Wiener Kreuzweg Literaturhaus Wien 7. Erich Fried Tage — Tag 1 Erich Fried Tage — Tag 3 Musikverein 1. Die lange Nacht der Kolumnisten Radiokulturhaus 4. Weinberg, Boot, Olivenbaum Griechischer Abend Signierstunde mit Michael Niavarani Das Buch der Erlaubnis. Aus Liebe zu mir Lesungskabarett Das Ei ist hart! Abend mit einem Mannsbild Vienna Ballhaus 9. Circus- und Clownmuseum 2. Open Stage — Dschungel puts on the red shoes Farbenreich Tanz, ab 2 J. Tanztheater Wien, 14—20 J. Die Weihnachtspuppe ab 3 J.
Max und Moritz Theater, ab 4 J. Pippi Langstrumpf ab 5 J. Wer hat hier die Hosen an? Der kleine Troll oder Die drei Schwerter ab 4 J. Moskauer Ball Palais Ferstel 1. Ball der Wiener Rauchfangkehrer Rathaus 1. Lebensbaumkreis Am Himmel MS Admiral Tegetthoff 2. Weihnachtsmarkt am Hof bis Weihnachtsdorf Schloss Belvedere bis Floridsdorfer Christkindlmarkt Franz-Jonas-Platz Weihnachtsmarkt am Spittelberg bis Weihnachtsmarkt am Stephansplatz bis Adventmarkt vor der Kirche Mariahilf. Armband- und Taschenuhren Autographen Time Travel Vienna 1.
Weihnachtsmarkt Altes AKH 9. Kinderhilfe Haus Wien 9. Weihnachtsmarkt der Kinder-KrebsHilfe Weihnachtsdorf Maria-Theresien-Platz bis Meidlinger Christkindlmarkt Michaelerplatz 1. Weihnachtsmarkt Palais Harrach 1. Adventmarkt der Biobauern Rathausplatz 1. Wiener Christkindlmarkt bis Drei sind wir Kabinetttheater 9. Das abgebrochene Drama Harold und Maude 2. Schon wieder Sonntag 6. Shakespeare in Love Ladykillers Kosmos Theater 7. Muttersprache Mameloschn Rabenhof 3.
Viel Gut Essen Sport vor Ort Bunbury — The Importance of Being Earnest 3. Goldkelchen ab 3 J. Die Nibelungen Theater, ab 11 J. Die Geggis ab 4 J. Technisches Museum Wien Mini Mobil Erlebnisbereich, 2 bis 8 J. Alles einsteigen — wir fahren ab! Workshop, 4 bis 7 J. Der Fluch des David Ballinger ab 11 J. Zoom Ozean Spiel- und Erlebnisbereich, bis 6 J. Du und ich, da und dort Mitmachausstellung, 6 bis 12 J. Workshop, 3 bis 12 J. Trickfilm-Workshop 8 bis 14 J. Der Engel mit der Posaune 6.
Wie man Hasen jagt Theater Nestroyhof Hamakom 2. Nathan der Weise 3. Wien ohne Wiener Die Zehn Gebote Der Menschenfeind Rote Bar: Vereinte Nationen Max Reinhardt Seminar 8. Hangmen Die Henker Extremophil Werk X Me are the world Tanz Muth — Der Konzertsaal der Wr. Romeo et Juliette Ballet Walfischgasse 1. Performance Arbeitsplatz Wien Performance Brunch 9 Wuk 9. Kabarett Casa Nova 1. Zuerst die gute Nachricht 6. Aufputzt is — ein Weihnachtsdebakel Bauernsilvester Kabarett Niedermair 8.
Am Ende des Tages 7. Eins und zwei Im freien Fall Ich pfeife auf die Oper Nikolaus Habjan Kulisse Katze im Sack 5. Es ist ein Arzt entsprungen Alle Jahre immer wieder 9. Absolute Weltklapse — eine Einweisung Maria und Josef Leise pieselt das Reh Aufputzt is — ein Weihnachtsdebakel L. Tot in Wien 4. Elena Schreiber, Robert Kolar: Michael Seidas Weihnachtsshow Aufputzt is — ein Weihnachtsdebakel 6. So Sachen — ein Stapel Anmerkungen Gunkl 7. Zwischen Ist und Soll — Menschsein halt 8. Ein Fest des Lachens Oh du Andere Best of Rabenhof 3. Die Physik von Weihnachten 5.
In Wahrheit falsch Silvester Special Stadtsaal 6. Ein Fest des Lachens. Advent, Advent — der Obstler brennt! Ein be- rauschender Jahreswechsel Theater am Alsergrund 9. Herz und Hirn 6. Zwischen Ist und Soll — Menschsein halt 9. Die unheilige Dreifaltigkeit Luft nach unten Die Blutbild Show Alexander Sedivy Absolute Weltklapse — eine Einweisung Theater am Spittelberg 7.
Hypochondria — Alles wird wieder gut! Spiegelpalast im Prater 2. Voices of Musical Advent mit: Disney in Concert ; Magic Moments Tournee Ensemblematinee am Sonntag 4 Die Fledermaus Theater Akzent 4. Xmas News Performing Center Austria Die lustige Witwe 3. Wie man Karriere macht, ohne sich anzustrengen 7. My Fair Lady Arnold Schoenberg Chor, Erwin Ortner 5. Mozart Ensemble Wien Haus der Industrie 3.
