Aveling was a great influence on Besant's thinking and she supported his work, yet she moved towards the rival Fabians at that time.
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She remained a member for a number of years and became one of its best speakers. She was still a member of the Fabian Society; neither she nor anyone else seemed to think the two movements incompatible at the time. Besant drove about with a red ribbon in her hair, speaking at meetings. She combined her socialist principles with feminism: She wrote in the National Reformer: Now the care of the , children of London is placed partly in my hands.
Besant was also involved in the London dock strike of , in which the dockers, who were employed by the day, were led by Ben Tillett in a struggle for the "Dockers' Tanner". Besant helped Tillett draw up the union's rules and played an important part in the meetings and agitation which built up the organisation.
She spoke for the dockers at public meetings and on street corners. Like the match-girls, the dockers won public support for their struggle, and the strike was won. Besant was a prolific writer and a powerful orator. After reading it, she sought an interview with its author, meeting Blavatsky in Paris. In this way she was converted to Theosophy.
Besant's intellectual journey had always involved a spiritual dimension, a quest for transformation of the whole person. As her interest in theosophy deepened, she allowed her membership of the Fabian Society to lapse and broke her links with the Marxists. In , she described herself as "marching toward the Theosophy" that would be the "glory" of her life. Besant had found the economic side of life lacking a spiritual dimension, so she searched for a belief based on "Love". She found this in Theosophy, so she joined the Theosophical Society, a move that distanced her from Bradlaugh and other former activist co-workers.
In , soon after becoming a member of the Theosophical Society she went to India for the first time. Following the split Besant devoted much of her energy not only to the society, but also to India's freedom and progress. Besant Nagar , a neighbourhood near the Theosophical Society in Chennai, is named in her honour. Besant saw freemasonry, in particular Co-Freemasonry , as an extension of her interest in the rights of women and the greater brotherhood of man and saw co-freemasonry as a "movement which practised true brotherhood, in which women and men worked side by side for the perfecting of humanity.
The link was made in by the theosophist Francesca Arundale, who accompanied Besant to Paris, along with six friends. They became close co-workers in the theosophical movement and would remain so for the rest of their lives. Leadbeater claimed clairvoyance and reputedly helped Besant become clairvoyant herself in the following year. In a letter dated 25 August to Francisca Arundale, Leadbeater narrates how Besant became clairvoyant. Together they clairvoyantly investigated the universe, matter, thought-forms, and the history of mankind, and co-authored a book called Occult Chemistry.
In Leadbeater became the centre of controversy when it emerged that he had advised the practice of masturbation to some boys under his care and spiritual instruction. Leadbeater stated he had encouraged the practice to keep the boys celibate, which was considered a prerequisite for advancement on the spiritual path.
The next year Besant became president of the society and in , with her express support, Leadbeater was readmitted to the society. Leadbeater went on to face accusations of improper relations with boys, but none of the accusations were ever proven and Besant never deserted him. Until Besant's presidency, the society had as one of its foci Theravada Buddhism and the island of Sri Lanka , where Henry Olcott did the majority of his useful work. Besant set up a new school for boys, the Central Hindu College CHC at Banaras which was formed on underlying theosophical principles, and which counted many prominent theosophists in its staff and faculty.
Its aim was to build a new leadership for India. The students spent 90 minutes a day in prayer and studied religious texts, but they also studied modern science. It took 3 years to raise the money for the CHC, most of which came from Indian princes. Besant and fellow trustees of the Central Hindu College also agreed to Government of India's precondition that the college should become a part of the new University. Blavatsky had stated in that the main purpose of establishing the society was to prepare humanity for the future reception of a "torch-bearer of Truth", an emissary of a hidden Spiritual Hierarchy that, according to theosophists, guides the evolution of mankind.
In , soon after Besant's assumption of the presidency, Leadbeater "discovered" fourteen-year-old Jiddu Krishnamurti — , a South Indian boy who had been living, with his father and brother, on the grounds of the headquarters of the Theosophical Society at Adyar , and declared him the probable "vehicle" for the expected " World Teacher ". It also started years of upheaval, and contributed to splits in the Theosophical Society and doctrinal schisms in theosophy.
Following the discovery, Jiddu Krishnamurti and his younger brother Nityananda "Nitya" were placed under the care of theosophists and Krishnamurti was extensively groomed for his future mission as the new vehicle for the "World Teacher". Besant soon became the boys' legal guardian with the consent of their father, who was very poor and could not take care of them. However, his father later changed his mind and began a legal battle to regain the guardianship, against the will of the boys. His biological mother had died when he was ten years old.
In , twenty years after his "discovery", Krishnamurti, who had grown disenchanted with the World Teacher Project , repudiated the role that many theosophists expected him to fulfil. He dissolved the Order of the Star in the East , an organisation founded to assist the World Teacher in his mission, and eventually left the Theosophical Society and theosophy at large. His love for Besant never waned, as also was the case with Besant's feelings towards him;  concerned for his wellbeing after he declared his independence, she had purchased 6 acres 2.
Along with her theosophical activities, Besant continued to actively participate in political matters. She had joined the Indian National Congress. As the name suggested, this was originally a debating body, which met each year to consider resolutions on political issues. Mostly it demanded more of a say for middle-class Indians in British Indian government. It had not yet developed into a permanent mass movement with local organisation.
