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Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. In a few cases where the manu- script changed hands after the entry had been prepared, and the new owner preferred not to be listed, the entry has been retained with the nota- tion "private collector. These may of course sooner or later leave the United States for a permanent home elsewhere, but so may any of the autographs owned by some seventy-two individuals.
The information given in the Census may continue to be of service even when the autographs are no longer in this country, particularly if they are inaccessible in their new home. The bibliography at the very end of the Census does not attempt to serve as a reading list for those interested in the subject of musical auto- graphs nor as a record of the hundreds of volumes that have been con- vu suited in the course of this undertaking, but merely as a convenient refer- ence to those works referred to in the text: In the course of his investigations the census-taker has had the oppor- tunity of inspecting, albeit sometimes too briefly, all but about of the autographs enumerated in the Census.
But of more than two thousand manuscripts listed, fewer than one hundred were adequately described or identified in published catalogues or card catalogues. Indeed, some of the most interesting and valuable manuscripts were located in libraries which had replied to the first questionnaire that they possessed no autograph musical manuscripts. No one knows better than the compiler of this Census, however, that there are omissions, both numerous and serious.
Nor would it surprise him very much if some of those who let repeated letters go unanswered were among the first to protest the omission of their treasures. Some, it is hoped, may even recant their firm assertion that the value of their manuscripts would depreciate if their location were known, and release news of their autograph holdings. And if one ponders the various unrelated happy accidents that resulted in the inclusion of certain items in the Census, some of which were described by the writer in the Musical Quarterly, it must be obvious that there were many more ac- cidents that never befell him at all.
Since it is quite likely that there will be addenda and corrigenda bobbing up from various quarters, it is hoped that they will be forwarded direct to the writer so that supplements may be issued as required. Finally it is a particular pleasure, the greater for being so long delayed, to acknowledge the assistance extended over many years to the author by librarians, musicologists, dealers and collectors, in facilitating access to manuscripts and in giving generously of the fruits of their knowledge and experience.
Special appreciation is due Dr. Carleton Sprague Smith, Mr. Sidney Beck of the Music Division of the New York Public Library, indeed to the whole staff of both these Music Divisions, for it was in these two splendid music libraries that not only more than half of the autographs listed in the Census were found, but that a great deal of the work on the descriptive notes on other manuscripts was done as well. Appel of the Boston Public Library and Dr. Nathan van Patten of the Memorial Library of Music at Stanford University greatly eased the labor incident to the cataloguing of the large collections under their care.
At various times the special knowledge of the late Dr. Alfred Einstein, and of Dr. Otto Erich Deutsch, Dr. Antony von Hoboken, and Dr. Curt Sachs was freely given in the solution of special problems. Last of all, the author wishes to thank the staff of the University of Pennsylvania Press, and particularly Mr. Robert Dear, for his understanding cooperation in seeing the work through the press. The case of music is somewhat different. True, there are many unpublished works, but printing being expensive, there were thousands and thousands of copies made for per- formance purposes— for use rather than esthetic pleasure.
Composers them- selves preferred a nice calligraphic copy or a printed edition to their own script, much as businessmen today favor a stenographic presentation of their thoughts to their own handwritten drafts. Some presentation copies of music manuscripts were made in the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance and there are a few with illuminated decorations.
The Liber Amicorum, for instance, were often beautifully written, and Mendelssohn decorated a few of his manuscripts with roman- tic water colors at the top of the page in order to give the "Stimmung" of the piece. This is, however, rare, and the printed music page from the time of Petrucci in was usually clearer and easier to read and play from than any but the finest manuscripts. The composer's holograph was not accorded any particular importance either by musicians or the authors themselves until the nineteenth century, and as late as , Schubert's scores could be used in Vienna for lighting an oven!
As a result of this attitude, manuscripts were scattered to the four winds and, even when they were valued, were like as not given as mementos to admirers of the deceased. Even in our own day, the widow of a well-known composer cut pieces out of her husband's compositions and gave them to his friends. Fortunately libraries, conservatories, state archives, and col- lectors have made successful efforts to pick up holographs by distinguished creators, but all too often the family held on to the pieces for a generation or two and then the papers slipped away, were thrown out or disap- peared.