Concilium musicum Wien, Thomas Lichtenecker Countertenor Wiener Royal Orchester Kammeroper 1. Julian Henao Gonzalez Tenor Vienna Concert Orchestra 4. Orchester , Solisten der Salzburger Konzertgesellschaft Konzerthaus 3. Disney Fantasia Live in concert 5. Grigorij Sokolov Klavier 7. Barbara Hannigan Sopran Symphoniker, Philippe Jordan Bolschoi Don Kosaken Silvesterkonzert der Wiener Symphoniker, Philippe Jordan Janoska Ensemble Silvester-Gala Nicolas Altstaedt Violoncello Alice Coote Mezzosopran Wiener KammerOrchester, Stefan Vladar Seong-Jin Cho Klavier Philharmonic Five Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald.
Antoine Tamestit Viola 6. Salonorchester Alt-Wien Musikverein 1. Wiener Philharmoniker, Riccardo Muti Sinfonietta Cracovia, Jurek Dybal Emmanuel Tjeknavorian Violine Barockorchester Wroclaw, Jaroslaw Thiel 2. Barockorchester Wroclaw, Jaroslaw Thiel 3. Akademischer Orchesterverein in Wien, Christian Birnbaum 3. Wiener Philharmoniker, Riccardo Muti 9. Concentus Musicus Wien, Stefan Gottfried Kammerorchester Wien-Berlin, Rudolf Buchbinder Orchestra filarmonica di Lucca, Andrea Colombini Coro Giovanile Pugliese, Luigi Leo Schiffkowitz und Schirmer 2.
Wiener Residenzorchester Palais Liechtenstein 9. Austria Barock Akademie Ensemble Ornamentum Philharmonicum Stephansdom 1. Konstantin Reymaier Orgel Orgelkonzert zum Jahresschluss Weihnachtskonzert der Wiener Staatsoper Theater an der Wien 6. Musik-U Aktionsradius Wien Kollegium Kalksburg Jahresabschluss Arena 3. Nothing But Thieves 3. Black Rebel Motorcycle Club 4. The Whiskey Foundation Cafe Schopenhauer Georg Vogel Piano 8.
Das Wiener Lied The Art of Voice: The Rats Are Back Milburn Dschungel Wien 7. Peter Doherty, Stefanie Sargnagel 8. Mario Berger Kulisse Wiener Tschuschenkapelle Metropol Andy Lee Lang 5. Russian Gentlemen Club 8. Andy Lee Lang Falco Platinum Ottakringer Brauerei Ismael Barrios Salsa Explosion 3. James Carter's Elektrik Outlet 3. Elfi Aichingers Core 4. Curious Chamber Players 6. Gina Schwarzs Pannonica Project feat. Ulrich Drechsler Quartet feat. Fiva x JRBB Harri goes Beatles Karl Ratzer Quintet Strenge Kammer: Helena Rubinstein — ist die Pionierin des weiblichen Unternehmertums.
The Singin' Rebels Radiokulturhaus 4. Black Rebel Motorcycle Club Bettina Krenosz Jazzquintett Lange Nacht der Weltmusik live: Vienna Groove Orchestra 5. Max Brand Ensemble Stadtsaal 6. Jamaram Theater Akzent 4. The Milestones Project Tina Rauch Tunnel 8. Crossover Milonga — Tango Argentino Five Finger Death Punch 9. Andy Lee Lang Wuk 9. Musik-X Dritte Mann Museum 4. Cornelia Mayer Zither Konzerthaus 3. Havasi Symphonic Concert Show. Zauber der Adventszeit Casa Nova 1.
Da Weana Dreiklaung Johanneskapelle 1. The Christmas Gospel Ural Kosaken Chor Konzerthaus 3. Ein Abend im Advent Kulisse Safer Six Leopold Museum 7. Paul Gulda Kavier Adventkonzert Metropol Louie Austens musikalische Weihnachtsreise Trumpets In Concert — A very special Christmas Favorhythm Gospel Singers The Real Holy Boys feat.
Herbert Prohaska Palais Eschenbach 1. Sarah Ellensohn Orgel Resselpark 4. Adventkonzerte Theater Akzent 4. Jingle Bells reloaded Orchester der Volksoper Wien Weihnachtskonzert der Volksoper Votivkirche 9. Christmas In Ireland — Coming Together. Erleuchtung — Michael Leiris — Erich Hofbauer liest besinnlich humorvolle Texte Buchhandlung im Stuwerviertel 2.
Ehrenrunde Buchhandlung Lesewelt 8. Eva liest — Die Vorlesestunde ab 3 J. BurgGeschichten — Der Zwerg Nase BurgGeschichten — Weihnachtsgeschichten vom Franz Der Junge bekommt das Gute zuletzt Frick am Graben 1. Signierstunde mit Adele Neuhauser Galerie Mana 7. Ich bleib in der Stadt und verreise Lesung mit mit Musik Heinrich Advent ist, wenn man trotzdem lacht Konzerthaus 3.
