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Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles. Old-growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened spotted owl and the California-endangered marbled murrelet. Coast redwoods are resistant to insect attack, fungal infection, and rot.

These properties are conferred by concentrations of terpenoids and tannic acid in redwood leaves, roots, bark, and wood. The oldest known coast redwood is about 2, years old; [17] many others in the wild exceed years. The numerous claims of older redwoods are incorrect.

"giant sequoia" translation into German

Redwoods must endure various environmental disturbances to attain such great ages. In response to forest fires, the trees have developed various adaptations. The thick, fibrous bark of coast redwoods is extremely fire-resistant; it grows to at least a foot thick and protects mature trees from fire damage. Burned areas are favorable to the successful germination of redwood seeds.

Redwoods often grow in flood-prone areas. Sediment deposits can form impermeable barriers that suffocate tree roots, and unstable soil in flooded areas often causes trees to lean to one side, increasing the risk of the wind toppling them. Immediately after a flood, redwoods grow their existing roots upwards into recently deposited sediment layers. The height of S. Fog water is absorbed through multiple pathways. Leaves directly take in fog from the surrounding air through the epidermal tissue , bypassing the xylem.

Coast redwood reproduces both sexually by seed and asexually by sprouting of buds, layering, or lignotubers. Seed production begins at 10—15 years of age. Cones develop in the winter and mature by fall. In the early stages, the cones look like flowers , and are commonly called "flowers" by professional foresters, although this is not strictly correct.

Coast redwoods produce many cones, with redwoods in new forests producing thousands per year. Successful germination often requires a fire or flood, reducing competition for seedlings. The winged seeds are small and light, weighing 3. Seedlings are susceptible to fungal infection and predation by banana slugs , bush rabbits , and nematodes. Coast redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it generates a row of new trees along the trunk, so many trees naturally grow in a straight line.

Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout develops its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of 2. Redwoods may also reproduce using burls.

"giant sequoia" in German

Coast redwoods develop burls as seedlings from the axils of their cotyledon , a trait that is extremely rare in conifers. Burls are also capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.


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Coast redwood is one of the most valuable timber species in the lumbering industry. Coast redwood lumber is highly valued for its beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. Its lack of resin makes it resistant to fire. In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th, , we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction, and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended.

Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively used for railroad ties and trestles throughout California. Many of the old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps, house beams, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods. The Yurok people, who occupied the region before European settlement, regularly burned off ground cover in redwood forests to bolster tanoak populations from which they harvested acorns, to maintain forest openings, and to boost populations of useful plant species such as those for medicine or basketmaking.

Extensive logging of redwoods began in the early nineteenth century. The trees were felled by ax and saw onto beds of tree limbs and shrubs to cushion their fall. The repeated fires favored secondary forests of primarily redwoods as redwood seedlings sprout readily in burned areas.


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Clearcutting involved felling all the trees in a particular area. It also does well in the Pacific Northwest Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia , far north of its northernmost native range in southwestern Oregon.

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This fast-growing tree can be grown as an ornamental specimen in those large parks and gardens that can accommodate its massive size. The current tallest tree is the Hyperion tree , measuring Until it fell in March , the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. This fallen giant has been preserved in the park.

Numerous historic reports exist of Redwood trees to feet high, a tree reportedly feet The largest known living coast redwood is Grogan's Fault, discovered in by Chris Atkins and Mario Vaden in Redwood National Park , [17] with a main trunk volume of at least 38, cubic feet 1, While similar mutations occur sporadically in other conifers, no cases are known of such individuals surviving to maturity in any other conifer species. Heights of the tallest coast redwoods are measured yearly by experts.

Diameter stated is as measured at 1. Details of the precise locations for most tallest trees were not announced to the general public for fear of causing damage to the trees and the surrounding habitat. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 January Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original xls on Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, ed.

A description of the genus Pinus: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 1 February — via eFloras. Inaccurate Unclear Missing translations Missing conjugations Other.

Sequoia sempervirens - Wikipedia

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