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This is always the first app I check when planning a journey anywhere. I love the feature to turn and off minimizing walking because sometimes I take my bike with me on my trips, and I can do portions of the trip on my bike. The only problems that I would have with this app is that recently it has been showing very few busses with real-time info.

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Esperamos que les guste. Sea cual sea su lengua materna, sea cual sea la ciudad en la que vivan: Dennos 7 estrellas, una para cada uno de los enanitos de Blancanieves. Los problemas de Communauto y Automobile ya son historia. Pueden contactarnos en el Twitter transitapp. Katie, nuestra Reina de Twitter transitapp, quiere decir gracias por todos los GIFs de ballenas que nos enviaron. En un mundo perfecto: Y por darnos trabajo. Esos crash que afectaban a algunos usuarios de GO ya son historia. Pongan en Twitter su mejor GIF de animales y etiqueten transitapp. Nos encantan las ballenas.

Esperamos que lo disfruten. Dennos cinco estrellas si les gustan los cambios. Hagan un Tweet a transitapp. Bird, Spin, y Waybots. Devono amare i treni. Lobo en Pulp Fiction. Di hasta la vista baby a: Overall happiness among homeless people in Madrid Spain. This article tests a hypothesized model of overall happiness among homeless people in Spain. Information was gathered using a structured interview.

The results obtained show that around half of the homeless people in Madrid said that they were happy. A positive meta-stereotype and a better perceived general health were associated with a higher overall happiness, while feelings of loneliness were associated with a lower overall happiness. Happiness also showed a significant effect on future expectations. Disabilities and handicaps had a significant effect on perceived general health, which was in turn associated with overall happiness among homeless people. Population cardiovascular health and urban environments: A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment.

Methods We conducted this study in an area of 16, residents in Madrid Spain. We obtained cardiovascular health and risk factors data from all residents aged 45 and above using Electronic Health Records from the Madrid Primary Health Care System. We used several quantitative audit tools to assess: We also conducted 11 qualitative interviews with key informants to help understanding the relationships between urban environment and cardiovascular behaviors.

We integrated quantitative and qualitative data following a mixed-methods merging approach. Residents highlighted the importance of these small stores for buying healthy foods. Neighbors emphasized the importance of drinking as a socialization mechanism. Public open spaces were mostly used by seniors that remarked the importance of accessibility to these spaces and the availability of destinations to walk to. Conclusion This experience allowed testing and refining. Full Text Available The carbonate stones that make up the four fountains of the 18th century located in the Paseo del Prado of Madrid Spain are studied.

The documentary search in historical archives, together with the petrographic, cartographic and paleontological studies permitted to determine that the fountains have been built with dolostone of the Castrojimeno Formation, with gastropods of the Trochactaeon Lamarcki specie of the Santonian Upper Cretaceous. The petrophysical properties of this dolostone effective porosity, bulk density, mercury intrusion porosity, ultrasound wave propagation velocity, micro-roughness and color have been calculated and compared with Colmenar de Oreja limestone.

Each of the four fountains has a circular pylon at the base, a central column that holds a smaller pylon and is topped by a sculpture that serves as a spout. A bomb destroyed three ashlars of the basal pylon, column, small pylon and the sculpture of the SE fountain, during the Spanish Civil War, in These damaged elements were replaced by other carved limestones from Colmenar de Oreja in The four sculptures had been replaced in with resin replicas and the originals are preserved in the San Isidro. The study of the petrophysical properties of the sculptures located in the museum allowed us to determine the decay of different stone types.

16. Población y muestra - Metodología de la investigación científica

The analysis of micro-roughness was employed to define that the dissolution effect on the sculptures is different between dolostone and limestone. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid Spain on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor. Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '. The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy.

This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor AMF to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements.

In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid Spain in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid average value of Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes.

Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid , Spain. The present mathematical model was able to reproduce the leishmaniasis dynamics in the Madrid outbreak, providing theoretical support based on successful experiences, such as the reduction of human cases in Southwest Madrid , Spain.

Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid Spain. The rate of soil erosion in pine forests Pinus halepensis located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not.

The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain 's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem.

Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified.

Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain , but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT and direct PCR, culture techniques. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. Using an ethnographic analysis carried out in a central Madrid neighbourhood, I will analyze how the experience of insecurity of one sector of the residents, which is shaped in the framework of the general discourse of citizen insecurity, is, however, rooted in a specific life trajectory that indicates socio-cultural and economic keys that have little to do with the causes of insecurity that the hegemonic discourse continually indicates.

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More generally, I hope to show, with this case study, how anthropological analyses can contribute to the evaluation of public urban policies. Full Text Available The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain , sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G.

Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. Of confirmed positive samples from giardiasis cases a total of G. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. The severity of drought has many implications for society, including its impacts on the water supply, water pollution, reservoir management and ecosystem.

However, its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct. Because of the importance of drought, there have been many attempts to characterize its severity, resulting in the numerous drought indices that have been developed Niemeyer This type of agricultural insurance is named as 'index-based insurance' IBI.

IBI is perceived to be substantially less costly to operate and manage than multiple peril insurance. IBI contracts pay indemnities based not on the actual yield or revenue losses experienced by the insurance purchaser but rather based on realized NDVI values historical data that is correlated with farm-level losses Xiaohui Deng et al. Definition of when drought event occurs is defined on NDVI threshold values mainly based in statistical parameters, average and standard deviation that characterize a normal distribution.

In this work a pasture area at the north of Community of Madrid Spain has been delimited. A statistical analysis of the NDVI histograms at consecutives 46 intervals of that area was applied to search for the best statistical distribution based on the maximum likelihood criteria. References Kolli N Rao. Index based Crop Insurance. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 1, El barrio de la Chueca of Madrid , Spain: The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT barrio community of Chueca in Madrid , Spain , from political and sociological perspectives.

First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July in the Spanish cities of Madrid , Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca. A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca.

Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain. Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors.

Intrinsic and specific vulnerability of groundwater in central Spain: The utility of these methods was tested by analyzing the spatial distribution of nitrate concentrations in the different aquifers located in the study area: Vulnerability maps based on these four indexes showed very similar results, identifying the Quaternary Aquifer and the lower sub-unit of the Moor Limestone Aquifer as deposits subjected to a high risk of nitrate pollution due to intensive agriculture.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, but its spatial distribution is not homogeneous. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial pattern of mortality from these diseases for men and women, in the populated urban area AUP of the municipality of Madrid , and to identify spatial aggregations. An ecological study was carried out by census tract, for men and women in The results were mapped. SMR higher than 1. Moran's I was 0. The LISA method showed similar patterns to those previously observed. Policies restricting access to sugary drinks and unhealthy foods in the school environment are associated with healthier consumption patterns.

In , Spain approved a Consensus Document regarding Food at Schools with nutritional criteria to improve the nutritional profile of foods and drinks served at schools. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of food and drink vending machines at secondary schools in Madrid , the products offered at them and their nutritional profile.

Cross-sectional study of a random sample of secondary schools in Madrid in The characteristics of the schools and the existence of vending machines were recorded through the internet and by telephone interview. The products offered in a representative sample of 6 vending machines were identified by in situ inspection, and its nutritional composition was taken from its labeling. Finally, the nutritional profile of each product was analyzed with the United Kingdom profile model, which classifies products as healthy and less healthy. The prevalence of vending machines was Among the products offered, Vending machines are common at secondary schools in Madrid.

Most products are vending machines are still less healthy. Regional water footprint and water management: Water resources and water footprint of the production and consumption in Madrid region were estimated, considering blue water water resources , green water soil moisture , grey water polluted water and virtual water water trade in products imported and exported in the region. Water resources in Madrid relay mainly in surface waters and rainfall, so the periodic occurrence of meteorological droughts implies the scarcity of water supply.