Liebst Du das Dunkel? Erich Fried Tage — Tag 4 2. Erich Fried Tage — Tag 5 3. Erich Fried Tage — Tag 6 5. Slam B Poetry Slam Anschauung und Wahrnehmung — Zum Wir sind eine Entdeckergemeinschaft. Diskurse des Kalten Krieges: Liesl Ujvary und Bodo Hell 1. Sabine Niedermayr Stadtsaal 6.
Eine Geschichte des Ein Fest des Lachens 8. Jingle Bells reloaded Lesung mit Musik Streichquartett Sonare Linz Studio: Ist das jetzt die stille Zeit? Joseph Lorenz liest Abend mit einem Mannsbild Theater in der Josefstadt 8. Radio Wien Literatursalon Gast: Michael Niavarani Weinhaus Sittl Jahresabschlusslesung Erstes Wiener Lesetheater Gott und die Welt Theater, ab 6 J. Groove ab 13 J. Tanztheater Wien, 14 bis 20 J. Wenn die Tiere schlafen gehen Kompanie Freispiel, ab 3 J. Weihnacht im Winterwald ab 3 J.
Der Weihnachtsstern 6 bis 10 J. Von Mini bis XXL! H Workshop, 6 bis 10 J. Rubens' Vorbilder Workshop Wolkenbruch und Donnerwetter Atelier, 6 bis 12 J. Atelier zur Sammlung Leopold Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten ab 4 J. Archikids — Frag nach im AzW: Frau Holle Mitmachkonzert, ab 3 J. Klassik Cool Babykonzert Mitmachkonzert, Anmeldung: Gretel ab 8 J. Die kleine Hexe Immoment Theater, 6 bis 10 J. Wie macht das die deutsche Sauberfrau?
Bernhard Fibich ab 3 J. Willi Wolle Theater, ab 5 J. Weihnachtskonzert Theater, ab 3 J. Wir bitten zum Tanz — Quadrille tanzen lernen Kolariks Praterfee 2. Mini Mak im Advent: Muster, Raster, Zaster — Thomas Bayrle inspiriert! Workshop, 6 bis 13 J. Workshop, 8 bis 12 J. Lena sucht das Christkind ab 5 J. Die Kinderfledermaus ab 3 J. Mit Barcelino rund um die Welt Konzert, ab 6 J. Neues Wiener Krippenspiel Naturhistorisches Museum 1. Our Christmas Lieder, ab 4 J. Space4Kids 7 bis 10 J. Solaris ab 11 J. Ein Streifzug durch das Sonnensystem 4.
Planetarium Backstage ab 8 J. Yanni und die Kiesel aus dem All Sternenshow, 5—9 J. Von Engerln und Bengerln Musical, ab 2,5 J.
The German-Speaking World: A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues
Wenn die Wanzen mit der Oma tanzen Rabenhof 3. Musical Kids Club Sargfabrik Swinging Christmas Konzert, ab 5 J. Wenn es Winter wird ab 4 J. Saubere Energie Kinderworkshop 8. Forschung Hautnah — Crowd Control Kinderworkshop Meine Stadt — die kleine Stadtwerkstatt Kinderworkshop Der kleine Prinz ab 6 J. Cinderella passt was nicht Theater, ab 6 J. Theater in der Josefstadt 8.
Warum gibt es Geschenke? Warten auf das Christkind Weihnachtsferienspiel, ab 6 J. Art, ab 8 J. Kunstwerkstatt 3teilige Abotermine; 5 bis 8 J. Ball Arcotel Wimberger 7. Silvestergala Hotel Marriott 1. Silvestergala Hotel Sacher 1. Silvestergala Kulturdrogerie Silvestergala Kursalon im Stadtpark 1. Silvestergala Palais Auersperg 8. Silvestergala Palais Ferstel 1. Silvestergala Rathaus 1. Silvestergala Wuk 9. Maria Bill Am Hof 1. Krampuslauf Amtshaus Margareten 5. Winter- und Weihnachtslieder, -geschichten und -legenden aus der ganzen Welt Architekturzentrum Wien 7.
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Ein Umgang Adventrundgang durch den 7. Helge Hinteregger Landgasthaus Waldgrill Cobenzl Breakfast at Polly's Radiokulturhaus 4. Doris Glaser und Bernhard Fellinger stellen die Fragen. Silvester im Suite Hotel Kahlenberg. Party 25hours Hotel Wien 7. Silvesterparty mit Mafia-Flair Aux Gazelles 6. Silvester-Clubbing The Loft Weihnachtsdorf Am Hof 1. Weihnachtsmarkt Amtshaus Margareten 5. Weihnachtsmarkt der SelbermacherInnen Annakirche 1. Weihnachtsmarkt Austria Center Vienna Julbasar — Weihnachtsbasar der Schwedischen Kirche Bunkerei 2. Afrikanischer Weihnachtsmarkt Franz-Jonas-Platz Floridsdorfer Christkindlmarkt Freyung 1.
