Theology originated with the pre-Socratic philosophers the philosophers of ancient Greece who flourished before the time of Socrates [ c. Inspired by the cosmogonic notions of earlier poets such as Hesiod and Homer , the pre-Socratics were preoccupied with questions about the origin and ultimate nature of the universe. For Plato, theology was the study of eternal realities, the realm of what he called forms , or ideas.
The notion of theology as the study or contemplation theoria of the highest form of reality became commonplace in the Hellenistic philosophy of the Roman world in which Christianity emerged. In that world, the quest for God acquired for many people—including both Christians and non-Christians—a certain urgency, in part because of the recognized inadequacy of the traditional pagan religions and the social and political turmoil of the era. Accordingly, philosophical speculation about the ultimate nature of reality assumed a distinctly religious cast.
The understanding of theology as the fruit of sustained ascetic struggle, as the highest exercise of the human mind, and as prayer quickly established itself in Greek Christianity, and this interpretation is still fundamental in Eastern Orthodox theology. Alongside this sense of theology, Christians also understood the word theologia to mean the study of the divine, or the unraveling of the nature of the divine as revealed in the Bible.
Because God is known only through his self-manifestation in the created order, however, the distinction between theologia and oikonomia is easily blurred. Nevertheless, it remains fundamental in Greek theology. The development of Christian theology was decisively influenced by an unknown writer of the early 6th century whose works circulated under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite , the Athenian disciple of St. Paul the Apostle the writer is therefore often called Pseudo-Dionysius.
In the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius, God is depicted as revealing himself to the created order through hierarchies of angels and through the hierarchy of the church. Pseudo-Dionysius also introduced a number of distinctions about the nature of theology that were destined to be of profound influence. His short treatise The Mystical Theology discusses affirmative and negative kataphatic and apophatic theologies, symbolic theology, and mystical theology. Pseudo-Dionysius borrowed the kataphatic-apophatic distinction from the great 5th-century Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus: Mystical, or hidden, theology seems to be the experience of the divine reality to which apophatic theology points—the equivalent of theologia in the sense in which Evagrius Ponticus used the term.
This identification was made explicit by the 11th-century Byzantine theologian Nicetas Stethatos. With the development in Western theology of increasingly sharp distinctions between nature and grace , the natural and the supernatural, and reason and revelation, theologians became interested in what truths about God could be established by reason alone. Called natural theology theologia naturalis , as opposed to revealed theology theologia revelata , this discipline became particularly important in arguments between Christians on the one hand and Jews and Muslims on the other, because the arguments of natural theology did not depend on the acceptance of revelation.
The systematic presentations that characterized Western theology in the 13th century the age of the Schoolmen, or Scholastics were often prefaced by an account of what could be established by reason about God; usually the first thing to be established was his existence.
The most famous set of such arguments is the so-called Five Ways of St. Aquinas claimed to have established the existence of God as the unmoved mover, as the ultimate efficient cause, as the necessary being, as the perfect being, and as the final cause of all beings. This distinction helped sharpen the division between what is necessarily so, which could be explored by reason, and what God has revealed about himself and his relations with humankind.
The contrast between reason and revelation was reflected in the continued development of natural theology and revealed theology. Mystical theology came to be identified with the experience of God and with contemplation of the divine. During the Renaissance , medieval theology suffered further fragmentation, but theologians also acquired new conceptual tools. The late-medieval conception of Christianity had emphasized its contingent nature, its truth being not a logical necessity but the result of the will of God.
This truth was often identified with the so-called Hermetic wisdom attributed to Hermes Trismegistos Hermes the Thrice-Greatest , the Greek name of Thoth , the Egyptian god of writing. Although Hermetic teachings were thought to be of unimaginable antiquity, in reality the writings from which they were drawn the Hermetic writings date from only the mid-1st to the late 3rd centuries.
Pristina theologia provided the starting point for many attempts by thinkers of the Renaissance to penetrate behind the faded texture of the religious systems of their day to what was thought to be some ultimate forgotten truth. Often it was studied in combination with mystical theology, which was thought to authenticate pristina theologia by providing a felt experience of the ultimate.
With the turn of the 18th century, the ideas of the Renaissance came to assume a somewhat more somber hue: Natural religion was then contrasted with positive religion, or the particular religious traditions of different societies or cultures. This distinction would become axiomatic in Protestant theology during the Enlightenment and in much of the post-Enlightenment period.
