The region remained under Spanish sovereignty, though in practice the Jesuits operated quite independently, up to the late 17th century. War ensued and was intermittent until the independence of Uruguay in In , a fortified village today the city of Rio Grande was built at the entrance of Lagoa dos Patos. Towards the middle of the century, Brazilians and Portuguese arrived to the west of the region, clashing with the Jesuits and the Guaranis. However, the Portuguese and Brazilians eventually crushed the resistance, destroyed the missions, and the region came definitely into Portuguese hegemony.
In the territory which included the present state of Santa Catarina became the Capitania d'el Rei and was made a dependency of Rio de Janeiro. Territorial disputes between Spain and Portugal led to the occupation by the Spaniards of the town of Rio Grande then the capital of the capitania and neighboring districts from to , when they reverted to the Portuguese.
In news of war between Spain and Portugal led to the capture of the Sete Povos and some frontier posts. The districts of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande had been separated in for military convenience, and in the latter was elevated to the category of a "capitania-geral", with the designation of "Sao Pedro do Rio Grande", independent of Rio de Janeiro, and with Santa Catarina as a dependency. In Rio Grande and Santa Catarina were organized into two distinct comarcas , the latter becoming an independent province in when the Empire of Brazil was organized.
This situation outlasted Brazil's independence from Portugal in ; in , however, Juan Antonio Lavalleja proclaimed the independence of Uruguay; war followed, until in Brazil recognized Uruguayan independence. Populating Rio Grande do Sul was a constant concern of the Portuguese. To that end, the metropolitan Crown distributed land in the form of enormous latifundia. In those large latifundia, cattle raising was the predominant economic activity. The Azorean settlers, on the other hand, mainly introduced wheat crops in much smaller properties. Up to the beginning of the 19th century, wheat was the main export product of Rio Grande do Sul.
The cheap jerky was commonly used as food for the enslaved laborers in other parts of Brazil. Up to , political unrest in Argentina and Uruguay favoured the jerky producers of Pelotas. But with order restored in these countries, competition by Argentinian and Uruguayan jerky producers became a concern. The jerky industry of the Plata was favored by the superior quality of Argentinian and Uruguayan pastures, by their better seaports,  and by their use of free labor, instead of slavery. These escalated into full rebellion in In , the Imperial government issued an " Ato Adicional ", allowing for elected Provincial legislative assemblies.
The ensuing Farroupilha Revolution known locally as Guerra dos Farrapos lasted ten years.
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The rebels stormed Porto Alegre, but were driven out from there in June From then on, the Empire was able to control most of the coastal region, achieving decisive strategic advantage from this. However, in , the rebels were still able to invade Santa Catarina, where they proclaimed a Juliana Republic , in a federal relationship with Rio Grande do Sul during the Santa Catarina campaign, Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels for a while before he returned to Europe and eventually became a hero in his native Italy. The Empire soon retook initiative, though, and from them on the rebels fought in the defensive.
In , the Empire assigned a new Provincial governor and military commander, the Baron, later Duke of Caxias. Economically exhausted and militarily defeated, the rebels accepted Caxias' terms of surrender. A general amnesty was declared, the rebellious officials were incorporated into the Imperial Army, slaves enrolled in the rebel Army were freed.
The province suffered greatly in the struggle, but recovered quickly, not only due to the import tax protection, but mainly due to renewed instability in Argentina and Uruguay: Rosas' government in Argentina continually interfered in Uruguayan affairs until , and Buenos Aires was blockaded by the French and the English from to At midth century, Rio Grande do Sul was repeatedly involved in war between Brazil and its neighbours.
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During this long and bloody war against Paraguay, Rio Grande do Sul remained usually a secondary front. But in a Paraguayan division invaded the state, occupying Uruguaiana by August 5. By August 16, troops of the Triple Alliance put siege to Uruguaiana, and by September 17, an ultimatum was delivered to General Estigarribia, commander of the Paraguayan division. Having no possibility of breaking the siege or defending the position, the Paraguayans surrendered, under conditions, the following day.
