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For example, the Red Cross doctrine of the s clearly states the security of the people, and those elements of the doctrine were institutionalised in the UN Charter of the s as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Conventions.

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In the declaration it was stated:. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time…We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. A definition for global health diplomacy has been much discussed and debated.

They argue that health problems that do not have the uncertainty of a potentially catastrophic event, such as non-communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, road traffic injuries, mental health, and maternal and child health do not pose any immediate danger to non-affected states and give no incentives for foreign policy action.

Foreign policy attention is thus largely given to issues that reflect interdependence since governments seek collective action for self-protection. He draws particular attention to the effects of infectious diseases on destabilization of states and the ensuing terrorism, criminal activity and illicit trade which have harmful effects on the global scale.

Health is on the radar of foreign policy because it has become integral to three global agendas:. Intellectual property is one of the vital facets that face health practitioners and one of the main issues where health and foreign policy intersect. It is also the area where health concerns have been most successfully integrated into economic policymaking. It may be defined as a political change agent that meets the dual goals of improving global health while helping repair failures in diplomacy, particularly in conflict areas and resource-poor countries.

Today it is no longer sufficient. There is an increasing range of health issues that transcend national boundaries and require action on the global forces that determine the health of people. The broad political, social and economic implications of health issues have brought more diplomats into the health arena and more public health experts into the world of diplomacy.

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Their common challenge is to navigate a complex system in which issues in domestic and foreign policy intertwine the lines of power and constantly influence change, and where increasingly rapid decisions and skillful negotiations are required in the face of outbreaks of disease, security threats or other issues. New global health problems include infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases NCDs , bioterrorism and dual-use research, health-system strengthening, and critical social determinants of health, such as food security.

These health threats have led to the emergence of new actors, processes, and institutions seeking to mitigate their effects. Financing is a particular worry during times of austerity. Health assistance can be traced through infrastructure, human resources, education and capacity building. Health assistance can typically be seen in the form of bilateral health assistance, Health IT and Pharma etc.

The foreign policy and policymakers in India are committed to strengthening cooperation and sharing of experiences in public health sector.

21st Century Global Health Diplomacy

India uses foreign assistance as diplomatic tool for foreign trade and investment; and sustained cooperation to many developing and under-developed nations including Africa. India strongly believes in the concept of south-south cooperation and critical about western donor-aid concept.

Indian foreign assistance typically includes technical cooperation, grants, and contributions to international organizations, soft loans, and Export-Import EXIM Bank lines of credit with subsidized interest rates. However, the role of India in healthcare should be explored for universal health coverage. There is a need to build capacity for global health diplomacy by training public health professionals and diplomats respectively. Two types of imbalance need to be addressed as a priority: The linking of health and foreign policy has revealed substantive tensions between the two fields.

The Graduate Institute, Geneva - Global Health Programme - Books

At their most fundamental level, public health and foreign policy communities differ in their ideologies, functions, audiences and obligations, as well as approaches to solving problems. Helmut Brand, Christoph Aluttis in: Glob Health Action , 7: Public Health reviews Public Health Intervention ; Suppl. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition forthcoming Global health governance and the intersection of health and foreign policy with Wolfgang Hein , in: Health promotion in the 21st century: Health promotion in Canada 3rd ed.

Canadian Scholars' Press, Inc. Commentary in The Lancet Vol March 21, pg The political determinants of health - ten years on.

Global Health Diplomacy

June, Health in the post agenda: Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, Vol. Expert Commentary, Chatham House Blogs Addressing the interface of the political and commercial determinants of health; in Health Promotion International ; 27 4 ; pp. Global Health Promotion ; Gesundheit und Gesundheitswesen 3.