The main users of blue water are households, munici Full Text Available Road traffic noise is one of the main concerns of large cities. Most of them have classified their territory in acoustic areas and have constructed strategic noise maps. From both sources we have elaborated seven types of acoustic neighbourhoods according to both their noise gap in regard to the legal standard and the percentage of population exposed to noise.

A spatial Durbin model has been selected as the strategy that best models the impact of noise on housing prices. However, results for Madrid do not confirm the hedonic theory and indicate, as one of the possibilities, that the official acoustic areas in Madrid could be incorrectly designed. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid Spain. Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning.

One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid.

The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

Mercury in air and plant specimens in herbaria: We present data from a study of mercury concentrations in air and plant specimens from the MAF Herbarium in Madrid Spain. Hg gas emissions from old plant collections treated with mercuric chloride HgCl 2 in herbaria may pose a health risk for staff working in installations of this type.

This is an issue not yet properly addressed. The first group induces high concentrations of Hg gas in the main herbarium room, with seasonal variations of ng m -3 late winter and ng m -3 early summer baseline for Hg: A test survey at another herbarium in Madrid showed even higher concentrations of Hg gas above 40, ng m The World Health Organization guidelines for chronic exposure to Hg gas are estimated at a maximum of ng m While staff was aware of the existence of HgCl 2 treated plants the plant specimen sheets are labelled as 'poisoned' , they had no knowledge of the presence of high Hg gas concentrations in the buildings, a situation that may be relatively common in herbaria.

A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid Spain. Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources air deposition, agriculture, etc. According to data from the EU, in Spain , and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid , it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community.

These aspects involve advanced technologies hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry, Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

Defining products for a new health technology assessment agency in Madrid , Spain: The aim of this study was to explore the needs and requirements of decision makers in our regional healthcare system for health technology assessment HTA products to support portfolio development planning for a new HTA agency in Madrid , Spain.

A Delphi study was conducted during Questionnaires were developed based on a review of products and services offered by other agency members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment, and included preference and prioritization questions to evaluate twenty-two different products and services. The initial Delphi panel involved eighty-seven experts from twenty-one public hospitals, eleven primary healthcare centers, six private hospitals, and eight departments of the Regional Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid.

The global participation rate was Ten of the twenty-two possible products were rated of high interest by more than 80 percent of respondents. Important differences in preferences and priorities were detected across different settings. Public hospitals and primary healthcare centers shared a more "micro" perspective, preferring classic technology-centered HTA products, whereas private hospitals and Ministry representatives demanded more "macro" products and services such as organizational model and information system assessments.

The high participation rate supports the representativeness of the results for our regional context. The strategic development of an HTA portfolio based on decision makers' needs and requirements as identified in this type of exercise should help achieve a better impact on policy development and decision making. Full Text Available This study reveals the work developed by the nurses of the Hospital general of Madrid Spain in the treatment of the plague, and the training they received for their welfare tasks in the 17th century.

Since the end of the 16th century, nurses knew and implemented a set of techniques and medicines to alleviate the terrible disease of the plague and, despite the scarce knowledge about the disease existing at the time, they sought to prevent the contagion with hygienic and dietary measures, and physical isolation. This study shows through which actions and in which conditions nurses worked to deal with such a terrible disease. All this helps to get a full knowledge of the development of the work done by nurses in the last five centuries and, therefore, to determine the evolution and shaping of the nursing profession in our country.

The Fifth International Symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Applied Cardiovascular Biotechnology was held on April 24thth, , at the Auditorium of the High Council of Scientific Research of Spain CSIC in Madrid , as a continuation of a series of yearly meetings, organized in an attempt to encourage translational research in this field and facilitate a positive interaction among experts from several countries, along with industry representatives and journalists.