The former generally plays what is on the music stand before him, giving the matter little further thought. The composer, on the other hand, is interested in the inner content and is attentive to every phase and the structure of the work. In the old days, composers often copied dozens of compositions which interested them and we have manuscripts of Vivaldi's works in Bach's handwriting and compositions of Bach copied by Mozart.
Today composers consult printed and black line print scores without being forced to copy them out. Some time is gained by this; familiarity with the work is not generally so thorough. With the recent development of musicology in our universities and con- servatories and the rounded training of our composers, the analysis of the creative process is receiving more and more importance and, studying the great composers, we naturally turn to their holographs.
Reading a music manuscript is not as easy as perusing a letter because the symbols must be heard in the former and not one sound only but many at the same time.
More people can extract the full meaning from a manuscript poem or novel than from a string quartet or a symphony. To transfer the habit of reading printed scores to manuscript sources requires special training, but it is most rewarding and worth the effort. A knowledge of paleography is needed to read any body of manuscripts, since the handwriting of individuals varies tremendously.
Each country and each century has certain characteristics and the abbreviations, letters, and symbols change over the years. We are still rather ill informed about handwriting and are learning more every day. In recent years, graphological analyses have come to play a part in our study of manuscripts and frequently unusual insight is obtained thereby. Graphology can often explain the intellectual and moral personality of an individual, for handwriting is an index to the manner in which a person thinks.
Johann Nepomuk Král
There are many elements to analyze which the average reader casually looking at a score might ignore. A music student examines the writing for size, form, direction, spacing, and neatness. Then there are factors such as intensity, heavy or light shading, fast or slow strokes. Some- times there are many abbreviations. Continuity is another element and the writing can be unequal in height and width and some of the letters may be of different sizes. Certain composers write up and down, others incline to the right or left; some are stiff, their opposites supple.
We find separated and run together scores— some clear as crystal, others confused. There is nothing quite like a manuscript to divulge the workings of a creator's mind. One of the remarkable differences between a normal literary manuscript and a music manuscript is the indication of temfo in the latter. A musical score, of course, is completely dependent on speed, and the old Italian words adagio, andante, allegro and fresto are still accepted by most musicians, although French, German, and English equivalents are used.
Music notation is a less exact science than our written language made up of various alphabets and constantly evolving. From neumes, the European musician went to four and then to five-line notation and tablature. Mod- ern electric instruments and quarter-tone compositions require still other symbols.
Composers have struggled with notation from the beginning and probably always will. Sometimes they have made mistakes which time has corrected. Part of the creative process is making the symbols do what one wants, and Martin Luther, speaking of Josquin des Pres, said: His sketch books are full of fragments showing how he changed and remodeled. For the student, it is often more important to see what a composer crossed out than what has remained. In contrast to Beethoven, Mozart devised pieces completely in his head and then simply wrote them down.
His powers of concentration were so great that he could write out one of his compositions with all sorts of noise going on around him and, in a letter to his sister, he tells of composing a prelude in his head while copying out a fugue April 20, When Georges Enesco wrote a long violin sonata in two days, he explained to some astonished friends: Some musicians regard every note which they have written as sacred, others do not care if players change their ideas slightly.
Bach's handwriting has a baroque solidity to it and his ornamentation is written out in great detail. He was one of the first composers to take the trouble to indicate exactly what he wanted, while others, notably Handel, left the ornamentation to the imagination of the performer. In Bach's manuscripts, the angle of the notes often indi- cates tempo and design of the phrase and the concentration and force of his personality is mirrored in his holographs.
Even in the Clavier-Uebung and the first part of the Kunst der Fuge, which were engraved on copper by the Leipzig Cantor, we feel this force and expressiveness. Haydn, like Bach an extremely religious man, often put Laus Deo at the top of his scores. Schubert's manuscripts have a Biedermeier quality, Chopin possessed an almost feminine tenderness, while Brahms was energetic and manly.