Mittelalterlicher Adventmarkt Heuriger Steinklammer Weihnachtsmarkt Indoor Winter-Wonder-Land 1. Kitsch'mas Jugend am Werk Weihnachtsmarkt der Kinder-Krebs-Hilfe Neujahrsmarkt Maria Theresien-Platz 1. Neujahrsmarkt Palais Harrach 1. Ja, Ihr Hals ist rot. Tut die Brust auch weh? Das ist eine Angina lacunaris. Tun die Ohren auch weh? Ja, das Ohr links. Haben Sie die Schmerzen schon lange? Nein, erst zwei Tage. What is the student supposed to learn from them? Is there anything about text C that makes it less than completely convincing? What all of these texts, at least theoretically, have in common is that they are examples of spontaneous colloquial speech produced in informal or semi-formal settings and are intended only for the immediate audience.
In Chapter 6 we shall see some examples of ways in which spoken texts produced in more formal settings for public consumption are often more readily describable in terms of the norms of written German. As a result, they cast doubt on the validity of this basic distinction between spoken and written German. If we shift our attention here to written texts, however, we can see that the same process frequently operates in reverse: This is particularly conspicuous in much modern journalism and in advertising, but is becoming commonplace in many different text types, which seems to demonstrate the growing importance of orality in modern life: If we take the following short passage as a benchmark text, a text that can unequivocally be classified as being constructed in accordance with the norms of written German, we can then look at ways in which a variety of other written texts adopt spoken norms and thereby blur the distinction between what we have taken as fundamentally different categories of text.
In which respects do they seem to contain language more characteristic of spoken texts? Sie turteln via Computer. Dank dem neuesten Trend im Berliner Nachtleben: Computerterminals in Discos und Bars. Birgit Krans, Tango 18, 27 April Der hat ja richtig Geist. Doch nicht nur Information ist angesagt. Wer mitmacht, hilft aktiv beim Umweltschutz.
Ein Gast will in einer Kneipe zahlen. Was erwidert der Gast? Darf man es so gebrauchen oder darf man nicht? Ist der Dativ falsch? This distinction has a number of consequences for the way in which we view language in use, and we shall devote the final section of this chapter to exploring some of them. In many instances, this is quite unproblematic: However, there are some aspects of language use that are more controversial, as the discussion of wegen at the beginning of this section suggests.
Verbotsschild in Berlin ii Greift Euer Vorteil! Antwort und kein Vertreterbesuch sichere ich Dir zu. Heiratsannonce viii Durchfahrt verboten. Verkehrsschild in Erfurt ix Weil der Atom dem Demonstrant bekanntlich am allerwenigsten schmeckt? Titanic x Und dabei hat doch die Wirklichkeit nur die Stadtverwaltung mal kurz den Arsch aufgerissen. Which sentences receive a common verdict and which ones seem debatable? How would you account for the different judgements in these cases?
Do they agree on what the error in each instance is and on how to correct it? On the other hand, one of the primary functions of grammars, dictionaries and other reference works is precisely to provide guidance on just these kinds of linguistic problem. This therefore raises the fundamental question of how such reference works should be written see also Chapters 10 and If so, what should a grammar tell us, say, about the use of prepositions like wegen? Many existing grammars categorically stipulate the use of the genitive case with wegen; if we accept this pronouncement we have to regard the usage of many native speakers as wrong.
However, if the common practice of perhaps the majority of native speakers differs from what is specified in grammars, this is surely a rather curious state of affairs. We may say that reference works define the standard variety or form of a language, and the fact that individual usage frequently differs from FIGURE 5. But as we have already seen in Chapter 1, not only does individual usage vary, but the standard form of a language is also constantly evolving.
Linguistic change is a complex process, and it is not always easy to determine whether a given feature is actually undergoing a change from A to B, or whether A and B are simply two variants that co-exist on a fairly constant basis. For instance, does the use of two different word-order patterns after weil indicate change in progress, or does it signal different functions? Either way, however, if two or more alternatives exist, and especially if there is a recognisable pattern underlying their use, we are entitled to ask whether a grammar or dictionary should take account of this.
Consider, for example, Figure 5. Which do you find most helpful? Does the distinction between written and spoken German even seem valid, or does it make more sense to distinguish at the level of formality? Further reading Biber , for a general discussion of the relationships between spoken and written language. Braun , especially Chapters 1. Schank and Schoenthal , a practical textbook on ways of analysing speech, with many examples. Wardhaugh , on the structure of spoken language and patterns of conversational interaction.
The answer in each case is simple, but what is it about these openings that makes the remainder of the text more or less predictable? Part of the answer obviously lies in the mention of certain key words, e. However, there is more to it than that. If you asked someone to write a fictitious weather forecast, airport announcement, fairy tale, or will, it is more than likely that their text will begin in much the same way as the relevant example here.
Furthermore, we know that flight departure announcements, for example, have not merely conventional beginnings but a fairly uniform internal structure e. A template is a pattern cut out in wood, card, plastic or metal, used to help reproduce a shape accurately in woodwork, cloth design and so on. However, the word is also used in word-processing terminology to refer to a file that provides a model for creating a particular type of text according to a standard pattern for example, a letter or a CV. In both cases, the pattern that is predetermined is the outline shape or layout.
In this chapter we shall consider three main questions: Styles and registers It seems reasonable to assume that most texts directed at a reader or listener are intended to be understood. What we then need to explain is why particular texts have different but predictable patterns: One way of exploring this question is by extending the concept of norms or conventions, which we introduced in Chapter 5 to account for regularities in written and spoken German.
