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Griffith Jones, a young Anglican clergyman, often called the 'morning star of the revival,' was making a mark in Britain through his revival preaching for at least 10 years before Theodore Frelinghuysen, a Dutch reformed Pietist, began to see remarkable conversions in America. He preached in with revival signs following his ministry in New Jersey.

The revival spread to the Scottish-Irish Presbyterians under the ministry of Gilbert Tennant, whose father, William, founded the famous "Log College", which later became the Princeton University. Revival then spread to the Baptists of Pennsylvania and Virginia before the extraordinary awakening that occurred on Northampton, Massachusetts, under the ministry of Jonathan Edwards in Edward's personal experience of revivals and his sharp mind, enabled him to produce a number of revival theologies and pastoral observations which have yet to be surpassed in their wisdom and insight. Thereafter, the revival spread to England and was further advanced in America by a visit of George Whitefield in The effects of the revival were phenomenal.

Statistics are hard to find, but we know that new Congregational churches began in a year period and 30, were added to the church between and , probably doubling its size. Moral results were equably noticeable. Nine university colleges were established in the colonies. The wild frontier society was thoroughly Christianised. Early missionary desire began to emerge, most notably in the ministry of David Brainerd among the Indians. His journals are essential reading for all those seeking revival.

Back in Britain a massive movement of revival had began and was bound up with the ministries of two young men, George Whitefield and John Wesley. Both had been members of the Holy Club in Oxford while they were students.


Wesley went off, still unconverted, to America to preach to the Indians in , returning in The only benefit of this venture was his contact with the Moravians, who he could not understand, but for whom he had a great respect. On Wesley's return, Whitefield had been converted and was already preaching with great effect. For 34 years he exercised a most amazing preaching ministry, with revival signs often following him. His eloquence was commanding and convincing, full of vivid pictures and graphic expressions.

The height of Whitefield's ministry was at the famed Cambuslang Awakening in , when 20, and 30, people gathered to hear him preach, followed by mass weeping and repentance one and a half hours. During Whitefield's ministry he preached in almost every town of England, Scotland and Wales, crossing the Atlantic seven times; winning countless souls in Boston, New York and Philadelphia.

He publicly preached an estimated 18, power-packed messages, although none of his 75 recorded sermons do justice to his style and delivery. Whitefield's friend, John Wesley, must go down in history as the architect of the 18th century evangelical revival. Converted in , at the well-known Aldersgate Street prayer meeting, he proceeded to preach whenever the opportunity afforded itself, usually in church. Then, in , at Whitefield's request, he preached in the open air at Bristol and followed Whitefield in his preaching places. There began those unusual manifestations which periodically attended his and Whitefield's ministry; falling, crying out, fainting, shrieking, convulsions etc.

Wesley wisely began small societies designed for mutual encouragement and support. These became forerunners of the class-meetings and then of the Methodist Church. They were surely used to conserve the fruits of his revivalistic work. Wesley was an itinerant preacher for 65 years. He traveled an estimated , miles on horseback to preach 40, sermons! He wrote books, including his voluminous journals and a complete commentary on the whole bible. He left behind him preachers in England, in America; 76, Methodists in England and 57, in America.

With Charles, his brother, he penned 9, hymns. Wesley's influence has far outrun his long life. His practices and theology has affected Holiness, Revivalist, Pentecostal and Charismatic groups right down to the present day. Clearly, then this Awakening was truly 'Great' and had notable affect on the majority of countries where Evangelical Christians could be found.

General Overview of Revivals

It affected the existing church, saw thousands converted and impacted social conditions. Historians usually refer to , the year of the American revolution, as the year by which the revival had spent itself and had began to decline. This little-known 'Great Awakening' lasted about 30 years and its immediate effects were extraordinarily widespread. It also gave a remarkable impetus to world missions. This awakening began as a prayer-movement in , when John Erskine of Edinburgh re-published Jonathan Edward's earnest plea for revival prayer.

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Denomination after denomination devoted a monthly Monday evening to prayer, first in Britain, then in the US. The barriers were great.

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There was moral decline following the war of independence in America. The French Revolution, infidelity and rationalism in Europe and dwindling congregations everywhere. The beginning of the revival can be traced to the industrial towns of Yorkshire in late , spreading through all areas and denominations. The Methodists alone grew from around 72, at Wesleys death in to almost a quarter of a million within a generation. At the same time, the churches in Wales became packed again and thousands gathered in the open air. Ireland too, saw local awakenings, especially among the Methodists.

