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Oeuvres de Victor Hugo (Illustrée) (French Edition)

My Lady Opium, a fevered tour through the romantic and mysterious world of opium at the turn of the 20th century. Les Fleurs Du Mal. Les Confessions French Edition. A Romance of the French Revolution. Croc Blanc French Edition. Voyage au centre de la Terre French Edition. However, his interest in politics was passing, as he was later to note in his journals.

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In the early s, Baudelaire struggled with poor health, pressing debts, and irregular literary output. He often moved from one lodging to another to escape creditors. He undertook many projects that he was unable to complete, though he did finish translations of stories by Edgar Allan Poe. Upon the death of his stepfather in , Baudelaire received no mention in the will but he was heartened nonetheless that the division with his mother might now be mended. At 36 he wrote her: Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix , and some of his views seem remarkably in tune with the future theories of the Impressionist painters.

In , Baudelaire wrote his second Salon review, gaining additional credibility as an advocate and critic of Romanticism. His continued support of Delacroix as the foremost Romantic artist gained widespread notice. Baudelaire was a slow and very attentive worker. However he was often sidetracked by indolence , emotional distress and illness, and it was not until that he published his first and most famous volume of poems, Les Fleurs du mal The Flowers of Evil.

The poems found a small, yet appreciative audience. However, greater public attention was given to their subject matter.

198 (out of 314) editions of this work

You are as unyielding as marble, and as penetrating as an English mist. The principal themes of sex and death were considered scandalous for the period. He also touched on lesbianism, sacred and profane love, metamorphosis, melancholy, the corruption of the city, lost innocence, the oppressiveness of living, and wine. Notable in some poems is Baudelaire's use of imagery of the sense of smell and of fragrances, which is used to evoke feelings of nostalgia and past intimacy.

The book, however, quickly became a byword for unwholesomeness among mainstream critics of the day. Some critics called a few of the poems "masterpieces of passion, art and poetry," but other poems were deemed to merit no less than legal action to suppress them. Habas writing in Le Figaro , led the charge against Baudelaire, writing: Beauty of conception and style is enough for me.

But this book, whose title Fleurs du mal says everything, is clad, as you will see, in a cold and sinister beauty. It was created with rage and patience. Besides, the proof of its positive worth is in all the ill that they speak of it. The book enrages people.

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Moreover, since I was terrified myself of the horror that I should inspire, I cut out a third from the proofs. They deny me everything, the spirit of invention and even the knowledge of the French language. I don't care a rap about all these imbeciles, and I know that this book, with its virtues and its faults, will make its way in the memory of the lettered public, beside the best poems of V. Gautier and even Byron.

Baudelaire, his publisher and the printer were successfully prosecuted for creating an offense against public morals. They were fined, but Baudelaire was not imprisoned. Another edition of Les Fleurs du mal , without these poems, but with considerable additions, appeared in Many notables rallied behind Baudelaire and condemned the sentence.

Victor Hugo wrote to him: I applaud your vigorous spirit with all my might. Nearly years later, on May 11, , Baudelaire was vindicated, the judgment officially reversed, and the six banned poems reinstated in France. In the poem "Au lecteur" "To the Reader" that prefaces Les Fleurs du mal , Baudelaire accuses his readers of hypocrisy and of being as guilty of sins and lies as the poet:. By , his illnesses, his long-term use of laudanum , his life of stress, and his poverty had taken a toll and Baudelaire had aged noticeably.

But at last, his mother relented and agreed to let him live with her for a while at Honfleur. Baudelaire was productive and at peace in the seaside town, his poem Le Voyage being one example of his efforts during that time. His financial difficulties increased again, however, particularly after his publisher Poulet Malassis went bankrupt in In , he left Paris for Belgium, partly in the hope of selling the rights to his works and also to give lectures.

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Baudelaire's relationships with actress Marie Daubrun and with courtesan Apollonie Sabatier , though the source of much inspiration, never produced any lasting satisfaction. He smoked opium , and in Brussels he began to drink to excess. Baudelaire suffered a massive stroke in and paralysis followed. After more than a year of aphasia , he received the last rites of the Catholic Church.

Many of Baudelaire's works were published posthumously. After his death, his mother paid off his substantial debts, and at last she found some comfort in Baudelaire's emerging fame. Who among us has not dreamt, in moments of ambition, of the miracle of a poetic prose, musical without rhythm and rhyme, supple and staccato enough to adapt to the lyrical stirrings of the soul, the undulations of dreams, and sudden leaps of consciousness. This obsessive idea is above all a child of giant cities, of the intersecting of their myriad relations. Baudelaire is one of the major innovators in French literature.