The calculating genius Richard Wagner had a very neat hand and he even made lithographs of The Flying Dutchman and Tannhauser, This brings us to the whole question of facsimiles and microfilm. It is of course impractical to let everyone handle rare scores and for that reason, photostats, facsimiles and microfilm copies are highly to be recommended. Certain libraries make a point of giving the readers reproductions rather than originals and this is an excellent idea if the institution can afford it.
Several hundred classical works have been reprinted in facsimile form al- though the editions have nearly all been small. The benefit of these copies should be made available to thousands, not hundreds of musicians through- out the world. That they are not is due partly to ignorance of their value. What amateur or serious student, however, would not be delighted to have a facsimile of The Messiah, the Ninth Symphony or a Schubert song? Playing a piece with which one is familiar from a reproduction of the composer's holograph, always supposing that it is legible some of course are not , gives a performer an entirely different sense.
If we follow a recording with the facsimile before us, a similar sensation is experienced. Becoming acquainted wth the manuscript is a rewarding and instructive pleasure and a personal element is added which contributes both an esthetic and a psychological understanding. A manuscript gives one a view into the workshop of the composer, show- ing how he creates and thinks.
There are naturally several types of manu- scripts. The initial sketch, the reduced score, the full score, the first fin- ished version, the final version which goes to the engraver and so forth. For many students, the earlier versions have a greater interest than the final copies which can be quite impersonal. There is a danger of course in reading too much into a manuscript and deducing things which are not so. A few years ago, a musician who was examining a symphony by a well-known composer, concluded that the first movement, which was copied in a restrained style, showed the author in a relaxed mood, while the other movements, written with nervous haste, found him warming to his task.
The idea was logical, the only trouble being that the first movement was written out by a copyist. Let not the uninitiated scoff too much. Fre- quently the amanuenses imitated the handwriting of the composers they were working for and we have the well-known case of Bach's second wife who could write very much as her husband, and Mozart's pupil, Siiss- mayer, who reproduced the Salzburg master's hand amazingly. Their legi- bility sometimes puts them into the class of professional calligraphic writ- ing, or even works of art, in which case they may or may not reveal as much about the composer as an earlier draft.
Undoubtedly the legible photo- offset reproduction or black line print is psychologically preferable to most printed scores. Perhaps a word should be said about music collecting in the United States. One of the first collectors was Joseph Drexel, who came from Austria as a young boy. His fine library formed the basis of the present music division of the New York Public Library in the 's. Despite this beginning, there has never been the same interest in music manuscripts in the United States as in their literary counterparts. The Library of Con- gress is a notable exception; the late Oscar G.
Sonneck, first chief of its Music Division, acquired for it significant manuscripts from the Heyer and Cummings collections, and those holdings have been swelled in recent years by the treasures of the Coolidge, Whittall, and Koussevitzky Founda- tions, giving our national library a distinguished place among the great music libraries of the world. The public libraries of New York and Boston and the Newberry Library in Chicago have in their smaller collections a number of important items.
Some of our well-known universities, Harvard, Yale, Rochester, and Stanford, have likewise formed collections of in- terest. Curiously enough, outstanding private collections are few in num- ber, and the most important have been given to public or institutional libraries. Scholars searching for manuscripts in America have not found it easy in the past, as many who consult this Census can testify. Who for instance would expect to find the first draft of Wagner's Das Rheingold in Titus- ville, Pennsylvania, the Schubert Imfromftus, op. Albrecht has had a most interesting time tracking down material and he could surely write a book of his adventures.
Manuscripts tend to become more valuable with the years and it is ironic perhaps to think that a few of the scores of Schubert and Mozart would bring more today than the composers ever earned in their lifetime. A manuscript means nothing to many— and, in a way, it comes to life only when the music sounds within the inner ear.