It also achieved considerable social reform; evangelical Anglicans successfully fought for the abolition of the slave trade, prisons were reformed, Sunday Schools began and a number of benevolent institutions were commenced. In the rest of the world similar movements arose. Around Scandinavia was impacted and in Switzerland a visit of Robert Haldane sparked off revivals among the Reformed churches.

Germany experienced revival and achieved lasting social reforms and missionary fervour. In the US the concept of prayer was very widespread from and by the awakening had broken out everywhere. Every state and every evangelical denomination was affected. Timothy Dwight, grandson of Jonathan Edwards, took over Yale College in and saw over half the students converted in just one year. Other colleges enjoyed similar movements of the Spirit. Orr reports that there were no emotional extravagances in the east coast revivals. This was far from the case in other areas.

Francis Asbury was sent from England, with and other Methodist circuit-riding preachers, to preach in the Frontiers. James McGready and Barton Stone witnessed an astounding revival at Kentucky in , with much trembling, shaking, tears, shouting and fainting. A second visit attracted 20, people to a 6-day camp-meeting, which witnessed astounding revival scenes, with hundreds falling at once, with shrieks and shouts and many conversions.

The Frontier camp meetings were often sabotaged by drunks and mockers, many of whom repented and turned to God. All denominations were blessed by this revival. An utterly lawless community was transformed into a God-fearing one. The revival of onwards lasted around 30 years until around the early 's, but was soon followed by the 's revival, which lasted about 12 years before a decade of decline.

Fast on the heels of the Second Great Awakening, the third wave of heavenly power crashed on the shores of the evangelical world, this time without the usual decline. Asahel Nettleton and Charles Finney are names which dominate the American scene, while another American, James Caughey was the most notable revival evangelist active in England. Finney's well documented ministry began in and netted , souls within one year! The Methodist Episcopal church steadily increased in the 's, especially through camp-meetings.

But their numbers doubled in Other denominations flourished too. The greatest effect of this revival was felt far beyond the boarders of North America and for centuries to come. Finney's philosophy of revival, expressed in his autobiography and explained in his "Revivals of Religion", has subsequently affected thousands of Christians and precipitated revivals around the world.

In the UK revivals were widespread throughout the 's. Evangelists like Robert Aitkin and William Haslam held highly successful missions. Brethrenism began during this period, restoring the doctrine of the church and the doctrine of the return of Christ. Its noticeable personalities were J.

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Another restoration movement was led by Edward Irving, who strongly believed in the restoration of spiritual gifts and apostolic ministries to the church. Burns and his son, William Chalmers Burns. On the wider international front, there were local revivals in various parts of the world, particularly in Scandinavia, central Europe, South Africa, the Pacific Islands, India, Malabar, and Ceylon.

This awakening, which began in only lasted about 12 years ending around It should be noted that this revival period is often seen as one with the former period. There were a constant stream of spasmodic revivals from which petered out through the next few years and then exploded from about onwards.

Some of the evangelists, like Asahel Nettleton, played a major role in both periods and some scholars, particularly Orr, refer to this revival time as a 'resurgence. This Great Awakening often called the 3rd was the greatest to date in its extent, effects and lasting impact. It began slowly in Canada, when 21 were saved, and grew steadily until between 25 and forty were converted each day.


Slowly reports of small awakenings began to emerge from various states in America. Then, in September Jeremiah Lanphier, a businessman and convert of Finney's a decade before , began a noon day prayer meeting on Wednesdays in a New York church. The small but growing numbers decided to meet daily in early October. Within six months over 10, business men were meeting in similar meetings across America; confessing sins, being converted and praying for revival.

It was a lay-led movement that harvested a million souls in two years. In , from February to June, around 50, people a week were added to the church - in a nation whose population was only 30,, Across the Atlantic another million were won to Christ by This was in Britain's population of 27,, Ulster saw , converted, Scotland 30,, Wales , and England , Evangelistic, missionary and philanthropic enterprises blossomed on every hand.

Moody and Sankey enjoyed their greatest success. William and Catherine Booth, converted under the ministry of James Caughey, launched the Salvation Army and attracted great crowds to Christ. Walter and Phoebe Palmer, the American evangelists, saw a remarkable work of the Spirit attend their ministry. Charles Haddon Spurgeon preached to capacity crowds each week, filling the largest halls in London.

Hudson Taylor began the China Inland Mission. Gawin Kirkham started the Open Air Mission.


Lord Shaftsbury championed for the cause of the young, the poor and the oppressed. Barnardo founded his famous orphanages. David Livingstone and Mary Slessor propagated missionary work in Africa. Such was the impact of this fourth great awakening. The revival also swept around the world. It would be vary easy to review this period, to , as a period of unusual evangelistic effort and success, as most its documentation surrounds the ministry of Dwight L.