The Enlightenment belief in the contingent nature of revelation led scholars of the period to treat the sacred books of Christianity as historically determined rather than as witnesses to, or embodiments of, divine revelation. In the 19th century, European colonialism led to the rediscovery, translation, and publication of a wealth of sacred writings from the indigenous cultures of Asia and Africa, which encompassed both living religions—especially Hinduism and Buddhism —and religions of antiquity, especially those of Egypt.
Treatises of the Hermetic tradition and codices containing texts of the gnostics were discovered during the 19th and 20th centuries. Access to such a hitherto unimaginable richness of religious traditions led to many attempts to explore and draw connections between them, often using theological categories drawn from Christianity. It also led to a revival of the Renaissance quest for some ultimate religion underlying them all, though the geographical source of such a pristina theologia was generally thought to lie much farther to the east than ancient Egypt.
Christian theology itself was not unaffected by these discoveries, though it was more immediately affected by other currents, notably from the Enlightenment. This tendency was further accelerated by the increasing academic independence of universities where theology had generally been studied. This fragmentation of theology cast into doubt the coherence of the whole enterprise.
In later, nonacademic usage, the term theology came to mean a religiously coloured, or sometimes religiously informed, study of some matter. In this sense one might speak of a theology of society, in which political and economic considerations are informed by religious principles, or of a theology of poetry, in which the play of image and allusion characteristic of poetry is drawn upon to understand religious language.
In informal usage, theology has come to convey the sense of something remotely theoretical and impractical.
The wide application of the term, as well as the current fragmented state of the discipline, indicate the extent to which the classical concept of theology as the highest pursuit of the intellect has been transformed over the centuries. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.
Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Helmut Thielicke Andrew Louth. Read More on This Topic. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Theological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries.
Until about , most Western Christian leaders e. The main Latin theology came primarily from such figures as Tertullian and Cyprian bishop of Carthage, — rather than from…. Despite the notion of a unified and consolidated community, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad, serious differences arose within the Muslim community immediately after his death.
According to the Sunnis—the traditionalist faction whose followers now constitute the majority branch of Islam—the Prophet…. For most of the Middle Ages there was no distinction between theology and science scientia. Science was knowledge that was deduced from self-evident principles, and theology was knowledge that received its principles from God, the source of all principles.
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The creeds of the mystery religions were never worked out to the same extent that the Christian creeds were. Nevertheless, the doctrines of the mysteries may be called a theology. One of the central subjects in mystery writings was cosmogony—the theory of the origin…. More About Theology 63 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References medieval logic In history of logic: Arabic logic In history of logic: History and social thought Bultmann In Rudolf Bultmann: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
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Introduction Nature of theology Relationship of theology to the history of religions and philosophy Relationship to the history of religions Relationship to philosophy The significance of theology The religious significance of theology The cultural importance of theology Theological themes Functions of theology History of theology Origins Late antiquity and the Middle Ages The Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment The 19th century to the present. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.
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If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. The disciplines tend to diverge and evolve around canonical texts, thinkers, and questions within the sociology of the university systems So, yes, one might call theology a subdiscipline of philosophy limiting itself to the canons of monotheism. Posting, but not very satisfied with my own answer.
Can we go back? Stanley Hauerwas and the place of Christian Ethics
You can probably just wiki a better one. I too am interested in the lineage and evolution of theology, mythology, philosophy, science, etc. And like you, I think it all boils down to semantics.
And by semantics I'm simply referring to the meaning of words, terms, text, or script. So if theology is defined as the study of the nature of god and religious belief. Myths express the beliefs and values about these subjects held by a certain culture. Myths tell the stories of ancestors and the origin of humans and the world, the gods, supernatural beings satyrs, nymphs, mermaids and heroes with super-human, usually god-given, powers as in the case of Heracles or Perseus of the Greeks.
Myths also describe origins or nuances of long-held customs or explain natural events such as the sunrise and sunset, the full moon or thunder and lightning storms. And science is The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. To me these all sound like a continuation of the same thing. I mean, one is clearly a derivative of the other. To me it's obvious that if you go far enough back in time the field of Psychology was called Philosophy, and if you go even farther back in time Philosophy turns into Mythology and Mythology was once Theology.
What is the difference between Philosophy and Theology? So, how does philosophy answer this question? Does it depend entirely on which of the above 2 definitions of theology fits a particular theologian as to whether he is a philosopher or not? LightCC 1 3 Theology was a part of western philosophy until Kant metaphysica specialis theologica.
Kant clearly stated that this was not philosophy in a correct understanding at all.