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It is of course only a wehicle, for the music itself must be recreated by performers. An important holograph can be the materialized pattern of the composer's thought, a guide to the understanding of the science and practice of music. A manuscript is not an absolute source but an invaluable one. As Robert Schumann so well observed: The Oberlaender Trust, which was set up to further German and Austro-American relations, became interested in the scheme, since fully three-quarters of the manuscripts came from composers born in those countries.
Albrecht of the University of Pennsylvania was selected to undertake the task, owing to his unusual knowledge of music, languages, and manuscripts and his meticulous care as a bibliographer. It is not an easy task to cover so large a territory. For one thing, many of our large libraries are not always sure of their holdings. Sometimes a piece is catalogued under the name of the composer but not under the heading Manuscripts.
In this way, unless one looks under the name of the musician, the manuscript may be ignored. This study actually is concerned with holographs rather than manuscripts and some libraries do not distinguish between them. A holograph is a manuscript written en- tirely in the author's hand. A manuscript, of course, can be by anyone. There are thousands of handwritten copies in our libraries which are not the work of the composers. In order to judge the authenticity of a manu- script, a knowledge of paleography is necessary and here, too, a great deal of skill is required, since a good many forgeries have come upon the scene during the past fifty years.
The migratory propensities of people in America sometimes make it difficult to give the exact location of a manuscript, as the owner may move from New York to San Francisco or even Florence with his collection. Certain buyers are given to trading and their collections do not stay the same from year to year.
Still other owners refuse to give any informa- tion whatsoever about their holdings and unless the manuscript is well known or described in a sale catalogue one can only conjecture what the particular individual possesses. This is no mean feat and, having looked at nearly two thousand holographs, he really knows whereof he writes. Inevitably there will be errors, and a census is soon out of date as new material is discovered in archives and additions made to important col- lections. Notwithstanding these facts, this catalogue will be of tremendous benefit to all.
Serious musicians and music lovers must be grateful to Dr. Albrecht and to the Oberlaender Trust for making the publication possible. Ill sonates pour le clavecin ou forte piano par Louis Abeille.
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Opera HI a Heilbronn chez I. Cramer, Alois Fuchs, William H. Contains about 64 more or less finished sketches, mostly of part- songs. Lebwohl, du schone Stunde. Four-part song for men's voices unaccompanied. Sweet angel, dream of me George Cooper. Song with piano accpt.
Franz Abt, New York, 30 mai Chant de victoire a Jeanne d'Arc; paroles d'Alph. For 4-part men's chorus unaccompanied. Vierge de Domremy, porte haut ta banniere. In Demidov, Album of autographs. Ma balancelle au vent du soir chancelle. Adolphe Adam, 7 fevrier Oui, des choristes du theatre] p. Piano-vocal score of Alcindor's aria, no. Le reve du bonheur, romance composee pour Ed.
Deja la nuit silencieuse. Toi que d'amour j'aimerais pour la vie. Paris ce 26 mars La fleur du souvenir. On m'a conte qu'en Helvetie. Paris ce 26 may Full score chorus and orchestra. Sonata per pianoforte e violoncello. Coolidge, Oxford, 29 mai Parish Alvars' first harp concerto. Text from Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Come, thou monarch of the vine. Canon en reflection pour 4 voix quartette a cordes compose par Dezso d Antalffy.
Partition pour 2 violons, viola et v. Operetta in un sol atto composta. Full score, Italian text. Waltz for piano composed by Luigi Arditi. No ice so hard, so cold as I] Song in Miss in her teens. Full score, first 12 p. Whittington's feast; a new parody on Alexander's Feast. Written by a college wag. London, printed for the author, Goodwin; Society of British Musicians. In addition there are 30 loose leaves in the hand of Bettine, Achim, Reichardt and others.
Elegy, on the death of Mr. The vocal parts by Dr. Arne, the instrumental by Dr. My God, oh, look upon me. Anthem by Algernon Ashton. Earl of Stanford; Clinton, earl of Lincoln; Dr. Randall of Dulwich; Julian Marshall. Round for 3 voices] [l]p. Fragment of piano-vocal score, presumably from an opera.