But if the territory of Rio Grande do Sul was spared most action, its dwellers provided a very significant part of the Brazilian troops: In , of a standing army of less than 15,, more than 5, were in Rio Grande do Sul. On the other hand, during the late Empire, more Brazilian generals were from Rio Grande do Sul than from any other province.
In , of 25 generals born in Brazil, four were from Rio Grande do Sul; and of the three born abroad, two were born in Uruguay but made their careers in Rio Grande do Sul. Political agitation was frequent in Rio Grande do Sul, but no important revolution occurred after the Ponche Verde Treaty in until the presidency at Rio de Janeiro of General Floriano Peixoto , whose ill-considered interference with state governments led to the revolt of , under Gumercindo Saraiva.
Railways connected the countryside to Porto Alegre and Rio Grande. Together with the introduction of steam ships, this reduced the costs and duration of transportation, facilitating the province's exports. New cattle breeds were introduced, and barbed wire was used to demarcate properties.
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- Afro-Brazilian religions in Portugal: bruxos, priests and pais de santo.
As a consequence, the population of the province doubled between and , from , inhabitants to , In the area of German settlements, a messianic movement, the Muckers German for false Saints erupted in , and was smashed by the Brazilian Army. Also during this period, the Liberal Party established its hegemony over the province, meaning control of the provincial legislature, the National Guard in Rio Grande do Sul, and most of the municipal governments.
Before the War of the Triple Alliance, the Conservative and Liberal parties had alternated in local power, following the national tendency. But, from on, the Liberals, under the leadership of Gaspar Silveira Martins , were able to retain provincial power, even when the Conservatives won at national level.
An incident in this struggle was the death of Admiral Saldanha da Gama , one of the most brilliant officers of the Brazilian navy and one of the chiefs of the naval revolt of , who was killed in a skirmish on the Uruguayan border towards the end of the conflict. In , civil war again exploded between supporters of State President Borges de Medeiros and opposition linked to the Partido Libertador and Assis Brasil. This eventually led to the Vargas dictatorship in and the period known as the Estado Novo. What is now the Rio Grande do Sul Military Brigade fought on the side of the state leadership and, as a result, was never reformed.
In fact, the Brigade remains the only state militia in Brazil. The Military Police is the federal force that polices in the other states. A poignant example of the Brigade's quasi-autonomy is the participation of its servicemen in both the coup attempt of and the military coup in According to the IBGE of , there were 10,, people residing in the state. The population density was People of Portuguese - mostly Azorean - background predominate in the coastal region.
The Southwest, on the other hand, was originally populated by Pampeano Indians. These speculations about a supposed Spanish predominance among the population of Southwestern Rio Grande do Sul are widely spread, but they contradict the historic knowledge about the region. The Northern and Northwestern parts of the State also have significant numbers of people of both Italian and German descent.
There are sizeable communities of Poles and Ukrainians across the state, notably in the northwest. People of African ancestry are concentrated in the capital city and in some cities in the litoral, such as Pelotas and Rio Grande. The Jesuits established Indian Reductions in the region; those reductions where populated exclusively by Amerindians, mainly Guarani, and certainly not by Europeans, either Spanish or Portuguese. Portuguese Jesuits established Indian Reductions in and dominated the region.
The Portuguese settlement in Rio Grande do Sul was largely increased between and , with the arrival of two thousand immigrants from the Azores Islands , Portugal. They settled many parts of the state, including the nowadays capital, Porto Alegre. Blacks were 50 percent of Rio Grande do Sul's population in This proportion decreased to 25 percent in and to only 5.
Most of them were brought from Angola to work as slaves in the charqueadas. German immigrants first arrived to Southern Brazil in They were attracted to Brazil to protect the country from invasions of the neighboring countries and to populate the empty interior of the southern region.
In the next five decades, around 28 thousand Germans were brought to the region to work as small farmers in the countryside. Italian immigrants started arriving in Rio Grande do Sul in They were mostly poor peasants from Trentino and Veneto , Northern Italy , who were attracted to Southern Brazil to get their own farms. Italian immigration to the region lasted until , with a total of , Italians settling there in this period.
The Jewish Colonization Association assisted Russian-Jewish immigrants to settle on agricultural land in the state. As of , there were fewer than 30, Nisei in Rio Grande do Sul. In , the first 23 official immigrants came to the state, and 26 families arrived at Rio Grande in the years from through In , Peter B.
Rio Grande do Sul exports: One of the most prosperous Brazilian states, Rio Grande do Sul is known especially for its grain production, viticulture , ranching , and for its considerable industrial output. As early as , the first delivery of agate from Rio Grande do Sul had been made to Idar-Oberstein. The Brazilian agate exhibited very even layers, much more even than those seen in the local agates. This made them especially good for making engraved gems.
There are more than universities in whole state of Rio Grande do Sul. The terminal has 32 check-in counters, ten boarding bridges, nine elevators and ten escalators.
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It has a totally automated aircraft movement control center and the main spaces are air conditioned. The apron, surfaced with prestressed concrete, can serve jumbo jets like the Boeing The garage structure has eight levels, 44 thousand square meters and 1, parking spaces. Another terminal, with 15 thousand square meters and capacity for 1. Porto Alegre Airport was the first one administered by Infraero to have integrated check-in.
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This service offers flexibility in use of terminal facilities and installations, enabling carriers to access their own data centers via shared-use computers from any check-in counter position. This makes it much easier to allocate counter space according to demand fluctuations, making for less idle space. Salgado Filho International Airport also has an air cargo terminal, built in , with 9, thousand square meters of area and capacity to handle 1, tons of export cargo and tons of imports each month.
There are also international flights with direct connections to cities of the Southern Cone. Comandante Gustavo Kraemer Airport opened on July 5, This airport came under Infraero administration on October 27, Comandante Gustavo Kraemer Airport does not operate with scheduled commercial flights.
Others attention-grabbing features are the art-nouveau iron gate and the impressive rosewood altars covered in gold. Although it is in downtown Rio, the Monastery is a great place for religious tourism in Rio , as it preserves itself as a place of silence and meditation. Abadia de Nossa Senhora de Montserrat is open for visitation every day, from 8am to 6pm.
Rio, João do 1881-1921
From Monday to Friday, at 7: To stay very close to the Monastery, which is located in Rua Dom Gerardo, 40, in downtown Rio and enjoy what this magical place has to offer, you can stay at the Gamboa Hotel , which is only a few minutes from the Monastery. The Presbyterian Cathedral was the first church of this religious denomination in Brazil, being inaugurated in the year of , under the direction of the American reverend Ashbel Green Simonton, first pastor of the temple. The temple is listed as a historical patrimony of Rio de Janeiro, and is well known for religious tourism in Rio by the strong neogothic influence and artistic lighting that, at night, gives its gray walls a multicolored appearance.
The church is open to visitors every day from 8am to 6pm. Mass take place on Sundays, at 8: Grande Templo Israelita was inaugurated in and is the largest monument of the Jewish community in Rio de Janeiro and one of the largest in the country. The architecture of the temple is both solemn and monumental, with evocative paintings of biblical scenes and a mosaic panel that frames the altar. Although not open daily for visitation, various activities are carried out in the Great Temple, to lead the community, Jewish or otherwise, to know the works and mosaics present in its interior.
The Sanctuary is sought mainly by faithful people who wish to pay promises but also by tourists delighted with the breathtaking view it has to offer. The architecture of the sanctuary belongs to the eclectic style and in its last reform received influences of the Neogothic style.
In addition to visits to the Sanctuary, the church was also known for the traditional Feast of Penha, which was once considered the second biggest event in The Marvelous City, only behind Carnival. Despite being a traditionally Catholic festival, the Feast of Penha has always been marked by religious syncretism, many typical foods, devotion and fun. For those who wish to visit the Sanctuary, it is open to visitors every day from 7 a.
To facilitate access, you can stay in one of the hotels in downtown Rio , walk to the Central Station and take the train from Saracuruna, which will leave you very close.