Moody, together with a host of other ministries that were also born out of the revival. Orr regards this period also as a 'resurgence. It was quite distinct in its character and effects. It initially centred around the ministry of D L Moody, whose ministry may be described as "highly successful crusade evangelism interspersed with periodic revivalism". He was God's chosen vessel to take the sparks of the revival to ignite a fresh passion for God and for souls around the world.

Moody traveled, with his singing evangelist companion, Ira Sankey, to England a number of times. Spurgeon spoke of the visit of as "a gracious visitation" and a "very notable ingathering of converts", especially at Newcastle and Edinburgh. Andrew Bonar, too, refers, in his diary to "the tide of real revival in Edinburgh" comparing it with his own experience of revival 35 years earlier. Similar results followed Moody and Sankey as they traversed England, Ireland and Scotland, filling the largest halls in the land.

Moody returned to England in and had an astounding affect on a new breed of evangelists in the U. His mission in Cambridge, in , marked the beginning of a worldwide interdenominational student missionary movement. The 'Cambridge Seven', including C. Studd, were products of Moody's visit and they went to on evangelise China in By Studd founded W. Wilfred Grenfell, the renowned missionary to Labrador was converted at a tent mission led by Moody in Members of the LDS Church believe that, in addition to Smith being the first prophet appointed by Jesus in the "latter days", every subsequent church president also serves in the capacity of prophet, seer and revelator.

Some among the Churches of Christ have attributed the restorationist character of the Latter Day Saints movement to the influence of Sidney Rigdon , who was associated with the Campbell movement in Ohio but left it and became a close friend of Joseph Smith. Primitive observances of "appointed times" like Sabbath were secondary to continuing revelation , similarly to the progressive revelation held by some non-restorationist Christian theologians.

The Mormon doctrine of the " Great Apostasy " has been criticized as heresy by some Christians, primarily Catholics, as inconsistent with what they claim is biblical teaching that the true church was never lost at any time. Mormons in turn point to historical evidence of changes in Christian doctrine over time, scriptures prophesying of a coming apostasy before the last days particularly 2 Thessalonians 2: Adventism is a Christian eschatological belief that looks for the imminent Second Coming of Jesus to inaugurate the Kingdom of God.

This view involves the belief that Jesus will return to receive those who have died in Christ and those who are awaiting his return, and that they must be ready when he returns. Adventists are considered to be both restorationists and conservative Protestants. The Millerites were the most well-known family of the Adventist movements. They emphasized apocalyptic teachings anticipating the end of the world, and did not look for the unity of Christendom but busied themselves in preparation for Christ's return. Millerites sought to restore a prophetic immediacy and uncompromising biblicism that they believed had once existed but had long been rejected by mainstream Protestant and Catholic churches.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the s in upstate New York , a phase of the Second Great Awakening. Important to the Seventh-day Adventist movement is a belief in progressive revelation , [49] teaching that the Christian life and testimony is intended to be typified by the Spirit of Prophecy , as explained in the writings of Ellen G.

Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to Protestant Christian teachings such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment. The church is also known for its emphasis on diet and health, its holistic understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, and its conservative principles and lifestyle. The personal ministry of Herbert W. It later splintered into many other churches and groups when the Worldwide Church of God disassociated itself with the Restoration movements and made major attempts to join the Protestant branch of Christianity.

The Advent Christian Church is unaffiliated with Seventh-day Adventism, but considers itself the second "of six Christian denominations that grew out of the ministry of William Miller". In the s, a Bible study group led by Charles Taze Russell formed into what was eventually called the Bible Student movement. Russell's congregations did not consider him to be the founder of a new religion, [51] but that he helped in restoring true Christianity from the apostasy that Jesus and the Apostle Paul foretold.

They believed that other Churches departed in a Great Apostasy from the original faith on major points, and that the original faith could be restored through a generally literal interpretation of the Bible and a sincere commitment to follow its teachings. They focused on several key doctrinal points that they considered a return to "primitive Christianity", [52] derived from their interpretation of the Bible, including a rejection of trinitarianism , the immortality of the soul , and the definition of Hell as a place of eternal torment; [53] active proselytization ; strict neutrality in political affairs; [54] abstinence from warfare; [55] and a belief in the imminent manifestation of the Kingdom of God or World to Come on Earth.

Jehovah's Witnesses emerged as a distinct religious organization, maintaining control of Russell's Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society and other corporations. They continued to develop doctrines that they considered to be an improved restoration of first century Christianity , including increased emphasis on the use of Jehovah as God's personal name. The Plymouth Brethren is a conservative , Evangelical , restorationist movement whose origin can be traced to Dublin , Ireland , in The first English assembly was in Plymouth in [60] where the movement became well known and assemblies diffused throughout Europe and beyond.

