiguousto allow the data to be included. Lipid contents are mainly from studies dealing with the unsaponifiable matter.
These lipid contents are thus only partially representative. Unless otherwise noted,they were determined by solvent extraction using n-hexane, petroleum ether orethoxyethane; rarely chloroform or dichloromethane using Soxhlet apparatus.
Thelevels are usually expressed relative to the dried raw material. Unsaponifiable matter of fats means all the products contained in thisfatty substance that, after saponification of the fat with an alkali hydroxide, solventextraction and specified removal of the saponified matter, are not volatile inoperating conditions described by the various official methods. This book first describes unsaponifiable matter content and, second, the levels ofchemical families of compounds constituting the unsaponifiable matter.
The levels are represented with a decimal point. Determining unsaponifiable matter is a multi-step operation that ends with aconventionally gravimetric measurement. The operating conditions may vary: Saponification at reflux with a solution of ethanolic or methanolic potassiumhydroxide 0. Corrections in the event of any soaps or residual free fatty acids.
Holdings: Unsaponifiable matter in plant seed oils
Under the same operating conditions, the results may differ for the same sample,especially depending on the extractive solvent used Ramadan ; Bianchiniet al. Therefore, it seemed important to specify the methods used in eachpublished work. These are listed in parentheses after each result, together with theextractive solvent. However, many authors only cited the name of the organizationas the source of the method used, or the reference method was too briefly listed. Consequently, the extractive solvent could not be cited in a number of cases.
EC European Community Determination of the composition and content of sterols by capillary-column gaschromatography. Official Journal of theEuropean Communities, L Deutsche Einheitsmethoden zur untersuchung von fetten, fettprodukten,tensiden und verwandten stoffen, Frankfurt am Main previously, Stuttgart. MetodiUfficiali di Analisi gli oli e grassi, Roma. India Pharmacopoeia of India Delhi1. The method used is described in the reported work. The extractive solvent aftersaponification step is specified in this book.
The method used is not described in the reported work but in a reference book orother publication. The most cited are listed below, summarized with the extrac-tive solvent: Maxwell RJ, Schwartz DP A rapid, quantitative procedure for measur-ing the unsaponifiable matter from animal, marine, and plant oils. J Am OilChem Soc 56 6: A mixed oil is saponifiedusing potassium hydroxide pellets with a short heating period. The resultingblend is then mixed with calcined silica, transferred to a glass column and theunsaponifiable matter eluted with small amounts of dichloromethane.
Schwartz DP Improved method for quantitating and obtaining theunsaponifiable matter of fats and oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65 2: Azoulay, Paris, pp Method A: Extraction with hexane recommended in the case of unsaponifiablematter rich in wax. Extraction with ethoxyethane recommended forunsaponifiable matter rich in sterols and resins. Academic, London, New York. Extractive solvent after saponification: Cocks LV Report of the sub-committee on determination ofunsaponifiable matter in oils and fats and of unsaponified fat in soaps to thestanding committee on uniformity of analytical methods.
Determination of unsaponifiable matter in oils and fats. In the used method, a quantitative measurement with gas chromatography orhigh performance liquid chromatography replaces the gravimetric measurement. The method is not indicated. Sterols also called desmethylsterols 4-Methylsterols Triterpene alcohols, tetra- and penta-cyclic also called 4,dimethylsterols Carotenoids Alkyl- or alkenyl-aryl-dihydropyran tocopherols, tocotrienols,plastochromanol-8 Aliphatic compounds: Saturated hydrocarbons, acyclic, cyclic Unsaturated hydrocarbons mainly squalene, an intermediate between aliphaticand terpene Fatty alcoholsComments: The hydroxylated terpenes in seed oil are partially as fatty acid esters.
The fatty alcohols are present primarily in natural oils as esters called wax. The levels of total hydrocarbons reported in some articles may sometimes beexcessive because of the questionable quality of a solvent extraction petroleumether, n-hexane. Alkylfurans of Persea americana Mill. More hydrophilic derivatives such as tyrosol, gossypol etc. In the caseof ubiquinones, their instability in alkaline solutions does not allow their recov-ery in the unsaponifiable matter. Sterols -sitosterol is dominant.
It should be noted that the methods used for determining the content levels of thesecompounds are not mentioned in the present book. The structures of the molecules mentioned in the various tables of the book arepresented in Chap. This hydrocarbon with six double bonds is present in the humansebum and its physiological effects are notorious.
This molecule is related to tocopherols and tocotrienols. The content of this component is mentioned for some oils if thecontent in carotenoids was not specified. Similarly, levels are given for someother constituents rarely encountered but sometimes abundant: The structures of these compounds, cited in some tables, are presented in Chap. Species A to BAbelmoschus esculentus L. MoenchMalvaceae Synonym Hibiscus esculentus L. Common names Okra, gumbo Eng.
Malvaceae Synonym Hibiscus ficulneus L. Organ analyzed Seed Origin of the sample IndiaD. Common names Musk mallow Eng. Pinaceae Common names European silver fir, silver fir Eng. Malvaceae Common names Velvetleaf Eng. Fabaceae Common name Northern black wattle Eng.
DonFabaceae Common name Coastal wattle Eng. Fabaceae Synonym Acacia holosericea A. Aceraceae Common names Sycamore maple Eng.
Aceraceae Common names Red maple Eng. Aceraceae Synonym Acer ginnala Maxim. Common names Amur maple Eng. Arecaceae Synonym Acrocomia lasiospatha Wall. Common names Coyoli palm Eng. FergusonActinidiaceae Synonym Actinidia chinensis Planc. Common names Kiwifruit Eng. Malvaceae Common names Baobab Eng. PerrierMalvaceae Synonym Adansonia fony Baill. Malvaceae Common name Baobab za Fr. Fabaceae Common names Red beadtree Eng. Fabaceae Common name Lebbeck Eng. Euphobiaceae Common names Candlenut, kukuinut tree Eng.
Common names Garlic mustard Eng. Liliaceae Common names Onion Eng. Organ analyzed Seed Origins of the samples India, oil from a company Parry et al. Amaranthaceae Common names Slim amaranth Eng. Asteraceae Synonym Ambrosia elatior L. Common names Common ragweed Eng. Anacardiaceae Common names Cashew Eng. Apiaceae Common names Dill Eng.
Annonaceae Common names Custard apple Eng. ParkerMeliaceae Synonym Amoora rohituka Roxb. Liliaceae Common name Aphyllante de Montpellier Fr. Fabaceae Common names Peanut, groundnut Eng. Organ analyzed Seed Origins of thesamplesMore than 15 different countries, doubtful, oils of companies Itoh et al. Asteraceae Common names Wooly burdock Eng.