It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy. Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.
In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin. It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.
As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "1035o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts. In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.
An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights. Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.
The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced. In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.
The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories. Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter. In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.
Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience". This technique is used in several tales of the One Thousand and One Nights.
A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny. The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale. By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.
Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative". Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".
This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles. A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.
Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis. A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.
The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain. The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.
Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight. Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.
In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis ,  alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle. Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story". This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle.
The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole. Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story. In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common". This technique is also used in the One Thousand and One Nights.
Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
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The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size. The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.
An example of the murder mystery  and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists  and detective fiction elements  was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" ,  one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights. In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman.
Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed. At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer. As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.
Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan. Thus the mystery is solved.
Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction. The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple. The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.
This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him. The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.
Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him. The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H.
As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights. Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction;  along the way, he encounters societies of djinn ,  mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.
In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.
Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. Characters occasionally provide poetry in certain settings, covering many uses. However, pleading, beseeching and praising the powerful is the most significant. In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman,  standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival. He wraps his ring in a paper and hands it to the servant who delivers it to the Queen.
When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem Arabic: And I have regretted the separation of our companionship:: An eon, and tears flooded my eyes And I've sworn if time brought us back together:: I'll never utter any separation with my tongue Joy conquered me to the point of:: You cry out of joy and out of sadness. Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain.
Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain. The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense. Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba. Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge.
The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc.
Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go. In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation  because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy".
There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist. According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world. Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written.
Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier. The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.
This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator. At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings. They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's Zadig , an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background.
The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel Saragossa Manuscript begun owes a deep debt to the Nights with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales. The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar when an apprentice to a Presbyterian minister. This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the s.
The Nights continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras. Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational.
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Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. It depicts the eighth and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor , along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story.
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While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime. The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day.
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Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W. Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid ,  in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing. The automatic writing, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut.
Also, the gifted and talented wife, is playing in Yeats's poem as "a gift" herself, given only allegedly by the caliph to the Christian and Byzantine philosopher Qusta Ibn Luqa , who acts in the poem as a personification of W. In July he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most. The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespeare's works. The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of The Thief of Baghdad version directed by Raoul Walsh; version produced by Alexander Korda and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's Il fiore delle Mille e una notte , as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema.
UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of Arabian Nights , featuring the cartoon character Mr. The animated feature film, One Thousand and One Arabian Nights , produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults. Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha created, and the Vancouver-based Big Bad Boo Studios produced Nights , an animated television series for children, which launched on Teletoon and airs in 80 countries around the world, including Discovery Kids Asia.
Arabian Nights , in Portuguese: Popular modern video games with an Arabian Nights theme include Nadirim , a game placed in a fantasy world inspired by the tales of the Nights,  Disney's Aladdin , Prince of Persia and Sonic and the Secret Rings , and Bookworm Adventures. Many artists have illustrated the Arabian nights , including: Famous illustrators for British editions include: Ultimate Handbook Guide to Islamabad: Echo Gods and Silent Mountains.
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