About this time her co-worker Leadbeater moved to Sydney. Echoing an Irish nationalist slogan, Besant declared, "England's need is India's opportunity". As editor of the New India newspaper, she attacked the colonial government of India and called for clear and decisive moves towards self-rule. As with Ireland, the government refused to discuss any changes while the war lasted. This was the first political party in India to have regime change as its main goal.
Unlike the Congress itself, the League worked all year round. It built a structure of local branches, enabling it to mobilise demonstrations, public meetings and agitations. In June Besant was arrested and interned at a hill station , where she defiantly flew a red and green flag. The Congress and the Muslim League together threatened to launch protests if she were not set free; Besant's arrest had created a focus for protest. The government was forced to give way and to make vague but significant concessions. It was announced that the ultimate aim of British rule was Indian self-government, and moves in that direction were promised.
Besant was freed in September , welcomed by crowds all over India, and in December she took over as president of the Indian National Congress for a year. Gandhi — one of those who had written to demand Besant's release. He was a lawyer who had returned from leading Asians in a peaceful struggle against racism in South Africa. Jawaharlal Nehru , Gandhi's closest collaborator, had been educated by a theosophist tutor. The new leadership was committed to action that was both militant and non-violent, but there were differences between them and Besant. Despite her past, she was not happy with their socialist leanings.
Until the end of her life, however, she continued to campaign for India's independence, not only in India but also on speaking tours of Britain. She produced a torrent of letters and articles demanding independence. Besant tried as a person, theosophist, and president of the Theosophical Society, to accommodate Krishnamurti's views into her life, without success; she vowed to personally follow him in his new direction although she apparently had trouble understanding both his motives and his new message.
In she became ill in India. Her body was cremated. She was survived by her daughter, Mabel. The subsequent family history became fragmented. A number of Besant's descendants have been traced in detail from her son Arthur Digby's side. They had a daughter, Kathleen Mary, born in , who was given away for adoption within three weeks of the birth and had the new name of Lavinia Pollock. Besant opined that for centuries the leaders of Christian thought spoke of women as a necessary evil, and that the greatest saints of the Church were those who despised women the most, "Against the teachings of eternal torture, of the vicarious atonement, of the infallibility of the Bible, I leveled all the strength of my brain and tongue, and I exposed the history of the Christian Church with unsparing hand, its persecutions, its religious wars, its cruelties, its oppressions.
That before about A. As it is not pretended by any that there is any mention of four Gospels before the time of Irenaeus , excepting this "harmony". This step of our argument is, then on solid and unassailable ground — That before about A. That, before that date, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are not selected as the four evangelists. This position necessarily follows from the preceding one [D. Giles supports the argument we are building up. Besides being a prolific writer, Besant was a "practised stump orator" who gave sixty-six public lectures in one year. She also engaged in public debates.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Clapham , London , UK. Adyar , Madras Presidency , British India. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hyderabad Sind National Collegiate Board. Archived from the original on 24 September An Autobiography, London, , chapter 4. An Autobiography, London, , chapter 5. Birkbeck, University of London.
Retrieved 19 May Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 26 November Besant, Annie; Bradlaugh, Charles , eds. A publication about birth control. Dutton, , rpt Aware Journalism, , History and Reception ProQuest, , The Ascent of the Superman Yale University, , Publications, , A Theosophical Experiment University of California, , Travelling in with her sisters and brothers she met in the Netherlands, other brethren of a male obedience, who, being interested, collaborated in the further expansion of Le Droit Humain.
The lodges in all these countries were united under the name of the British Federation. The Key to Theosophy. The Theosophical Publishing Company. Annie Besant and Progressive Messianism, — The Years of Awakening. Farrar Straus and Giroux. The Life and Death of Krishnamurti. India through the ages. The New York Times. Retrieved 14 February Annie Besant, year-old Theosophist, is so ill, it was learned today, that she is unable to take nourishment. As it is not pretended by any that there is any mention of four Gospels before the time of Irenaeus , excepting this "harmony", pleaded by some as dated about A.
Justin Martyr, it must be remembered, wrote in , and neither he nor any writer before him has alluded, in the most remote degree, to four specific Gospels bearing the names of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. A Woman of Passion: The Life of E. New Amsterdam Books, , 68, , , Chandrasekhar, S. A Dirty, Filthy Book: Great Women of Modern India — 1: The trial of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh.
Elek, London Nethercot, Arthur H. He began his sentence on 18 March With Gandhi isolated in prison, the Indian National Congress split into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , opposing this move. Muslim leaders left the Congress and began forming Muslim organisations. The political base behind Gandhi had broken into factions.
Gandhi was released in February for an appendicitis operation, having served only two years. After his early release from prison for political crimes in , over the second half of the s, Gandhi continued to pursue swaraj. He pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-co-operation with complete independence for the country as its goal.
The British did not respond favourably to Gandhi's proposal. British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. Gandhi then launched a new Satyagraha against the tax on salt in March Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. According to Sarma, Gandhi recruited women to participate in the salt tax campaigns and the boycott of foreign products, which gave many women a new self-confidence and dignity in the mainstream of Indian public life.