By , the first English assembly in Plymouth had over 1, souls in fellowship. By , divergence of practice and belief led to the development of two separate branches. The rift was caused primarily by a difference of opinions between John Nelson Darby and Benjamin Wills Newton in regards to eschatology. Despite more divisions, assemblies are still often generalized into two main categories: John Duncan criticized the Brethren movement saying "To end sectarianism, the Plymouth Brethren began by making a new sect, and that sect, of all sects, the most sectarian".

Pentecostalism began primarily as a restoration movement that focused on the "experiential" aspect of the early church. Oneness Pentecostals , in particular, continue to have a lot of restorationist themes present in their movement. Many Oneness Pentecostals see their movement as being a restoration of the Apostolic Church, which is why many of them refer to themselves as "apostolic" or to their movement as the "Apostolic Pentecostal" movement. During the Charismatic Movement of the s and s, which focused on the transformation of the individual, some leaders formed what has become known as the Charismatic Restorationist Movement.

These leaders, of whom Arthur Wallis , David Lillie and Cecil Cousen were at the forefront, focused on the nature of the church and shared a distinctive view that authentic church order was being restored to the whole church. This authentic church order centred on what is referred to as the "fivefold ministries", as listed in Ephesians 4: Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Teachers and Pastors.

Although the Charismatic Movement brought the Pentecostal gifts to the denominational churches, these restorationists considered denominationalism unbiblical, and shared a conviction that God would cause the church to be directly organized and empowered by the holy spirit. This movement became known as the Shepherding Movement and was the subject of significant controversy in the mids.

The movement left a significant legacy through its influence on contemporary ministries International Churches of Christ , Maranatha Campus Ministries and Great Commission International. More recently another form of charismatic restorationism with a similar recognition of the apostolic office has emerged in the form of the Apostolic-Prophetic Movement , centered on the Kansas City Prophets. Leading proponents of the movement include C. Layne was originally raised in the Church of God Anderson , where his father was a minister.

One tenet of this group is that they are ordained by both prophecy and divine command to restore the church of God as it was in the Book of Acts. This teaching is upheld by the official eschatology , which is a form of church historicism. This Church of God Restoration [69] teaches that the 7th Trumpet in the book of the Revelation began to sound around the year when Daniel Layne was saved, alleging that there was a general discontent among many of its current adherents that were in various Churches of God at that time.

A variation of this " Seventh Seal message" [70] had been taught in other Churches of God for approximately 50 years prior to this point. Iglesia ni Cristo began in the Philippines and was incorporated by Felix Y. Manalo on July 27, It does not teach the doctrine of the Trinity or the divinity of Jesus.

The local churches are a Christian movement influenced by the teachings of J. Its members see themselves as separate from other Christian groups, denominations, and movements, part of what they sometimes call " The Lord's Recovery ". One of the defining features of the local churches is their adherence to the principle that all Christians in a city or locality are automatically members of the one church in that locality.

Another defining feature is the lack of an official organization or official name for the movement. Those in the local churches believe that to take a name would divide them from other believers. Thus, they often say they meet with "the church in [city name]" with the understanding that they are not the only church but belong to the same church as every believer in their city. Jesuism is the personal philosophy encompassing the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and commitment or adherence to those teachings. As a philosophy, Jesuism is characterized as naturalistic and rationalist , rejecting the conflict between faith and science.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Restorationism disambiguation. Protestant Reformation and Radical Reformation.


Millerites and Seventh-day Sabbatarianism. Grace Communion International and Armstrongism. British New Church Movement. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Church of God Restoration. Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, "Discovering Our Roots: Moore, Radical, Communal, Bearing Witness: A Sociological Introduction , Stephen J. Primitive Christianity in Crisis.

The march of folly. Archived from the original on Hawley, Redigging the Wells: Joseph Smith - History: Knight, "A Search for Identity: Classification of Protestant Denominations".

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God's nation--is in the world, but not of it. Its members cannot be loyal to the prince of this world [Satan], and to the Prince of Glory, both.

Indeed, we entreat all the Lord's dear people to remember that there are but the two great Masters; and that we have enlisted on the side of our God and His Christ, and are to prove loyal to these in the midst of a crooked and perverse people, blinded by the god of this world and filled with his spirit of pride, boastfulness, animosity, hatred and strife.

It should be our desire to be neutral as between these contending factions of Satan's empire. Let us never forget our neutrality. Let us be just toward all, kind, generous.