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In addition, members of the Task Force of the European Society concerning the clinical investigation of the use of autologous adult stem cells for repair of the heart gathered and discussed an update of the previous consensus, still pending of publication. In this article, we summarize some of the main topics of discussion, the state-of-the-art and latest advances in this field, and new challenges brought up for the near future. Consumption trends for specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid Spain from to Analysing drug consumption in large population groups lets us observe consumption trends and compare them between different settings.

Descriptive study of cholinesterase inhibitors N06DA and memantine N06DX01 dispensed in Madrid between and and covered by the Spain 's national health system. Consumption was calculated by analysing changes in DDD defined daily doses to find total and yearly increases. The cost was estimated based on DDD price. Between and , consumption of drugs used to treat dementia increased sixfold.

During this period, cholinesterase inhibitors accounted for The estimated cost rose by a by a factor of 5. Consumption increased in age cohorts up to 86 to 90 5. Consumption of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine gradually increased, but consumption in did not reach levels equivalent to dementia prevalence figures. Pharmaceutical expenditure restraint measures may temporarily slow the cost increase temporarily but if the same trend of consumption persists, costs will rise. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus HPV in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid , Spain.

Human Papillomavirus HPV genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid Spain , as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. We detected 20 different HPV types: HPV 18 was only detected in 5. Co-infections were found in As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas.

In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types — such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 — in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited.

Hepatitis B virus infection and vaccine-induced immunity in Madrid Spain. To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus HBV infection and vaccine-induced immunity in the region of Madrid , and to analyze their evolution over time. An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out in the population aged years between and This was the last of four seroprevalence surveys in the region of Madrid. The prevalence of HBV infection and vaccine-induced immunity was estimated using multivariate logistic models and were compared with the prevalences in the , and surveys.

In the population aged years, the prevalence of HBV infection was The prevalence of vaccine-induced immunity in the population aged years was Compared with previous surveys, there was a decrease in the prevalence of HBV infection. Based on the prevalence of chronic infection Madrid is a region with low HBV endemicity.

Preventive strategies against HBV should especially target the immigrant population. Published by Elsevier Espana. Enhancement of archaeological heritage. Heritage conservation has a great impact on the economy of a country. The enhancement of archaeological sites is an investment that promotes tourism and culture. The interdisciplinary knowledge of heritage should be the basis of its management. Preventive actions, non-destructive analytical techniques and monitoring for the conservation of these assets should be promoted.

This monument is approximately 70 metres high and metres wide. It was listed as a cultural and monumental heritage site by the regional government of Madrid in The gypsum escarpment housing the dwellings forms part of a lower Miocene unit Madrid Basin. Debris cones with a mixture of debris from the lower, medium and upper units are found at the bottom of the rockwall. The vulnerability of this monument to atmospheric agents has been studied using "in situ" monitoring techniques of humidity, temperature and rate of rockfalls.

Drones have been used for aerial photography in the highest areas of the escarpment and have provided an information network of fractures likely to cause rockfall. To determine the response of these accelerated ageing processes, density, micro-roughness, ultrasound velocities Vp and Vs , air permeability and microscopy measurements were made before, during and after ageing tests.

Geomorphological studies, rates of decay, material characteristics and durability tests indicate that the decay is controlled by the mineralogy, clay content and porosity of the gypsum rock, as well as microclimate, temperature changes and rock fractures. Rockfalls are particularly relevant in the. The different alternatives are presented and the general outline of the solution chosen, as well as a comprehensive list of the materials used. Monitoring of children with acute gastroenteritis in Madrid , Spain , during A structured surveillance study was conducted on children with diarrhea who were hospitalized in Madrid Spain during , in order to describe temporal, geographic, and age-related trends in rotavirus RV strains after the introduction of the RV vaccines in our country.

A total of children were enrolled, with RV being detected in Coinfections were detected mainly with rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. The most prevalent rotavirus G type was G1 The G12 genotype appeared for the first time in in Spain , and it has increased to 5. Some uncommon P genotypes, such as P[14] and P[6], both with a low percentage, were found. The samples with G1 G2, G9 and G12 genotypes appeared in all ages, but were significantly higher in children under 2 years old.