After Gandhi's arrest, the women marched and picketed shops on their own, accepting violence and verbal abuse from British authorities for the cause in a manner Gandhi inspired. According to Atlury Murali, Indian Congress in the s appealed to Andhra Pradesh peasants by creating Telugu language plays that combined Indian mythology and legends, linked them to Gandhi's ideas, and portrayed Gandhi as a messiah , a reincarnation of ancient and medieval Indian nationalist leaders and saints.
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The plays built support among peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture, according to Murali, and this effort made Gandhi a folk hero in Telugu speaking villages, a sacred messiah-like figure. According to Dennis Dalton, it was the ideas that were responsible for his wide following. Gandhi criticised Western civilisation as one driven by "brute force and immorality", contrasting it with his categorisation of Indian civilisation as one driven by "soul force and morality".
These ideas are evidenced in his pamphlets from the s, in South Africa, where too he was popular among the Indian indentured workers. After he returned to India, people flocked to him because he reflected their values. Gandhi also campaigned hard going from one rural corner of the Indian subcontinent to another. He used terminology and phrases such as Rama -rajya from Ramayana , Prahlada as a paradigmatic icon, and such cultural symbols as another facet of swaraj and satyagraha.
The government, represented by Lord Irwin , decided to negotiate with Gandhi. The Gandhi—Irwin Pact was signed in March The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. According to the pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London for discussions and as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.
The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. Gandhi expected to discuss India's independence, while the British side focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power. Lord Irwin's successor, Lord Willingdon , took a hard line against India as an independent nation, began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried and failed to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers. In Britain, Winston Churchill , a prominent Conservative politician who was then out of office but later became its prime minister, became a vigorous and articulate critic of Gandhi and opponent of his long-term plans.
Churchill often ridiculed Gandhi, saying in a widely reported speech:. Churchill's bitterness against Gandhi grew in the s. He called Gandhi as the one who was "seditious in aim" whose evil genius and multiform menace was attacking the British empire. Churchill called him a dictator, a "Hindu Mussolini ", fomenting a race war, trying to replace the Raj with Brahmin cronies, playing on the ignorance of Indian masses, all for selfish gain. It gained Churchill sympathetic support, but it also increased support for Gandhi among Europeans. The developments heightened Churchill's anxiety that the "British themselves would give up out of pacifism and misplaced conscience".
During the discussions between Gandhi and the British government over —32 at the Round Table Conferences , Gandhi, now aged about 62, sought constitutional reforms as a preparation to the end of colonial British rule, and begin the self-rule by Indians. The British negotiators proposed constitutional reforms on a British Dominion model that established separate electorates based on religious and social divisions.
The British questioned the Congress party and Gandhi's authority to speak for all of India. Ambedkar as the representative leader of the untouchables. After Gandhi returned from the Second Round Table conference, he started a new satyagraha. He was arrested and imprisoned at the Yerwada Jail , Pune. While he was in prison, the British government enacted a new law that granted untouchables a separate electorate.
It came to be known as the Communal Award. In Gandhi resigned from Congress party membership. He did not disagree with the party's position but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership, which actually varied, including communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, and those with pro-business convictions, and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard. Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.
Gandhi returned to active politics again in , with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal. Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Chandra Bose, who had been elected president in , and who had previously expressed a lack of faith in nonviolence as a means of protest.
Pattabhi Sitaramayya ; but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles introduced by Gandhi. Gandhi opposed providing any help to the British war effort and he campaigned against any Indian participation in the World War II. His campaign was a failure. Gandhi opposition to the Indian participation in the World War II was motivated by his belief that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech in Mumbai.
In , Gandhi now nearing age 73, urged his people to completely stop co-operating with the imperial government. In this effort, he urged that they neither kill nor injure British people, but be willing to suffer and die if violence is initiated by the British officials. Gandhi's arrest lasted two years, as he was held in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. During this period, his long time secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack, his wife Kasturba died after 18 months' imprisonment on 22 February ; and Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. Gelder then composed and released an interview summary, cabled it to the mainstream press, that announced sudden concessions Gandhi was willing to make, comments that shocked his countrymen, the Congress workers and even Gandhi.
The latter two claimed that it distorted what Gandhi actually said on a range of topics and falsely repudiated the Quit India movement. Gandhi was released before the end of the war on 6 May because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation.
He came out of detention to an altered political scene — the Muslim League for example, which a few years earlier had appeared marginal, "now occupied the centre of the political stage"  and the topic of Muhammad Ali Jinnah 's campaign for Pakistan was a major talking point. Gandhi and Jinnah had extensive correspondence and the two men met several times over a period of two weeks in September , where Gandhi insisted on a united religiously plural and independent India which included Muslims and non-Muslims of the Indian subcontinent coexisting. Jinnah rejected this proposal and insisted instead for partitioning the subcontinent on religious lines to create a separate Muslim India later Pakistan.
While the leaders of Congress languished in jail, the other parties supported the war and gained organizational strength. Underground publications flailed at the ruthless suppression of Congress, but it had little control over events. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around , political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.
Gandhi opposed partition of the Indian subcontinent along religious lines. Jinnah rejected Gandhi's proposal and called for Direct Action Day , on 16 August , to press Muslims to publicly gather in cities and support his proposal for partition of Indian subcontinent into a Muslim state and non-Muslim state.