Can we go back? Stanley Hauerwas and the place of Christian Ethics - Many Horizons | Many Horizons
A more modern approach to theology in philosophy could be an analyzation of the use of the concepts of theology subject is a fact in the world , which is quite a difference to the metaphysical speculation theology consist in subject is a metaphysical entity. In the East there is not much difference between the two. One of the best expositions I've read: Where Theology is a process of rational analysis I would include it in philosophy. Any metaphysical theory will also be a theological theory.
Despite the historical overlap, a clear distinction can be made between the two: Alexander S King I like your distinction between Philosophy of Religion and Theology - I'm not sure I agree with it, but it is an excellent delineation. I must say your description of apologists is essentially the position that I believe all "good" theologians should and do take. I had never assumed one must take God as a "fact" to practice theology. I would define it as a discipline, not a state of belief, so that nothing prevents an atheist from being a "theologian.
If you teach theology but lose your faith, are you no longer a theologian? NelsonAlexander I guess it is theoretically possible for a scholar to be a theologian for a specific faith without personally buying in to it themselves. But on a second level, I don't see how it would work? Could someone who hates Jazz ever be a Jazz critic? I feel pun intended that you have to get the 'qualia' of a given belief system to be able to speak about it the way theologians do. But then again, there's this clergyproject. LightCC Which part do you disagree with? I certainly agree, as noted, that most theologians would probably be believers of a sort, Elaine Pagel being a good case.
But I don't know if this defines "theology," though perhaps it might. Theology is different from philosophy. No one is a subcase of the other. Added due to one comment of LightCC: I am aware that quoting Thomas Aquinas speaks for Christian theology only. So, you would say that someone who studies the general question of the existence of God and truth claims of various religions is not involved in theological study it must be a particular religion? That seems like a contortion of the term, at least in common usage.
I agree with your last statement that Philosophy can be a purely secular enterprise, but I don't see an argument in your response for why you leave theology out of the philosophical realm - it appears you have simply defined it to be out. Can you clarify your reasoning or quote any sources? I tend to think, as noted above, that the discipline of "theology" did evolve out of philosophy and could be seen as a limited, specialized area of what had once been philosophy and metaphysics.
Or perhaps vice versa. I'm really not sure, but I don't imagine there were "theologians" in Aquinas's day, as they were not "physicists" per se. On the other hand, there were not "philosophy" departments except by schism with "divinity" departments, often as late as the late 18th century. LightCC I added a remark to my answer that theology is not open-ended as philosophy is. Hence I do not consider theology a subdiscipline of philosophy.
First, different religions have different gods.
Relationship of theology to the history of religions and philosophy
Secondly, assessing the truth claim of the various religions is not an issue of this discipline. JoWehler Okay, I get your point - but by only analyzing philosophy and theology as full disciplines and trying to determine if they are subdisciplines of each other, this answer misses the spirit of the question. In essence, you are redefining theology from what my question does - what is your support for doing so?
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Is this a commonly-held view - any sources I can follow up with for that? Nelson Alexander Yes, Aquinas distinguishes theology from philosophy. Or - as he sometimes says - faith and reason. His aim was to show, that both do not contradict each other. But faith gets more, because faith has access to revealed knowledge which cannot be derived by reason, e.
Nelson Alexander 7, 3 13 Sorry to say, but though trying to answer the question, there are no references, sources or even named philosophers in here, so it might not fit into the conception of this SE. Does anyone answering a question in StackOverfolw have to provide a source for the concept of "for loop"? I really don't know, just a surmise. I am informed, for example, that Shintoism has no counterpart of theology. There is a lot of textual study in Buddhism, but I don't think that is distinct from the study of and practice of Buddhism itself. I am guessing that theology arises out of the hermeneutics tradition in Judaism and evolved sociologically out of the universities when philosophy, science, and religion began to diverge.
I'm happy to be corrected. I tend to answer very quickly off the top of my head. I'll try to note more references in my answers, but I'd have to "research" to differentiate particular theologians or iffy classifications like Berkeley, Buber, Niebuhr, Levinas. Even as I was writing, I began to see I knew less about it than I thought.
NelsonAlexander I understand your point. If there is better and agreed-upon terminology then I'm happy to adopt it, especially if you have some sources to improve your answer with. Don't be afraid to add sources after posting with edits, by the way!! I see two problems with this answer: First, it is unclear what mythology and science would have to do with the question as asked.
In the same vein, one can question the implication that philosophy has ever been mere speculative musing without reference to research and evidence.