A long-term structured surveillance is required in the Spanish post vaccine era, in order to determine the prevalence and variability of RV genotypes. This will especially be needed to distinguish between changes occurring as a result of natural fluctuation in genotype or those changes that could be mediated by population immunity to the vaccines.

In addition, it will be necessary to study the impact of the current vaccines on the circulating rotavirus strains and on the overall reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus disease among children in Spain. To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.

Cross-sectional study of a random sample of secondary schools from Madrid , during school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated.

The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items within the range. The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The mean of overall adherence was 6. The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit.

Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu. Meca 1, Almaden Spain ; Pizarro, J. Geochemical fingerprints and controls in the sediments of an urban river: River Manzanares, Madrid Spain. The geochemical fingerprint of sediment retrieved from the banks of the River Manzanares as it passes through the City of Madrid is presented here. A total of 18 bank-sediment cores were collected along the course of the river, down to its confluence with the Jarama river, to the south-east of Madrid.

Trace and major elements in each sample were extracted following a double protocol: X-ray diffraction was additionally employed to determine the mineralogical composition of the samples. Uni- and multivariate analyses of the chemical data reveal the influence of Madrid on the geochemistry of Manzanares' sediments, clearly manifested by a marked increase in the concentration of typically 'urban' elements Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, downstream of the intersection of the river with the city's perimeter. The highest concentrations of these elements appear to be associated with illegal or accidental dumping of waste materials, and with the uncontrolled incorporation of untreated urban runoff to the river.

The natural matrix of the sediment is characterised by fairly constant concentrations of Ce, La and Y, whereas changes in the lithology intersected by the river cause corresponding variations in Ca-Mg and Al-Na contents. In the final stretch of the river, the presence of carbonate materials seems to exert a strong geochemical control on the amount of Zn and, to a lesser extent, Cu immobilised in the sediments.

This fact suggests that a variable but significant. Phleboviruses detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a human leishmaniasis focus in South-West Madrid region, Spain. Phlebotomus-borne PhB- viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected. Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid , Spain , a sand fly collection was carried out.

Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction PCR , using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed. The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of P.

Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus TOSV B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus ARBV , and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus.

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Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described. The collection houses a total of type specimens representing 24 taxa belonging to 6 families and 12 genera. There are 22 taxa represented by primary types 19 holotypes, 2 neotypes and 1lectotype and at least one paratype, and only two taxa are exclusively represented by one secondary type paratype.

The collection is specially rich in Spanish endemisms. Special attention is deserved by the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi described by A. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain. Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented Validation was assessed through the Receiver Operator Characteristic, showing a good agreement between the modelled probabilities and the reported lightning-caused fires, with an Area Under the Curve around Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on preterm births in Madrid Spain.

Preterm birth PTB refers to delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and represents the leading cause of early-life mortality and morbidity in developed countries. PTB can lead to serious infant health outcomes. The etiology of PTB remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies have consistently shown elevated risks with different environmental variables as traffic-related air pollution TRAP.

The aim of the study was to evaluate with time series methodology the short-term effect of air pollutants, noise levels and ambient temperature on the number of births and preterm births occurred in Madrid City during the period. Measurements of Acoustic Pollution in dB A analyzed were: Leqd, equivalent diurnal noise level and Leqn, equivalent nocturnal noise level. Linear trends, seasonality, as well as the autoregressive nature of the series itself were controlled.

We added as covariate the day of the week too. Autoregressive over-dispersed Poisson regression models were performed and the environmental variables were included with short-term lags from 0 to 7 days in reference to the date of birth. Firstly, simple models for the total number of births and preterm births were done separately. In a second stage, a model for total births adjusted for preterm births was performed.