Thousands of Hindus and Muslims were murdered, and tens of thousands were injured in the cycle of violence in the days that followed. Archibald Wavell , the Viceroy and Governor-General of British India for three years through February , had worked with Gandhi and Jinnah to find a common ground, before and after accepting Indian independence in principle.
Wavell condemned Gandhi's character and motives as well as his ideas. Wavell accused Gandhi of harbouring the single minded idea to "overthrow British rule and influence and to establish a Hindu raj", and called Gandhi a "malignant, malevolent, exceedingly shrewd" politician. The British reluctantly agreed to grant independence to the people of the Indian subcontinent, but accepted Jinnah's proposal of partitioning the land into Pakistan and India.
Gandhi was involved in the final negotiations, but Stanley Wolpert states the "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi". The partition was controversial and violently disputed. Gandhi spent the day of independence not celebrating the end of the British rule but appealing for peace among his countrymen by fasting and spinning in Calcutta on 15 August The partition had gripped the Indian subcontinent with religious violence and the streets were filled with corpses.
Archibald Wavell, for example, upon learning of Gandhi's assassination, commented, "I always thought he [Gandhi] had more of malevolence than benevolence in him, but who am I to judge, and how can an Englishman estimate a Hindu? According to some accounts, Gandhi died instantly. There he died about 30 minutes later as one of Gandhi's family members read verses from Hindu scriptures. Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it.
Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country. Gandhi's assassin Godse made no attempt to escape and was seized by the witnesses. In the weeks that followed, his collaborators were arrested as well.
At his trial, Godse did not deny the charges nor express any remorse. According to Claude Markovits, a French historian noted for his studies of colonial India, Godse stated that he killed Gandhi because of his complacence towards Muslims, holding Gandhi responsible for the frenzy of violence and sufferings during the subcontinent's partition into Pakistan and India.
Godse accused Gandhi of subjectivism and of acting as if only he had a monopoly of the truth. Godse was found guilty and executed in Gandhi's death was mourned nationwide. Over two million people joined the five-mile long funeral procession that took over five hours to reach Raj Ghat from Birla house, where he was assassinated. Gandhi's body was transported on a weapons carrier, whose chassis was dismantled overnight to allow a high-floor to be installed so that people could catch a glimpse of his body.
The engine of the vehicle was not used; instead four drag-ropes manned by 50 people each pulled the vehicle. Gandhi's assassination dramatically changed the political landscape. Nehru became his political heir. According to Markovits, while Gandhi was alive, Pakistan's declaration that it was a "Muslim state" had led Indian groups to demand that it be declared a "Hindu state". He linked Gandhi's assassination to politics of hatred and ill-will. According to Guha, Nehru and his Congress colleagues called on Indians to honour Gandhi's memory and even more his ideals.
Gandhi's death helped marshal support for the new government and legitimise the Congress Party's control, leveraged by the massive outpouring of Hindu expressions of grief for a man who had inspired them for decades. For years after the assassination, states Markovits, "Gandhi's shadow loomed large over the political life of the new Indian Republic". The government quelled any opposition to its economic and social policies, despite they being contrary to Gandhi's ideas, by reconstructing Gandhi's image and ideals.
Gandhi was cremated in accordance with Hindu tradition. Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services. In , Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad. On 30 January , the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty. These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been disputed.
Gandhi's statements, letters and life have attracted much political and scholarly analysis of his principles, practices and beliefs, including what influenced him. Some writers present him as a paragon of ethical living and pacifism, while others present him as a more complex, contradictory and evolving character influenced by his culture and circumstances. Gandhi grew up in a Hindu and Jain religious atmosphere in his native Gujarat, which were his primary influences, but he was also influenced by his personal reflections and literature of Hindu Bhakti saints, Advaita Vedanta , Islam , Buddhism , Christianity , and thinkers such as Tolstoy , Ruskin and Thoreau.
Gandhi was influenced by his devout Vaishnava Hindu mother, the regional Hindu temples and saint tradition which co-existed with Jain tradition in Gujarat. Cribb states that Gandhi's thought evolved over time, with his early ideas becoming the core or scaffolding for his mature philosophy. He committed himself early to truthfulness, temperance , chastity , and vegetarianism. Gandhi's London lifestyle incorporated the values he had grown up with. When he returned to India in , his outlook was parochial and he could not make a living as a lawyer.
This challenged his belief that practicality and morality necessarily coincided. By moving in to South Africa he found a solution to this problem and developed the central concepts of his mature philosophy. Ruskin inspired his decision to live an austere life on a commune, at first on the Phoenix Farm in Natal and then on the Tolstoy Farm just outside Johannesburg, South Africa. Additional theories of possible influences on Gandhi have been proposed. For example, in , N. Toothi stated that Gandhi was influenced by the reforms and teachings of the Swaminarayan tradition of Hinduism.
According to Raymond Williams, Toothi may have overlooked the influence of the Jain community, and adds close parallels do exist in programs of social reform in the Swaminarayan tradition and those of Gandhi, based on "nonviolence, truth-telling, cleanliness, temperance and upliftment of the masses. Along with the book mentioned above, in Leo Tolstoy wrote A Letter to a Hindu , which said that only by using love as a weapon through passive resistance could the Indian people overthrow colonial rule.