This entails the recognition that in addition to the overriding purpose of being understood, individual texts normally have a specific function: Semestertip, a student magazine, April One consequence of this at the lexical level is that it is often possible to distinguish between vocabulary that you would expect to find in any text belonging to a certain type and vocabulary that necessarily occurs in a particular text. Try to identify further examples of these two sorts of vocabulary in these texts. In what ways are Texts 1 and 2 and Texts 3 and 4 similar to each other, and in what ways are they different?
How are particular functions e. Dieser wurde nach Infangnahme der Kugel ablebig. Look at the other words and phrases in italics and try to decide which of these two categories each of them belongs to i. Which features of the texts above would be covered by each of these terms, respectively? The important point is to be explicit and consistent in your own usage.
This distinction is as arbitrary as any other that has been proposed, but it is reasonably clear and enables us to analyse individual texts on two levels simultaneously.
However, it is quite common for other registers to be associated with a range of different styles. Consider, for example, the mixture of pseudo scientific register with both serious and jocular styles in these passages from a magazine article about car drivers: Er wird zu seinem eigenen Publikum. Addressing the public Although we are not always conscious of the fact, we are constantly bombarded with messages in everyday life. They come from a variety of sources and have different purposes. The most general category is perhaps the public notice or announcement issued by some form of authority to the public at large or to a particular group.
These texts are usually brief and have an informative or directive function: Hier entsteht eine neue Filiale der Commerzbank informative Unbefugten ist der Zutritt verboten directive although sometimes these functions may be combined: Directive texts are perhaps the most common and they are characteristically composed in a formal, impersonal style. They are issued by particular interest groups and are generally directed at specific target audiences. Leaflets promoting a film or play, commercials advertising a product, posters urging us to vote for a politician or political party, banners and leaflets exhorting us to take some form of action: Is reference made to other, competing products?
If so, in what way? Finally, on a rather different level, there is a range of text types that typically appear in both broadcast and print media, and which constitute an important means of communicating with the public in the form of ostensibly spoken texts. However, these texts are either actually written and then read out news bulletins, public speeches , or spoken but made public in written form and read as if they were written texts interviews.
Speaking the news Until relatively recently, many German news bulletins on radio and television were anything but audiencefriendly: Unlike their anglophone counterparts, who for a long time have read their scripts from an autocue and reinforced the illusion of speaking directly to the viewer by apparently maintaining eye contact, German-speaking television newsreaders made no attempt to conceal the fact that they were reading from a script on the desk in front of them.
Furthermore, no concessions were made to the fact that viewers did not have this script available to them and were therefore obliged to process the information being delivered to them on the basis of a single hearing. Effectively, there was no difference between the news as written in serious newspapers and the news as read on radio and television. The explosive growth of satellite and cable channels in the s changed all that.
The greatly increased consumer choice meant that there was fierce competition for viewers even amongst news programmes. It could no longer be taken for granted that viewers would routinely switch the television on at 7 p. One important aspect of this trend is something we noted in Chapter 5: In the age of interactive media, we can now go a step further and engage in a constructive dialogue with all sorts of computer-driven devices. In this context, it is not surprising that the spoken word whether or not it is transmitted through the medium of speech has become the norm in so many forms of public communication.
As a result, an individual news programme may consist of a range of different speech events: Where would you place the following extracts on the scales formal informal and complex simple? Which features of the texts are your judgements based on? Schlechte Nachrichten aus Deutschland Ost sind an der Tagesordnung.
In Finsterwalde, einer kleinen Kreisstadt zwischen Berlin und Dresden, sind fast 60 Prozent arbeitslos. Am meisten betroffen sind die Frauen; sie stellen rund zwei Drittel der Arbeitslosen. Die Gegenwart sieht anders aus. Die Menschen wollen sich selber helfen. Denn die Polizei scheint machtlos. Aber das tut er eben gerade nicht. Jedenfalls nicht auf der Polizeiwache, wenn die Beamten was herauskriegen wollen!
Schlechte Beleuchtung, wenig Autos unterwegs. Der Stadtteil Leutsch in Leipzig—wie ausgestorben. In what ways do the following two extracts, for example, show the greater shift towards a colloquial, oral mode and a more personal style in the RTL-Aktuell broadcast than in the more conventional Tagesschau bulletin? Another significant aspect of the diversification of television news production is in the composition of different components of individual news broadcasts.
Consider the following extracts from Tagesthemen, the late-evening news programme on ARD: Guten Abend meine Damen und Herren. Der Tod aus der Kapsel. Einer von 60 und das ist schon die dritte Welle. Sarajevo heute um 9 Uhr. Der politische Sprecher, Ivanko, ist Russe und offensichtlich zufrieden. Guten Abend Frau Beier. Frau Beier, die Verhandlungen gehen jetzt weiter, Karadzic und Milosevic an einem gemeinsamen Verhandlungstisch: Franz Stark vom Bayerischen Rundfunk kommentiert.
Kein gerecht denkender Mensch wird dies also verurteilen wollen. Aber es hilft auch kein Heruminterpretieren: To what extent does each of these five subtexts have a distinctive pattern? Use the following checklist as a guide: Now read the following extract from the RTL-Aktuell bulletin broadcast on the same day: Ein Nato-Flugzeug wurde dabei abgeschossen.