A total of , births were analyzed. The results of the final models were expressed in relative risks RRs for interquartile increase. We observed evidence of a short term effect at Lag 0, for the following environmental variables analyzed, PM2. Influence of turbidity and clouds on satellite total ozone data over Madrid Spain. Remote Sensing Technology Inst. IMF ; Hernandez, E. Fisica de la Tierra II. A cluster classification based on solar radiation global, direct and diffuse , cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed.

Finally, the total ozone observations obtained with the GOME instrument show a very smooth dependence with respect to clouds and turbidity, showing a robust retrieval algorithm over these conditions. Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other , and each one's relationship to violent behavior.

The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental economic and material , expressive, or affective support. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid Spain.

The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1, adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April The mean age of sample participants was Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure.

More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities. Application of a pedestrian portal monitor at Madrid International Airport in Spain. Three pedestrian portal monitor systems, designed to detect illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement of radioactive materials carried by passengers at airports, have been evaluated. The systems were supplied by three manufacturers: Bicron, Exploranium and Thermo-Eberline.

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In an initial evaluation, conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering of the School of Civil Engineering, it was observed that the FHT system manufactured by Thermo-Eberline gave a more sensitive response and allowed the measurement of total photon dose rate and artificial photon dose rate. Therefore, this system was installed at Barajas International Airport in Madrid in for a period of days in order to select an appropriate investigation level defined as the radiation level that is selected as the trigger for further investigation.

An investigation level of approximately 1. Variables studied in the patients were: For qualitative variables, frequencies and percentages were calculated. In water samples taken on risk devices, we studied chlorine concentration, pH, temperatura and presence of Legionella. On the other hand, in biofilm samples obtained from the champagne bucket it was detected by PCR the presence of Legionella pneumophila whose gene sequencing was identical to that found in a respiratory sample of one patient.

So, we could show the link between environmental risk factor and the disease. This link was also confirmed by genetic sequencing with PCR. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province Spain. The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments.

It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure XANES spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory.

Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As V with Fe III oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits.

Information search behaviour, understanding and use of nutrition labeling by residents of Madrid , Spain. To describe the information search behaviour, comprehension level, and use of nutritional labeling by consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study of consumers recruited in five stores of the main supermarket chains in Madrid: Interviewers collected information about the information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling using a questionnaire designed for this purpose.

Differences were tested using the Chi-square statistic. In this sample, Lack of time Reported information search behaviour, comprehension, and use of nutritional labeling were relatively high among consumers of the study, and their main goal was picking healthier products. However, not only are there still barriers to reading the information, but also the information most relevant to health is not always read or understood. Thus, interventions to increase nutritional labeling comprehension and use are required in order to facilitate the making of healthier choices by consumers.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in PHIV women and the infant outcomes in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs.

All PHIV pregnant women registered in the Cohort that gave birth from to were included in the study. Twenty-eight pregnancies in twenty-two perinatally infected women were registered. Most women were Caucasian and heavily treatment-experienced. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was detectable close to delivery in four women The management of these cases was described, and the treatment strategies were discussed. None of the newborns acquired HIV infection.

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  • This study included a large series of pregnancies among PHIV women attended according to a youth-centered care model. The challenges in the management of this population by health-care providers were described. Specific strategies to minimize perinatal transmission risks should be addressed in future collaborative studies. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain , it first appeared in horses in the south Andalusia in , where outbreaks occur every year since. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus WNV circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses.

    The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from to , that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from horses, collected between September and November in central Spain , were analysed by ELISA blocking and IgM and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus Usutu virus.

    As a result, 10 of horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization seropositivity rate: Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since , before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes.

    Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales Scheuring and Riedi, Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI widely used. How can we study such a complex system? In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps.

    A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of x pixels with a resolution of x m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities Cheng and Agterberg, Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Multifractal growth in periphyton. Heavy metals distribution in soils surrounding an abandoned mine in NW Madrid Spain and their transference to wild flora.