Tolstoy responded and the two continued a correspondence until Tolstoy's death in Tolstoy's last letter was to Gandhi. However, they differed sharply on political strategy. Gandhi called for political involvement; he was a nationalist and was prepared to use nonviolent force. He was also willing to compromise. Gandhi credited Shrimad Rajchandra , a poet and Jain philosopher, as his influential counsellor. Mehta's residence in Bombay. Gandhi exchanged letters with Rajchandra when he was in South Africa, referring to him as Kavi literally, "poet".
In , Gandhi wrote, "Such was the man who captivated my heart in religious matters as no other man ever has till now. But Kavi's influence was undoubtedly deeper if only because I had come in closest personal touch with him. Gandhi, in his autobiography, called Rajchandra his "guide and helper" and his "refuge [ He had advised Gandhi to be patient and to study Hinduism deeply. During his stay in South Africa , along with scriptures and philosophical texts of Hinduism and other Indian religions, Gandhi read translated texts of Christianity such as the Bible , and Islam such as the Quran.
Gandhi joined them in their prayers and debated Christian theology with them, but refused conversion stating he did not accept the theology therein or that Christ was the only son of God. His comparative studies of religions and interaction with scholars, led him to respect all religions as well as become concerned about imperfections in all of them and frequent misinterpretations. Gandhi participated in South African war against the Boers, on the British side in He stated that "when the war was declared, my personal sympathies were all with the Boers, but my loyalty to the British rule drove me to participation with the British in that war".
According to Gandhi, he felt that since he was demanding his rights as a British citizen, it was also his duty to serve the British forces in the defence of the British Empire. During World War I — , nearing the age of 50, Gandhi supported the British and its allied forces by recruiting Indians to join the British army, expanding the Indian contingent from about , to over 1.
In parallel, Gandhi's fellowmen became sceptical of his pacifist ideas and were inspired by the ideas of nationalism and anti-imperialism. In a essay, after the World War I, Gandhi wrote, "where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence. Further, it would also show the British that his fellow Indians were "their subjects by choice rather than out of cowardice.
According to Arthur Herman, Gandhi believed that his campaign would strike a blow to imperialism. Gandhi dedicated his life to discovering and pursuing truth, or Satya , and called his movement as satyagraha , which means "appeal to, insistence on, or reliance on the Truth". It was the satyagraha formulation and step, states Dennis Dalton, that deeply resonated with beliefs and culture of his people, embedded him into the popular consciousness, transforming him quickly into Mahatma. Gandhi based Satyagraha on the Vedantic ideal of self-realization, ahimsa nonviolence , vegetarianism, and universal love.
William Borman states that the key to his satyagraha is rooted in the Hindu Upanishadic texts. Bruce Watson states that some of these ideas are found not only in traditions within Hinduism, but also in Jainism or Buddhism, particularly those about non-violence, vegetarianism and universal love, but Gandhi's synthesis was to politicise these ideas.
Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons, fears, and insecurities. Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". Thus, satya truth in Gandhi's philosophy is "God". The essence of Satyagraha is "soul force" as a political means, refusing to use brute force against the oppressor, seeking to eliminate antagonisms between the oppressor and the oppressed, aiming to transform or "purify" the oppressor.
It is not inaction but determined passive resistance and non-co-operation where, states Arthur Herman, "love conquers hate". It arms the individual with moral power rather than physical power. Satyagraha is also termed a "universal force", as it essentially "makes no distinction between kinsmen and strangers, young and old, man and woman, friend and foe. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of democracy, we cannot afford to be intolerant.
Intolerance betrays want of faith in one's cause. This end usually implies a moral upliftment or progress of an individual or society. Therefore, non-co-operation in Satyagraha is in fact a means to secure the co-operation of the opponent consistently with truth and justice. While Gandhi's idea of satyagraha as a political means attracted a widespread following among Indians, the support was not universal. For example, Muslim leaders such as Jinnah opposed the satyagraha idea, accused Gandhi to be reviving Hinduism through political activism, and began effort to counter Gandhi with Muslim nationalism and a demand for Muslim homeland.
Churchill stated that the civil disobedience movement spectacle of Gandhi only increased "the danger to which white people there [British India] are exposed". Although Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of nonviolence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a large scale.
Gandhi's views came under heavy criticism in Britain when it was under attack from Nazi Germany , and later when the Holocaust was revealed. He told the British people in , "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them.
If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them. In a post-war interview in , he said, "Hitler killed five million Jews. It is the greatest crime of our time. But the Jews should have offered themselves to the butcher's knife. They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs It would have aroused the world and the people of Germany As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions. Gandhi believed that Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were traditions of Hinduism, with shared history, rites and ideas.
At other times, he acknowledged that he knew little about Buddhism other than his reading of Edwin Arnold 's book on it. Based on that book, he considered Buddhism to be a reform movement and the Buddha to be a Hindu. Sikhism, to Gandhi, was an integral part of Hinduism, in the form of another reform movement. Sikh and Buddhist leaders disagreed with Gandhi, a disagreement Gandhi respected as a difference of opinion.