His poetry is influenced by the French romantic poets of the earlier 19th century, although its attention to the formal features of verse connects it more closely to the work of the contemporary "Parnassians". As for theme and tone, in his works we see the rejection of the belief in the supremacy of nature and the fundamental goodness of man as typically espoused by the romantics and expressed by them in rhetorical, effusive and public voice in favor of a new urban sensibility, an awareness of individual moral complexity, an interest in vice linked with decadence and refined sensual and aesthetic pleasures, and the use of urban subject matter, such as the city, the crowd, individual passers-by, all expressed in highly ordered verse, sometimes through a cynical and ironic voice.

Beyond his innovations in versification and the theories of symbolism and "correspondences", an awareness of which is essential to any appreciation of the literary value of his work, aspects of his work that regularly receive much critical discussion include the role of women, the theological direction of his work and his alleged advocacy of "satanism", his experience of drug-induced states of mind, the figure of the dandy, his stance regarding democracy and its implications for the individual, his response to the spiritual uncertainties of the time, his criticisms of the bourgeois, and his advocacy of modern music and painting e.

He made Paris the subject of modern poetry. He would bring the city's details to life in the eyes and hearts of his readers.

Baudelaire was an active participant in the artistic life of his times. As critic and essayist, he wrote extensively and perceptively about the luminaries and themes of French culture. He was frank with friends and enemies, rarely took the diplomatic approach and sometimes responded violently verbally, which often undermined his cause. In , Baudelaire became acquainted with the works of Poe , in which he found tales and poems that had, he claimed, long existed in his own brain but never taken shape.

Baudelaire saw in Poe a precursor and tried to be his French contemporary counterpart. Baudelaire was not the first French translator of Poe, but his "scrupulous translations" were considered among the best. A strong supporter of the Romantic painter Delacroix , Baudelaire called him "a poet in painting".

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Baudelaire also absorbed much of Delacroix's aesthetic ideas as expressed in his journals. As Baudelaire elaborated in his "Salon of ", "As one contemplates his series of pictures, one seems to be attending the celebration of some grievous mystery This grave and lofty melancholy shines with a dull light In private correspondence, Delacroix stated that Baudelaire "really gets on my nerves" and he expressed his unhappiness with Baudelaire's persistent comments about "melancholy" and "feverishness".

Charles Baudelaire

Baudelaire had no formal musical training, and knew little of composers beyond Beethoven and Weber. Weber was in some ways Wagner 's precursor, using the leitmotif and conceiving the idea of the "total art work" "Gesamtkunstwerk" , both of which gained Baudelaire's admiration. Before even hearing Wagner's music, Baudelaire studied reviews and essays about him, and formulated his impressions. Gautier , writer and poet, earned Baudelaire's respect for his perfection of form and his mastery of language, though Baudelaire thought he lacked deeper emotion and spirituality.

Both strove to express the artist's inner vision, which Heinrich Heine had earlier stated: I believe that the artist can not find all his forms in nature, but that the most remarkable are revealed to him in his soul. In gratitude for their friendship and commonality of vision, Baudelaire dedicated Les Fleurs du mal to Gautier. Manet and Baudelaire became constant companions from around In the early s, Baudelaire accompanied Manet on daily sketching trips and often met him socially.

Manet also lent Baudelaire money and looked after his affairs, particularly when Baudelaire went to Belgium. Baudelaire encouraged Manet to strike out on his own path and not succumb to criticism. But he has a weak character. He seems to me crushed and stunned by shock. Baudelaire praised the modernity of Manet's subject matter: When Baudelaire returned from Belgium after his stroke, Manet and his wife were frequent visitors at the nursing home and she would play passages from Wagner for Baudelaire on the piano.

Baudelaire admired Nadar, one of his closest friends, and wrote: Nadar's ex-mistress Jeanne Duval became Baudelaire's mistress around Baudelaire became interested in photography in the s and, denouncing it as an art form, advocated its return to "its real purpose, which is that of being the servant to the sciences and arts".

Photography should not, according to Baudelaire, encroach upon "the domain of the impalpable and the imaginary". Many of Baudelaire's philosophical proclamations were considered scandalous and intentionally provocative in his time. He wrote on a wide range of subjects, drawing criticism and outrage from many quarters. He wants to be 'two'.