Each module is composed of one or more subprograms. Modules may consist of procedures, functions, subroutines or methods, depending on the programming language. Procedural programs may possibly have multiple levels or scopes, with subprograms defined inside other subprograms. Each scope can contain names which cannot be seen in outer scopes.
Procedural programming offers many benefits over simple sequential programming since procedural code:. Typing refers to how a computer language handles its variables, how they are differentiated by type. Variables are values that the program uses during execution. These values can change; they are variable, hence their name. Static typing usually results in compiled code that executes more quickly. When the compiler knows the exact types that are in use, it can produce machine code that does the right thing easier.
Languages that are not statically typed are called dynamically typed.
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Static typing usually finds type errors more reliably at compile time, increasing the reliability of compiled programs. Simply put, it means that "A round peg won't fit in a square hole", so the compiler will report it when a type leads to ambiguity or incompatible usage. However, programmers disagree over how common type errors are and what proportion of bugs that are written would be caught by static typing. Static typing advocates believe programs are more reliable when they have been type checked, while dynamic typing advocates point to dynamic code that has proved reliable and to small bug databases.
The value of static typing, then, presumably increases as the strength of the type system is increased. A statically typed system constrains the use of powerful language constructs more than it constrains less powerful ones. This makes powerful constructs harder to use, and thus places the burden of choosing the "right tool for the problem" on the shoulders of the programmer, who might otherwise be inclined to use the most powerful tool available.
Choosing overly powerful tools may cause additional performance, reliability or correctness problems, because there are theoretical limits on the properties that can be expected from powerful language constructs.
For example, indiscriminate use of recursion or global variables may cause well-documented adverse effects. Static typing allows construction of libraries which are less likely to be accidentally misused by their users. This can be used as an additional mechanism for communicating the intentions of the library developer. Type checking is the process of verifying and enforcing the constraints of types, which can occur at either compile-time or run-time. Compile time checking, also called static type checking, is carried out by the compiler when a program is compiled.
Run time checking, also called dynamic type checking , is carried out by the program as it is running. A programming language is said to be strongly typed if the type system ensures that conversions between types must be either valid or result in an error. A weakly typed language on the other hand makes no such guarantees and generally allows automatic conversions between types which may have no useful purpose. Converting variables or expression of one type into another type is called type casting.
Object-oriented programming can be seen as an extension of procedural programming in which programs are made up of collections of individual units called objects that have a distinct purpose and function with limited or no dependencies on implementation.
For example, a car is like an object; it gets you from point A to point B with no need to know what type of engine the car uses or how the engine works. Object-oriented languages usually provide a means of documenting what an object can and cannot do, like instructions for driving a car. An object is composed of members and methods. The members also called data members , characteristics , attributes , or properties describe the object. The methods generally describe the actions associated with a particular object.
Think of an object as a noun, its members as adjectives describing that noun, and its methods as the verbs that can be performed by or on that noun. For example, a sports car is an object. Some of its members might be its height, weight, acceleration, and speed. An object's members just hold data about that object. Some of the methods of the sports car could be "drive", "park", "race", etc.
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The methods really do not mean much unless associated with the sports car, and the same goes for the members. The "blueprint" that lets us build our sports car object is called a class. A class does not tell us how fast our sports car goes, or what color it is, but it does tell us that our sports car will have a member representing speed and color, and that they will be say, a number and a word, respectively. The need for every object to have associative methods leads some skeptics to associate OOP with software bloat ; an attempt to resolve this dilemma came through polymorphism.
Because object-oriented programming is considered a paradigm, not a language, it is possible to create even an object-oriented assembler language. Thus, differing programming paradigms can be seen rather like motivational memes of their advocates, rather than necessarily representing progress from one level to the next [ citation needed ]. Precise comparisons of the efficacy of competing paradigms are frequently made more difficult because of new and differing terminology applied to similar entities and processes together with numerous implementation distinctions across languages.
Literate programming , as a form of imperative programming , structures programs as a human-centered web, as in a hypertext essay: Independent of the imperative branch, declarative programming paradigms were developed. Given a database or a set of rules, the computer tries to find a solution matching all the desired properties.
An archetype of a declarative language is the fourth generation language SQL , and the family of functional languages and logic programming. Functional programming is a subset of declarative programming. Programs written using this paradigm use functions , blocks of code intended to behave like mathematical functions. Functional languages discourage changes in the value of variables through assignment , making a great deal of use of recursion instead. The logic programming paradigm views computation as automated reasoning over a body of knowledge.
Facts about the problem domain are expressed as logic formulae, and programs are executed by applying inference rules over them until an answer to the problem is found, or the set of formulae is proved inconsistent.
Symbolic programming is a paradigm that describes programs able to manipulate formulas and program components as data. Languages that support this paradigm include Lisp and Prolog. Most programming languages support more than one programming paradigm to allow programmers to use the most suitable programming style and associated language constructs for a given job. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about classification of programming languages.
For definition of the term "programming model", see Programming model. This article needs additional citations for verification.
C++ Programming: Programming language paradigms
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Overview of the four main programming paradigms. Aalborg University, 9 May Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original PDF on Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming. Communications of the ACM.
Archived from the original PDF on March 20, Archived from the original on 21 August Lists of computer languages Category: Lists of programming languages List of programming languages by type. Computer programming Requirements engineering Software deployment Software design Software maintenance Software testing Systems analysis Formal methods.
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