According to Kumaraswamy, Gandhi initially supported Arab demands with respect to Palestine. He justified this support by invoking Islam, stating that "non-Muslims cannot acquire sovereign jurisdiction" in Jazirat al-Arab Arabian Peninsula. In post-Khilafat period, Gandhi neither negated Jewish demands nor did he use Islamic texts or history to support Muslim claims against Israel. Gandhi's silence after the Khilafat period may represent an evolution in his understanding of the conflicting religious claims over Palestine, according to Kumaraswamy. In March , he said to the Member of British Parliament Sidney Silverman , "if the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews have a prior claim", a position very different from his earlier stance.
Gandhi discussed the persecution of the Jews in Germany and the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine through his lens of Satyagraha. Gandhi thought the Zionists in Palestine represented European imperialism and used violence to achieve their goals; he argued that "the Jews should disclaim any intention of realizing their aspiration under the protection of arms and should rely wholly on the goodwill of Arabs. No exception can possibly be taken to the natural desire of the Jews to find a home in Palestine.
But they must wait for its fulfillment till Arab opinion is ripe for it. In , Gandhi stated that his "sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions.
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Gandhi reiterated his stance that "the Jews seek to convert the Arab heart", and use " satyagraha in confronting the Arabs" in Gandhi criticised as well as praised Christianity. He was critical of Christian missionary efforts in British India, because they mixed medical or education assistance with demands that the beneficiary convert to Christianity.
It did not lead to inner transformation or moral advance or to the Christian teaching of "love", but was based on false one-sided criticisms of other religions, when Christian societies faced similar problems in South Africa and Europe. It led to the converted person hating his neighbours and others religions, it divided people rather than bringing them closer in compassion. According to Gandhi, "no religious tradition could claim a monopoly over truth or salvation". According to Gandhi, the message of Jesus wasn't to humiliate and imperialistically rule over other people considering them inferior or second class or slaves, but that "when the hungry are fed and peace comes to our individual and collective life, then Christ is born".
Gandhi believed that his long acquaintance with Christianity had made him like it as well as find it imperfect. He asked Christians to stop humiliating his country and his people as heathens, idolators and other abusive language, and to change their negative views of India. He believed that Christians should introspect on the "true meaning of religion" and get a desire to study and learn from Indian religions in the spirit of universal brotherhood.
Some colonial era Christian preachers and faithfuls considered Gandhi as a saint. Recent scholars question these romantic biographies and state that Gandhi was neither a Christian figure nor mirrored a Christian saint. Gandhi believed there were material contradictions between Hinduism and Islam, and he shared his thoughts on the Quran and Muslims many times. Gandhi believed that numerous interpreters have interpreted it to fit their preconceived notions.
Gandhi criticised Muslims who "betray intolerance of criticism by a non-Muslim of anything related to Islam", such as the penalty of stoning to death under Islamic law. To Gandhi, Islam has "nothing to fear from criticism even if it be unreasonable". One of the strategies Gandhi adopted was to work with Muslim leaders of pre-partition India, to oppose the British imperialism in and outside the Indian subcontinent. By , Ataturk had ended the Caliphate, the Khilafat Movement was over, and Muslim support for Gandhi had largely evaporated.
In , Gandhi gave another reason to why he got involved in the Khilafat movement and the Middle East affairs between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Gandhi explained to his co-religionists Hindu that he sympathised and campaigned for the Islamic cause, not because he cared for the Sultan, but because "I wanted to enlist the Mussalman's sympathy in the matter of cow protection".
Naeem Qureshi, like the then Indian Muslim leaders who had combined religion and politics, Gandhi too imported his religion into his political strategy during the Khilafat movement. In the s, Gandhi pooled ideas with some Muslim leaders who sought religious harmony like him, and opposed the proposed partition of British India into India and Pakistan. For example, his close friend Badshah Khan suggested that they should work towards opening Hindu temples for Muslim prayers, and Islamic mosques for Hindu prayers, to bring the two religious groups closer.
The Hindu nationalist groups objected and began confronting Gandhi for this one-sided practice, by shouting and demonstrating inside the Hindu temples, in the last years of his life. He attended Khanqah gatherings there at Riverside. According to Margaret Chatterjee, Gandhi as a Vaishnava Hindu shared values such as humility, devotion and brotherhood for the poor that is also found in Sufism.
Gandhi was brought up as a vegetarian by his devout Hindu mother. Gandhi believed that any form of food inescapably harms some form of living organism, but one should seek to understand and reduce the violence in what one consumes because "there is essential unity of all life". Gandhi believed that some life forms are more capable of suffering, and non-violence to him meant not having the intent as well as active efforts to minimise hurt, injury or suffering to all life forms.
He believed that slaughtering animals is unnecessary, as other sources of foods are available. Food to Gandhi was not only a source of sustaining one's body, but a source of his impact on other living beings, and one that affected his mind, character and spiritual well being. Beyond his religious beliefs, Gandhi stated another motivation for his experiments with diet. He attempted to find the most non-violent vegetarian meal that the poorest human could afford, taking meticulous notes on vegetables and fruits, and his observations with his own body and his ashram in Gujarat.
His experiments with food began in the s and continued for several decades. He believed that each vegetarian should experiment with his or her diet because, in his studies at his ashram he saw "one man's food may be poison for another". Gandhi championed animal rights in general. Other than making vegetarian choices, he actively campaigned against dissection studies and experimentation on live animals vivisection in the name of science and medical studies. He wrote, "Vivisection in my opinion is the blackest of all the blackest crimes that man is at present committing against god and his fair creation.