Auch die schnelle Eingreiftruppe war mit schwerer Artillerie an der Aktion beteiligt. Die Nato-Bomber greifen serbische Stellungen rund um die Stadt an. Eines der Ziele ist ein wichtiges Waffendepot. Granaten schlagen in der Stadt ein. Use the criteria introduced above, and where appropriate take into account also the following factors: Public speaking The interview with Dresden schoolchildren in Chapter 5 p. The same applies to politicians and other public figures who spend much of their lives giving interviews and making speeches. However, there are times when people in the public eye need to give the impression of being completely in control of their subject matter.
Consider the following extracts from an interview with Professor Heydemann, the former Environment Minister of Schleswig-Holstein: Wie wollen Sie das verhindern? But even making allowances for this possibility, it is clear that this kind of spoken text is much more consciously and carefully constructed than other forms of spontaneous speech. Consider the following extracts from an interview with Peter Hartz, the Personnel Director of Volkswagen, from this point of view: Sie sind relativ sicher, wenn wir das von uns vorgelegte Konzept verwirklichen.
Warum wollen Sie dann bis fast 30 Stellen streichen? Wenn sie mehr arbeiten, geben wir ihnen dieses Zeit-Wertpapier. Not every interview will be reproduced in its entirety, indeed it is far more common for interviews to be used as the raw material for an article, with only particularly striking passages being quoted, and so practised interviewees know that their key points must be expressed in such a way as to catch the eye of the headline writer or the ear of the television news producer.
To what extent would you say the features of the textual patterns that you have identified are specific to German or at least differ from those of comparable texts in English? In what sense is the ability to recognise and use these patterns an aspect of sociolinguistic competence? Further reading Durrell , Chapter 1, on varieties of language, especially register; with illustrative texts and analysis.
Holly , for a clear survey of different aspects of language use in television texts, including the news. Holmes , Chapter 10, on style and register. Hudson , Chapter 2. Muckenhaupt , for a thorough exploration of the ways in which the presentation of German television news has developed. Scharschik , a collection of historically important political speeches. Wardhaugh , pp. But it was serious. While the first omission merely caused surprise, by the time he had greeted her with no more than a silent smile for the second time considerable tension had developed in his office and his colleagues were seriously beginning to wonder what was wrong with him was he on the verge of a breakdown?
Was his marriage collapsing? Can you add to this list? You will need to take into account such variable factors as the following: If so, how well and on what basis? Is one older than the other s? Are some elements of the structure obligatory and others optional? Is there a particular sequence in which the various elements must occur? Looking at language from this perspective means treating it as a form of social behaviour: Communicative incompetence, by contrast, means not knowing what the relevant rules of talk are.
Cultural differences of these kinds can also apply between particular groups within one society or speech community. One striking example of this can be seen in the speech styles of youth subcultures. But like most special codes, Jugendsprachen have a double function: Consider the following passage of allegedly authentic Jugendsprache: Obwohl — eigentlich nervt mich das. Das ist doch Fuzzi, sowas. As a result, dictionaries and glossaries of Jugendsprachen are usually out of date as soon as they are published. And there is more to belonging in youth subcultures than picking up a new vocabulary: Consider, for example, the way the speakers in this conversation pick up a reference to James Bond and develop a short sequence making fun of one of their teachers: In the following sections, we shall explore some of the ways in which particular communicative conventions operate in German-speaking contexts by looking in some detail at two important aspects of interaction that affect all social groups and lend themselves to comparisons with the practices in other cultures: It is based on the assumption of mutual respect at a fundamental human level, and to that extent is probably at least in principle a universal feature of human societies.
However, the actual practices may be culture-specific and are frequently complex in the way they operate. It is easy to see how this impression can arise, as some everyday forms of expression in German lack the characteristic modal forms of the English equivalents or make them less prominent by embedding them within the sentence , which have the effect of reducing the force of the utterance. Compare, for example, the following: Complaints 1 Seltsam, gestern war meine Bluse doch noch ganz sauber.
Kulturwinter by Falter Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H. - Issuu
Du hast meine ganze Bluse ruiniert. Requests 1 Es ist sehr kalt hier drin. Ich bitte dich, das Fenster zuzumachen. The study was very much preliminary in nature, and we cannot really draw any firm conclusions from it, but the results are at least suggestive and interesting. The most general finding was that the Germans used more direct utterances overall than the English participants, and that the English ones did not use the two most direct levels at all. These markers were of two types, which again can be illustrated with German examples: Warum hast du das mir nicht vorher gesagt?
The interesting findings in this respect were that: Think carefully about the kinds of factors you should take into account when selecting your participants, e. The power of the personal pronoun One of the most crucial ways of establishing and maintaining social relations, part of the daily test of our command of politeness conventions, is in knowing how to address people we are talking or writing to.
The fact that the very act of selecting one form or the other is lexicalised i. The importance of making the right sociolinguistic choice underlies not one but two epistolary novels by Werner Lansburgh. In the following extracts from the beginning of the first book, the narrator immediately raises the problem of how to address the recipient of his letters: Dear Doosie, warum ich Sie Doosie nenne, fragen Sie? How did you learn to use du and Sie? If you were a teacher of German, how would you deal with this?