Frou-frou waltz from "Miss Helyett. Praeludium fur die Orgel. Alois Fuchs; Joseph Muller. Oratorium in 3 Abtheilungen von A. Published in his Clavier Sonaten und freye Fantasien. Sechste Sammlung, Leipzig, Hamburg, den ersten November Published in his Neue Lieder-Melodien, Liibeck, Full score, but lacking "two songs and the chorus. First performed at Naples, Jan. Cantata a tre voci del sigr. Sonaten fur cembalo von Joh. Caption title of Sonate I: Sonata I per il cembalo solo o -piano forte. The notes further refer to publication in Bach's Werke, 60 vols.
Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. Es ist das Heil uns kommen her. Es ist das Heyl uns kommen her a 4 voci. Werke, Jahrgang I, p. Meine Seel' erhebt den Herrn. Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn. Cover title in another hand: Ernst Rudorff, Paul Wittgenstein. In alien meinen Taten. Sei Lob und Ehr' dem hochsten Gut. Sey Lob und Ehr dem hochsten Guth, a 4 Voci. Facsimile of first and last pages in W. Schmieder, Musikerhand- schriften in drei Jahrhunderten, Leipzig, , p.
O Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens Licht. Motetto a 4 Voci. Aus der Tiefe ruf ich. Auff Begehr tit Herrn Dr. Eilmar in die Music gebracht von Joh: Alois Fuchs, Wilhelm Rust. Ich liebe den Hochsten. Voice part of the aria for bass, no. Second viola part only. Schmiicke dich, o liebe Seele. Dominica 20 post Trinit: Schmiicke dich o liebe Seele pa 4 voci. Doica 20 post Trinit. Schmucke dich o liebe Seele p. Ich habe mein Zuversicht. Fragment of score of the aria: Wenn alles hricht und alles fallt, and the following recitative.
Ehre sei Gott in der Hohe. Full score of the only extant fragment of a cantata written for Christmas, Contains closing portion of an alto aria: O du angenehmer Schatz; a bass recitative: Das Kind ist mein; a bass aria: Ich lasse dich nicht; and the final chorale: Wohlanl so will ich mich.
Facsimile of one page in Notes, VII , p. Julius Epstein, Frau Conrat Horn. About two-thirds of the book in J. Contents listed in Schmieder, Thematisches Verzeichnis, p. Johann Christian Bach, J. Werke, Jahrgang XV, p. Allemanda, Courante, Sarabanda, Gigue. Bach, Johann Sebastian, [Cantata no. Full score of a revised version of the chorale: Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel war, with Latin words: Manebit verbum Domini instead of Luther's original text.
Fragment of the cembalo part, including 3 recitatives and an aria. Weston, harvard university library Zelenka, Johann Dismas, Full score in the autograph of W. Werner Wolff heim sale catalogue, II, no. Canon a l'unisson a 4 voix egales. Compose par Baillot pour son ami Cherubini, Paris, 28 mars Cantiamo, cantiamo sempre il gran maestro. Luigi Cherubini, Julian Marshall. Reverie pour le piano par Mili Balakirew. Dated April 10, Melodrama von Conrad Baldenecker. Full score of the second part only. The echoes of the heart. When roaming through this world. Composed expressly for Madame Sala by her friend M.
Words by Edward Fitzball, Esqr. Calm is the sleep of the young soldier. Published in by F. Le docteur Tam-Tam operette par F. Libretto by Francis Tourte. First performed in Paris in Abraham on the altar of his son. Full score for voice and orchestra. The music composed by John Barnett. Text by Richard Peake. First performed in at the Lyceum Theatre, London.
Daniel in the den of lions, an oratorio. Overture] Overture to Fair Rosamond; an opera in 4 acts. Opera in 2 acts] 3 vols. Barnett, John— continued Farinelli. Opera in 2 acts. Score , p. Text by James Sheridan Knowles. This opera was never produced or published. Full score of the opera. Text by Thomas Moncrieff. First performed in 1 at the Adelphia Theatre in London. Opera in 3 acts] 2 vols. Some instrumental parts inserted, as well as 43 loose leaves, mostly from the same opera. First performed August 25, at the Lyceum Theatre in London.
Overture] Overture to the Mountain sylph. The Omnipresence of the Deity; an oratorio in 1 part composed by John Barnett. Never performed; published in Score 1 leaf, p. Score 1 leaf, p. Violin I part lacking. A scena written by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Composed by John Barnett.
Full score for tenor voice and orchestra , boston public library Full score of the musical drama. Title added after completion; most numbers bear title: New drama, or New piece. First performed February 2, at Covent Garden in London. Song of the exiled knight. Afar, afar from my own bright land.
Opera in 3 acts] p. First performed in at the Drury Lane Theatre in London. Jefte, oratorio in due parti, a 4 voci e cori; poesia dell' sigr. Rappresentato nel teatro di via del Coromero nell autunno dell'anno Published in by Rozsnyai in Budapest. Kecske dal] 2 leaves. Ukrainian folk-song for voice and piano, Hungarian and English text. Full score, composed Full score, Hungarian text. Published in by Universal Edition in Vienna.
Another copy on tissues, 70 leaves. Tissues, music on recto only. Sketches for the 27 choruses for children's and women's voices and for the 3 choruses for 3-part male chorus From times fast , both sets published ca. The composer's orchestration of the accompaniment for 5 of these choruses. Published in by Boosey and Hawkes in London. Originally used for a field note-book for collecting Anatolian folk- songs in , this ms. The sketches occupy altogether 52 p. Full score of bars only. Klavierkonzert Einrichtung fur 2 Klaviere.
Reduction of orchestra accpt. Concert pour piano et orchestra. Composer's reduction of orchestra accpt. Published for 2 pianos in by Hawkes and Son in London. This is the orchestral version of the Sonata for 2 pianos and percussion. First draft of the orchestral accpt. Score of percussion parts only.
Sketches, left incomplete at the composer's death. Composer's reduction for violin and piano. Solo Piano Collection 2. The Best of 3. The Best of-serien 1. The Disney Collection 2. The Easy Piano Series 2. The Intermediate Pianist 1. The Intermediate Pianist Book 2. The Legendary Series 1. The Library of 5. The Phillip Keveren Series 1. The Real Book Play-Along 3. Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin 1. Aram Il'yich Khatchaturian 2. Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel 1. Bach, Johan Sebastian 1. Bach, Johann Sebastian 3.
Bach, Philip Emanuel 1. Bastien, James and Jane Smisor 1. Bastien, Jane Smisor 7. Bastien, Jane Smisor and James 3. Beethoven, Ludvig van 2. Beethoven, Ludwig van 8. Bernd Alois Zimmermann 1. Berntzen, Julian og Staalesen, Gunnar 1. Bullard, Janet and Alan 1. Burnam, Edna Mae 1. Byrd, Susato, Phalese, Dowland m. Carl Maria Von Weber 3. Carl Philipp Bach 1. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 2. Carl Op 53 Vol 1 Nielsen 1.
Charles Tomlinson Griffes 1. David Monrad Johansen 4. Edvard Hagerup Bull 2.
Král, Johann Nepomuk [WorldCat Identities]
Faber, Nancy and Randall 2. Franz Joseph Haydn Franz Von Suppe 1. Georg Friedrich Handel 2. George Frideric Handel Handel, Georg Friedrich 1. Handel, George Frederick 1. Haydn, Franz Joseph 2. Howard, James Newton 2.
Jakobsen, Ruth Sommerfeldt 1. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck 2. Johann Christian Bach 1. Johann Christoff Friedrich Bach 1. Johann Jakob Froberger 1. Johann Ludwig Krebs 1. Johann Nepomuk Hummel 1. Johann Sebastian Bach Kai Normann Andersen 1. Kjus, Hilde Boger 1. Lamont Dozier 2f Gfcnter Kaluza 1. Liv Solheim Hol 2.