Gandhi used fasting as a political device, often threatening suicide unless demands were met. Congress publicised the fasts as a political action that generated widespread sympathy. In response the government tried to manipulate news coverage to minimise his challenge to the Raj. He fasted in to protest the voting scheme for separate political representation for Dalits; Gandhi did not want them segregated.
The British government stopped the London press from showing photographs of his emaciated body, because it would elicit sympathy. Gandhi's hunger strike took place during a two-year prison term for the anticolonial Quit India movement. The government called on nutritional experts to demystify his action, and again no photos were allowed. However, his final fast in , after the end of British rule in India, his hunger strike was lauded by the British press and this time did include full-length photos.
Alter states that Gandhi's fasting, vegetarianism and diet was more than a political leverage, it was a part of his experiments with self restraint and healthy living. He was "profoundly skeptical of traditional Ayurveda", encouraging it to study the scientific method and adopt its progressive learning approach. Gandhi believed yoga offered health benefits. He believed that a healthy nutritional diet based on regional foods and hygiene were essential to good health.
Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women, and urged "the women to fight for their own self-development. At various occasions, Gandhi credited his orthodox Hindu mother, and his wife, for first lessons in satyagraha. Some historians such as Angela Woollacott and Kumari Jayawardena state that even though Gandhi often and publicly expressed his belief in the equality of sexes, yet his vision was one of gender difference and complementarity between them. Women, to Gandhi, should be educated to be better in the domestic realm and educate the next generation.
His views on women's right were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects. Gandhi's experiment with abstinence went beyond sex, and extended to food. He consulted the Jain scholar Rajchandra, whom he fondly called Raychandbhai. Gandhi began abstaining from cow's milk in , and did so even when doctors advised him to consume milk.
Gandhi tried to test and prove to himself his brahmacharya. The experiments began some time after the death of his wife in February At the start of his experiment he had women sleep in the same room but in different beds. He later slept with women in the same bed but clothed, and finally he slept naked with women. In April , Gandhi referenced being naked with several "women or girls" in a letter to Birla as part of the experiments. Manu stated that the experiment had no "ill effect" on her. Gandhi also shared his bed with year-old Abha, wife of his grandnephew Kanu. Gandhi would sleep with both Manu and Abha at the same time.
Those who went public said they felt as though they were sleeping with their ageing mother. According to Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in his final year of life was an ascetic, looked ugly and a sickly skeletal figure, already caricatured in the Western media. However, Gandhi said that if he would not let Manu sleep with him, it would be a sign of weakness. Some of his staff resigned, including two of his newspaper's editors who had refused to print some of Gandhi's sermons dealing with his experiments. Gandhi spoke out against untouchability early in his life.
One of the major speeches he made on untouchability was at Nagpur in , where he called untouchability as a great evil in Hindu society. In his remarks, he stated that the phenomena of untouchability is not unique to the Hindu society, but has deeper roots because Europeans in South Africa treat "all of us, Hindus and Muslims, as untouchables; we may not reside in their midst, nor enjoy the rights which they do".
He stated this practice can be eradicated, Hinduism is flexible to allow this, and a concerted effort is needed to persuade it is wrong and by all to eradicate it. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, while Gandhi considered untouchability to be wrong and evil, he believed that caste or class are based neither on inequality nor on inferiority.
Every individual regardless of his or her background, stated Gandhi, has a right to choose who they welcome into their home, who they befriend and who they spend time with. In , Gandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he started referring to as Harijans or "the children of god".
Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights. Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy". In , Ambedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar. Gandhi and his colleagues continued to consult Ambedkar, keeping him influential. Ambedkar worked with other Congress leaders through the s, wrote large parts of India's constitution in the late s, and converted to Buddhism in However, Gandhi's approach to untouchability was different than Ambedkar because Gandhi championed fusion, choice and free intermixing.
Ambedkar, in contrast states Jeffrelot, envisioned each segment of society to maintain their identity group, and each group then separately advanced the "politics of equality". The criticism of Gandhi by Ambedkar continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death. According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hate for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that after he heard the news of Gandhi's assassination, remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then "my real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now".
Gandhi rejected the colonial Western format of education system. He stated that it led to disdain for manual work, generally created an elite administrative bureaucracy. Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies.
His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same. Gandhi called his ideas Nai Talim literally, 'new education'. He believed that the Western style education violated and destroyed the indigenous cultures. A different basic education model, he believed, would lead to better self awareness, prepare people to treat all work equally respectable and valued, and lead to a society with less social diseases. Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu boy and girl must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language.
Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. A military is unnecessary, because any aggressor can be thrown out using the method of non-violent non-co-operation. While military is unnecessary in a nation organised under swaraj principle, Gandhi added that a police force is necessary given human nature. However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force. According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy". On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties.
Swaraj to Gandhi did not mean transferring colonial era British power brokering system, favours-driven, bureaucratic, class exploitative structure and mindset into Indian hands. He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression. For Gandhi, democracy was a way of life. Some scholars state Gandhi supported a religiously diverse India,  while others state that the Muslim leaders who championed the partition and creation of a separate Muslim Pakistan considered Gandhi to be Hindu nationalist or revivalist.