This is an attempt to represent schematically the decision-making process involved in the selection of the appropriate pronoun in German: Consider, for example, the following exchange between a German beggar A and a Turkish man B: Haben Sie viel gearbeitet bis jetzt und hier bei Ecke stehen und von Hunger von andere Menschen betteln. B Es ist nicht gut. Nein, is nicht gut. Sie brauchen mir nicht helfen. Das ist sehr freundlich von Ihnen, Herr Albrecht, aber ich bin schon verabredet. How and when do speakers change from Sie to du and vice versa?
Is this change automatic at some given point in a relationship? Is it necessarily reciprocal or may it affect only one of the people concerned i. Is it always permanent or may it be temporary? If you trace the development of personal pronoun usage from Old High German OHG times roughly from the eighth to the eleventh century to the present, you will find that it can be represented by a kind of anvil shape. Hauptmann [Army captain] auf einem Stuhl, Woyzeck [a common soldier] rasiert ihn. Er macht mir ganz schwindlich. Was will Er denn mit der ungeheuren Zeit all anfangen?
Teil Er sich ein, Woyzeck. Woyzeck, Er hat keine Tugend, Er ist kein tugendhafter Mensch. Ja Herr Hauptmann, die Tugend! Sehn Sie, wir gemeine Leut, das hat keine Tugend. Aber ich bin ein armer Kerl. Du bist ein guter Mensch, ein guter Mensch. Aber du denkst zu viel, das zehrt, du siehst immer so verhetzt aus.
How would people in a comparable situation today address each other? Note that the more focused patterns are generally symmetrical or reciprocal—i. Paradoxically, perhaps, the superficially simpler system in modern German may in some ways be more complicated to implement or manage. Some of the grey areas are rather special cases for example, how do you address someone in a sauna, or a childhood friend whom you have not seen since your school days?
The most obvious consequence of this was the spread of du into areas that had traditionally been considered the preserve of Sie: In these cases, speakers have to ask themselves: Ihr findet das gut. Then ask a number of German-speakers what they would say. Where do the native speakers disagree with you? Where do they disagree among themselves? Discuss with them what the reasons for the different choices might be for example, take into account their age, sex, occupation, etc. The boundaries between du and Sie may have shifted, but they have not disappeared.
As many other languages, such as English, have dispensed with or never had such a choice, it would seem that there has to be some reason for a speech community to continue to burden itself with an uneconomical system of personal address. In other words, the sociolinguistic benefits are still perceived to outweigh the costs. Some of the tasks above may have revealed some clues to what the benefits may be: However, we are still left with a number of unanswered questions.
What do you think these terms mean? Ask native speakers whether they agree that du be classified in these or other ways, and whether the same applies to Sie. For instance, what does reciprocal Sie between employer and employee, or between lecturer and student, represent in terms of their social relationship?
What significant aspect of their relationship is concealed by this reciprocal usage? To what extent would their relationship change if the two parties agreed to change to reciprocal du? Underlying these particular questions is the fundamental problem: As regards the structure of the system as a whole, it has been argued that an asymmetrical pattern such as the following can be interpreted in terms of power or status and solidarity: To what extent do the practices you observe conflict with the patterns or norms you have acquired as a learner of German?
Further reading Ammon , a critical analysis of the social meaning of German personal pronouns. Bayer , with particular emphasis on the post period. Beneke , on attitudes and communicative behaviour of young people in East and West Berlin after unification in Clyne , Chapter 5. Holmes , Chapter 11, on politeness and patterns of address in general, not in relation to German.
Saville-Troike , an excellent introduction to the whole area of communicative competence from a sociolinguistic perspective. Schlobinski , for a critical account of earlier work on Jugendsprachen and illustrations of analysis based on whole interactions rather than on individual items of vocabulary. Wardhaugh , Chapter 11, on politeness and patterns of address in general, not in relation to German. Given the relative distribution of men and women in 1these occupations, these responses may not be surprising, even if they are disturbing.
The fact that in English neither articles nor nouns are marked for grammatical gender means that it was possible to write and read the first paragraph of this chapter in very general terms: This non-specific use of the masculine form must be intended in the caption of the cartoon Figure 8. You could find out by asking German-speakers to do this. What do such pairs and the occupations they designate have in common? The problem here is one of reference, but it is a sociolinguistic rather than merely linguistic issue because many women feel linguistically excluded from texts which do not explicitly include them, in the same way that they feel excluded from certain occupations.
Our discussion in this chapter will focus on two closely related questions: This passage appears to be part of an attempt to characterise grammatical features in semantic terms: The passage therefore implicitly merges three different conceptions of gender: Grammatical gender is an inherent and generally invariant attribute of German nouns, and it is crucial to the operation of the nominal system: Can you think of contexts in which this potential linguistic conflict might lead to social or communicative problems?
We shall examine some examples in the next section, pp. As the label suggests, social gender is a social rather than a linguistic category, but it has sociolinguistic significance in the impact it has on language use. While biological gender is an objective category determined by purely physiological factors, irrespective of social or cultural environment, social gender is an acquired status that is the result of specific social and cultural processes. In other words, biological gender is an absolute quality that is genetically determined, whereas social gender is a relative quality that is socially constructed.
So for example, all human beings are deemed to be male or female on the basis of certain universal physical features, but the kinds of behaviour associated with or considered appropriate for males and females, respectively, vary from one society or culture to another. To what extent do such assumptions have a bearing on expected language use?
There is therefore generally no difficulty in specifying the sex of a particular referent if we wish to do so. In English, it is possible to make such general statements as: In such cases the noun, whether singular or plural, cannot be identified as having exclusively male or female referents how it is perceived may be a different matter, as we have seen. In German, however, there is no way of avoiding the use of a noun phrase marked for grammatical gender, and so the representation of the idea underlying sentences 1 and 2 above is less straightforward.
Conventional grammars prescribe the use of the masculine form in such contexts, so that the German equivalents to sentences 1 and 2 would be: As there are distinctive feminine forms in both singular and plural Musikerin, Musikerinnen , these sentences are ambiguous: Sentences 5 and 6, by contrast, can only refer to female musicians: Some German nouns e.
Kind are inherently generic with respect to sex, in that they can only be used to specify sex if qualified by an additional element e. Nouns such as Musiker and Musikerin can be used generically, in the sense of referring to all male or all female musicians, respectively and therefore not distinguishing between, say, red-haired and blond members of either category , but according to conventional grammar only the masculine form Musiker can be used generically in the sense of non-sex-specific.
How can we be sure that women are included in utterances where these forms are used? But consider the following sentences: A woman enters a shop with her male cat, and the shop assistant says: Each part of the diagram represents a hyponymous relationship. However, one of the hyponyms in each case is identical to the superordinate term.
In other words, both Kunde and Katze are ambiguous, in that they can be used either as semantically marked, sex-specific terms, or as unmarked, generic terms. What is the difference between the two German examples? Can you see a connection between the two sets of examples?
Both approaches can be illustrated in the next problem. The apparently gender-neutral singular and plural forms are actually identical to the respective masculine forms, and although sex of referent is marked grammatically by means of articles for both feminine and masculine in the singular, only the feminine forms are also marked morphologically with the suffix -in nen.
Consider now some possible solutions to the problem of asymmetry shown in Figure 8. Studenten masculine singular feminine plural die weibl. What are their strengths and weaknesses in relation to the status quo? Which of the solutions, if any, do you find the most satisfactory? For some especially perhaps people like the city councillors discussed in the next section, see pp. For example, in the light of our considerations so far, how would you view this now superseded article in the Swiss constitution? If the masculine sex is named in a ruling, this nevertheless generally refers to both sexes.
The argument is that this is simply a more economical approach than to name both men and women in each instance. Sentences 17 and 18 show how rigorously this principle is or was applied in current German legislation and in the former GDR both examples from Stickel However, to implement this kind of regulation and to rewrite legal texts without the generic masculine means finding a suitable linguistic pattern. In some cases, overt personal reference as in 20a can be avoided by using more abstract formulations referring to the function performed by the person concerned as in 20b these examples are from Gorny More generally, one obvious possibility that is already available is simply to use the so-called Paarformel: Bewerber und Bewerberinnen, jede Mitarbeiterin und jeder Mitarbeiter.
Other forms of Splitting, which are more economical Sparformeln , all entail the use of orthographical devices: However, they have certain limitations. As they depend on orthographical symbols, it is difficult to see how they could be used in spoken texts, although it is conceivable that LeserIn, for example, could be pronounced with a slight pause before the last syllable [le: In] in order to distinguish it from Leserin [le: But even in written texts problems may arise, especially in the singular in cases other than the nominative, and in texts where repeated reference is required.
Can you think of more satisfactory ways of writing sentences 22 and 23 both from Stickel In those that do, which approach do they use? Totale Feminisierung The solutions to the problem of generic reference discussed in the previous section collectively offer a number of advantages and disadvantages, but it is clear that considerable imagination, ingenuity and flexibility are required to devise a workable approach that can be applied successfully in a wide range of contexts.
Indeed, many working parties in Germany, Austria and Switzerland have been set up to address this general issue, and the results of their deliberations can be found in published guidelines for example, Hellinger et al. However, not everyone is content with these guidelines: They also contend that all such solutions fail to get to the root of the problem since they ignore what the critics see as the fundamental asymmetry or androcentricity of the language itself. On the one hand, many of the new proposals both Splitting and the more radical innovations have not gained wide acceptance, and on the other hand completely gender-neutral language is not possible in German.
How, asks leading feminist Sprachkritikerin Luise F. Um dem zu entgehen bzw. Some steps in this direction have been taken: And all official titles in the city parliament of Rostock are exclusively feminine: Lassen Sie sie doch mal ausreden! Sie reden doch viel mehr als ich! Machen Sie bitte weiter.
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Ja, ja, wenn der Weihnachtsmann wiederkommt. Des brauche ma uns net biete lasse, net mit mir! Da wird unsere Sprache verhunzt! Further reading Hellinger , for a very readable contrastive account of feminist critiques of German and English. Die Backes 3 German Edition Apr 18, Trauben rauben in Kapstadt German Edition Aug 05, Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Limetten retten in Sydney: Urlaubsroman German Edition Aug 05, Sonderedition German Edition Dec 01, Only 6 left in stock - order soon.
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