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How do you decaffeinate coffee?
Essential information for new students. Benzene, it turned out, was a possible carcinogen, so the search was on for new techniques that could prise out the caffeine from the beans — and yet leave the flavour intact. You might think that it would be easier to roast the coffee, grind it into the required powder espresso, filter or instant and then begin the decaffeination process. Not, so says Stemman. There are several ways to decaffeinate coffee but the most prevalent is to soak them in a solvent — usually methylene chloride or ethyl acetate.
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Methylene chloride can be used as a paint stripper and a degreaser as well an agent to remove caffeine. View image of Green coffee beans Credit: The beans are first soaked in water and then covered in a solution containing either of these solvents. The caffeine is then drawn out by the solvent. The solvent-laced water is then reused again and again until it is packed with coffee flavourings and compounds — pretty much identical to the beans, except for the caffeine and solvent.
FDA rules allow up to 10 parts per million of residual methylene, but coffee decaffeination usually uses solutions with one part per million.
Two other methods use water. The Swiss Water method sees the beans soaked with water; the caffeine rich solution full of flavours is then strained though activated carbon which captures the caffeine. Starting in Switzerland in the s, the process was first used commercially in It gained favour because it was the first decaffeination method not to use solvents. Beans that have been soaked in water are put in a stainless-steel extractor which is then sealed, and liquid CO2 blasted in at pressures of up to 1,lbs per square inch.
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