In an interview with C. Andrews, Gandhi stated that if we believe all religions teach the same message of love and peace between all human beings, then there is neither any rationale nor need for proselytisation or attempts to convert people from one religion to another. In Gandhi's view, those who attempt to convert a Hindu, "they must harbour in their breasts the belief that Hinduism is an error" and that their own religion is "the only true religion".
He stated that spiritual studies must encourage "a Hindu to become a better Hindu, a Mussalman to become a better Mussalman, and a Christian a better Christian. According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards others, and one's relationship to one's conception of god. Gandhi believed in sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the objective, but Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises.
To Gandhi, the economic philosophy that aims at "greatest good for the greatest number" was fundamentally flawed, and his alternative proposal sarvodaya set its aim at "greatest good for all". He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to lift the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords".
Violence against any human being, born poor or rich, is wrong believed Gandhi. Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived. Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries.
Gandhi refused to endorse the view that economic forces are best understood as "antagonistic class interests". Further, believed Gandhi, that in a free nation, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man. While disagreeing with Nehru about socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man.
This, he believed, created a vicious vested system of materialism at the cost of other human needs such as spirituality and social relationships. A better economic system is one which does not impoverish one's culture and spiritual pursuits. Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted. Of central importance is nonviolent resistance.
A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy.
Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view. It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature. There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine.
I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final. I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills.
Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swaraj , published in Gujarati in , became "the intellectual blueprint" for India's independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved". Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers.
He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s. The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes.
In , a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi.
This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. In , notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him. Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in political history.
He has invented a completely new and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed country, and practised it with greatest energy and devotion. The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces.
Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works. We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role model for the generations to come.
Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modelled after Gandhi's ashrams. Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on nonviolence. I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi and the message he shared with America and the world.
Obama in September said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi. His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with? He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics.
Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in The University of Nagpur awarded him an LL. The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela , the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient.
In , Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize , although he was nominated five times between and , including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee ,  though he made the short list only twice, in and That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.
Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation. A 5 hours, 9 minutes long biographical documentary film,  Mahatma: The film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader.
Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara I did not kill Gandhi , places contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his film,  writes Vinay Lal. Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme.
Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are D. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. The biography, Great Soul: India, with its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics  but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory. Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one.
His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India , Gandhi Jayanti. Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India , except for the one rupee note. There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi.
Gandhi's children and grandchildren live in both India and other countries. His descendants of had mixed fates and lives, much like the descendants of many other freedom fighters of India. While his grandson Rajmohan Gandhi is a professor in Illinois and an author of Gandhi's biography, and his grandson Tarun Gandhi has authored several authoritative books on Gandhi, his grandson Kanu Ramdas Gandhi the son of Gandhi's 3rd son Ramdas was found living in an old age home in Delhi despite having taught earlier in the United States. A statue of Gandhi at the University of Ghana was removed in December, , because it was "an homage to a racist".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gandhi disambiguation. Pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India. Lawyer Politician Activist Writer. Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas. Karamchand Gandhi father Putlibai Gandhi mother. The role of India in World War I. Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. An Encyclopedia of Faith and Conflict.
Archived 14 January at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 August Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'. He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice. Reweaving the Web of Life: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras.
Govt" Archived 6 September at the Wayback Machine. Government" Archived 7 January at the Wayback Machine. The Making of India and Pakistan. Retrieved 1 September By the late s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people. They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets.
Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India. His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought — he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops.
Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: The name Gandhi means "grocer", although Mohandas's father and grandfather were politicians not grocers.
Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 Dover edition, p. Foundations of anti-Islamism in India. Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Life, Work and Transformation of M. The Ways and Power of Love: The Traditional Roots of Charisma. University of Chicago Press. John Zavos; et al. Explicit use of et al. Gandhi, his life and message for the world.
Orissa Review January Archived PDF from the original on 1 January Retrieved 23 February Chapter "Preparation for England". Archived 2 July at the Wayback Machine. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor. New History of South Africa 1st ed. The Journal of Modern African Studies. New Horizons in Exemplary Leadership. Chapter "What it is to be a coolie". Archived 11 April at the Wayback Machine. A Vagabond's Journey Tramping the Globe.
The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. An Analytical And Critical Approach. Retrieved 12 February Joseph, Meditations on Gandhi: Gandhi, Attorney at Law: The Man before the Mahatma. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 5 October The South African Gandhi: Minorities and the State in Africa. South African Historical Journal. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 20 January A History of Modern India, — Based on public domain volumes. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan.
Archived from the original on 3 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine. Appeal for enlistment", Nadiad, 22 June Maffey", Nadiad, 30 April Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Indian National Congress website. All India Congress Committee. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 February Gandhi's Rise to Power: The First World War. Green; Nicholas Szechenyi A Global History of the Twentieth Century: Legacies and Lessons from Six National Perspectives. Case Studies and Comparisons. They reveal Tagore's belief that Gandhi had committed the Indian political nation to a cause that was mistakenly anti-Western and fundamentally negative"; Kham, Aqeeluzzafar Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society.
Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. Archived from the original on 30 May India's Road to Nationhood: A Political History of the Subcontinent. Martin Luther King, Jr. Archived from the original on 1 January The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi.