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In the s, a Benedictine chronicler of Anglo-Norman origin, William of Malmesbury, tried to explain the majority French participation through a theory about the effects of the weather. In the south, he claimed, the weather was hot and the warriors were small and tired quickly though they were ingenious enough to poison the tips of their arrows. In the north, on the other hand, the weather was cold and the warriors, who were large and courageous, were also rather crude and unsophisticated. Only in the center i.

As Minas Do Rei Salomão (2004), Patrick Swayze, Filme Completo, Dublado

In , Denmark lost its provinces of Schleswig and Holstein, which caused alarm in the community and generated fear that Denmark might disappear as an independent nation. Consequently, Danish historians turned inward, highlighting the originality of Danish history and emphasizing its independent development see the emblematic case of Erik Arup, author of a famous History of Denmark , in At that stage, there was very little interest in what had happened outside Denmark and a great investment was made in the study of agrarian and economic history and very little in the history of the nobility and war the famous Danish expeditions to the Baltic were considered pillaging campaigns or the expression of episodic minor struggles for power.

This scenario continued until the last 10 to 20 years, when a new approach to the Crusades began to become consolidated, provoking a reaction against economistic and nationalistic historiography and paving the way for a renewed interest in the history of mentalities, beliefs and ideologies. In Portugal—again according to Kurt Villads Jensen—Romantic historiography especially that of Alexandre Herculano also affected our understanding of the Crusade movement. Thus, Portugal was understood to have a special mission in history, a different and original mission, with particular institutions see the debate over the existence or not of feudalism in Portugal.

Given its unique relationship of coexistence with Muslims, the war against the Moors was seen as a sequel of the Reconquest and not as part of the global movement of the Crusades, causing the Portuguese Crusades to be set apart in relation to the others indeed, in , the influential German historian Carl Erdmann defended the thesis that the Portuguese wars were secular wars and not real Crusades. The book A Cruzada nas Fronteiras do Mundo as a whole is obviously part of this movement of historiographical renewal regarding the study of the Crusades and the participation of peripheral countries in this process, which has begun to gain momentum in the last two decades.

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It is not possible here to present a detailed summary of each of the chapters of the work. However, the remaining chapters can be subdivided into two main themes: The third, sixth and ninth chapters are included in the first group. The third concerns the situation before the First Crusade in the Holy Land , addressing the missionary wars, Al-Andalus, the Portucalense County, the influence of the Order of Cluny, the relations between Portugal and northern Europe, some movements to the East, and also marriage relations between Portugal and Denmark.

Finally, the ninth chapter is about the light and shade of the Crusade movement, describing the action of Knud VI of Pomerania now Germany-Poland, between the rivers Oder and Vistula , the Danish expansion with King Valdemar II, and the Crusades of Sancho I, including the conquest of Silves in shortly after the tremendous Christian defeat by Saladin at the Battle of Hattin and the subsequent fall of Jerusalem and a large part of the Latin territory in the Middle East. Included in the group of texts that are geared more towards the analysis of structures are chapters four, seven, and eight.

The fourth deals with the concepts of center and periphery, and the notion of a border, estimating the actual, operational and symbolic distance between Portugal and Denmark. The seventh chapter is concerned with language and ideology, landscape, the nobility and the noble war, and emphasizes the contribution of the Cistercian Order. As for the eighth chapter, clearly the longest of all the work, it analyzes the institutions of the Crusades in both countries: Inserted between these two thematic groups is the fifth chapter, dedicated to both events and structures.

Here, we can find answers to the question of how, shortly after the conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders in , the idea of the Crusade was applied in the Baltic and in the Iberian Peninsula. This story mostly evokes the figures of Svend of Denmark and King Afonso Henriques of Portugal, the journeys of great characters such as Erick or Henrique towards the epics of the Crusades, and the emblematic scenarios existing in Magdeburg in , and in Coimbra, barely two years later.

Finally, the tenth chapter the last before the Conclusion is a fitting ending for this new understanding of national history, the history of the crusading movement and of European history itself. I would not say that everything is perfect in this book, partly because a work of synthesis always leaves something to be desired in terms of analytical depth, and partly because a translation even one that has been produced so painstakingly and been systematically corrected inevitably has limitations and shortcomings compared to the original version.

In any case, this is an exceptionally original work and well-founded, and its architecture is tremendously challenging and stimulating, both for specialists of Portuguese and European medieval history and for the general reader who is interested in history. Its comparative approach gives a very important signal about the more integrated and relational way that the history of the Middle Ages is now being studied throughout the world, which in turn emphasizes the need for a much more extensive and long-term internationalization of our universities and researchers!

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One of my favorite hostels I have ever stayed at because It was clean, had friendly staff, and the rooms were spacious. I had such a great sleep because the other guests and staff were respectful and It was not loud. This hostel is also in a great location in the historic part of town. Definitely stay at this special place! Eu gosto muito este hostel. Definitivamente estadia neste lugar especial! Pousada Trilha da Serra. Most recent booking for this hotel was today at Please enter a valid email address. An error has occurred. Your welcome email will arrive in your inbox soon.

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