    The present work concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd in the surrounding soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Thus, soils and plants were sampled from a mining valley in NW Madrid Spain , and total and extractable heavy metals were analysed. Soils affected by mining activities presented total Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations above toxic thresholds. The percentage of extractable element was highest for Cd and lowest for Cu.

    A highly significant correlation was observed between the total and extractable concentrations of metals in soils, indicating that, among the factors studied, total metals concentration is the most relevant for heavy metals extractability in these soils. NH 4 2 SO 4 -extractable metal concentrations in soils are correlated better with metal concentrations in several plant species than total metals in soils, and thus can be used as a suitable and robust method for the estimation of the phytoavailable fraction present in soils.

    The present paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the metal accumulation ability of the two latter plant species. The phytoremediation ability of S. Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Leishmania parasite and transmitted by the Phlebotominae subfamily of sandflies, which infects humans and other mammals. Clinical manifestations of the disease include cutaneous leishmaniasis CL, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis MCL and visceral leishmaniasis VL with a majority more than three-quarters of worldwide cases being CL. There are a number of risk factors for CL, such as the presence of multiple reservoirs, the movement of individuals, inequality, and social determinants of health.

    However, studies related to the role of these factors in the dynamics of CL have been limited. In this work, we i develop and analyze a vector-borne epidemic model to study the dynamics of CL in two ecologically distinct CL-affected regions— Madrid , Spain and Tolima, Colombia; ii derived three different methods for the estimation of model parameters by reducing the dimension of the systems; iii estimated reproduction numbers for the outbreak in Madrid and the outbreak in Tolima; and iv compared the transmission potential of the two economically-different regions and provided different epidemiological metrics that can be derived and used for evaluating an outbreak, once R0 is known and additional data are available.

    On average, Spain has reported only a few hundred CL cases annually, but in the course of the outbreak during —, a much higher number of cases than expected were reported and that too in the single city of Madrid. Cases in humans were accompanied by sharp increase in infections among domestic dogs, the natural reservoir of CL. On the other hand, CL has reemerged in Colombia primarily during the last decade, because of the frequent movement of military personnel to domestic regions from forested areas, where they have increased exposure to vectors.

    In , Tolima saw an unexpectedly high number of cases leading to two successive outbreaks. Stone decay assessment of the Madrid 's Royal Palace Spain by means of ultrasound and magnetometric prospection. This stone shows such petrophysical properties that make it resistant to decay processes.

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    Despite its high quality, the ashlars of the architrave have undergone fissuring processes resulting on fragments fall, some of them being blocks weighing more than Kg, with the consequent risk for visitors and passers-by. Fissures were caused by the presence of metallic elements iron-based used to tie ashlars. This survey will allow defining the guidelines for a restoration intervention. Results from the magnetometry prospection made possible to locate metallic elements flat bars and cramps , and sometimes the flat bars overlapping.

    Such bars are usually located at cm deep from the surface, just below the freeze and in a case cut in the architrave limestone. A multi-methodological approach to study the temporal and spatial distribution of air quality related to road transport emissions in Madrid , Spain. The traffic-related atmospheric emissions, composition and transport of greenhouse gases GHGs and air toxic pollutants ATPs , are an important environmental problem that affect climate change and air pollution in Madrid , Spain.

    Carbon dioxide CO2 affects the regional weather and particularly fine particle matter PM translocate to the people resulting in local health problems. As the main source of emissions comes from road transport, and subsequent combustion of fossil fuels, air quality deterioration may be elevated during weekdays and peak hours. We postulate that traffic-related air quality CO2, methane CH4, PM, volatile organic compounds VOCs, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon monoxide CO contents impairs epidemiology in part via effects on health and disease development, likely increasing the external costs of transport in terms of climate change and air pollution.

    First, the paper intends to estimate the local air quality related to the road transport emissions of weeks over a domain covering Madrid used as a case study.