Manual 32 Variations on a Theme by Basil II, In the Key of Washington, DC

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This work presents diverse findings about change in the effects of ability on earnings and the importance of such change for inequality of earnings. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

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Abstract Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. They offer this caricature of the conventional wisdom: Ability and What Else? What Is Cognitive Ability? For example, in his magnum opus, a mammoth review and analytic synthesis of classic mental test data, Carroll writes, This book deals with a very wide variety of abilities—that is, all that can be demonstrated from empirical studies, regardless of whether their importance can be shown …. Occupational Differentials in Ability: A Psychometric View One standard validation of the psychometric argument is differential ability by occupation.

Finally, Jensen cites several sources of data, providing IQ distributions for detailed occupations in support of the argument that a certain threshold level of intelligence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for success in most occupations. According to Jensen , A representative sample of 39, of the employed U.

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Open in a separate window. Cognitive Ability in Models of Status Attainment Blau and Duncan opened the modern era of research on social stratification and mobility with their classic monograph, The American Occupational Structure. Revisiting Occupational Differentials in Ability I first examined the data of Harrell and Harrell and of Stewart long before the specter of IQ dominance was raised by Herrnstein and Murray, and I wondered whether other data, not subject to the selection and truncation of the scores for enlisted men in the Armed Forces, would show the same pattern of variability of test scores across occupations.

Ability, Occupation, and Education In the IQ literature, there is a schizophrenic view of the relationships among ability, schooling, and occupations. Herrnstein and Murray argue more broadly that, in the course of this century, cognitive ability has become the key factor in socioeconomic success: Cognitive Ability and Occupational Status In the Wisconsin cohort, cognitive ability affects the occupational attainments of women and men across the life course primarily by way of its effect on educational attainment, especially in the early career.

Cognitive Ability and Economic Success Self-employment would appear to present an opportunity for cognitive ability to affect economic success without the usual organizational constraints. Cognition and Drinking Behavior Although the direct effects of cognitive ability on socioeconomic achievements are far smaller than some have claimed, in other instances there are substantial and persistent effects of adolescent cognition. Cognition and Survey Participation Social and economic differentials in social survey participation are strong and well documented.

Cognition and Internet Access The so-called digital divide separates a large fraction of the population from the advantages and disadvantages of access to the Internet, but the literature on Internet access has focused almost exclusively on education and income as barriers to Internet adoption. Cognition and the Timing of Menopause In the late s, a graduate student at Madison carried out a competing risk analysis of time to menopause among women participants in the WLS. Conclusion and Epilogue On the basis of the evidence reviewed here, I think it is fair to conclude that the traditional psychometric literature on cognitive ability—popularly resurrected in The Bell Curve —vastly overstates the case for the role of IQ in the process of social stratification.

Supplementary Material SupData Click here to view. Footnotes 1 One account of the social psychology of stratification ignores cognitive ability and makes only passing reference to academic performance Mortimer, References American Educational Research Association. Position statement of the American Educational Research Association concerning high-stakes testing in preK—12 education. Standards for educational and psychological testing.

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American Psychological Association; American Educational Research Association; The predictability of occupational level from intelligence. Journal of Consulting Psychology. Blackburn ML, Neumark D. Omitted-ability bias and the increase in the return to schooling. Journal of Labor Economics. The American occupational structure. Crossing the finish line: Princeton University Press; Card D, Lemieux T. Wage dispersion, returns to skill, and black-white wage differentials. A survey of factor analytic studies. Cambridge University Press; Psychometrics, intelligence, and public perception.

Self-reported alcohol intake and cognition in aging twins. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Tracing members of a panel: Looking back at the children of the Great Depression. Journal of Human Resources. Intelligence, genes, and success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve.

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A socioeconomic index for all occupations. Reiss AJ Jr, editor. Occupations and social status. Socioeconomic background and achievement. The inner life of the middle class. Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in the Framingham Heart Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. Race, intelligence, and education. Cracking the bell curve myth. The bell curve wars: Race, intelligence, and the future of America. Freese J, Rivas S. CDE Working Paper — Cognition, personality, and individual response to technological change: The case of internet adoption.

Cognitive ability and Internet use among older adults: The digital divide in the twenty-first century. A longitudinal study of drinking and cognitive performance in elderly Japanese American men: The Honolulu—Asia Aging Study. American Journal of Public Health. Abilities, tests, and earnings. Erikson R, Jonsson JO, editors.

Can education be equalized? The Swedish case in comparative perspective. Alcohol intake in a healthy elderly population. Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories, history, and bibliography. The complexity of everyday life. The mismeasure of man.

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Nov 28, Curveball; pp. Grogger J, Eide E. Changes in college skills and the rise in the college wage premium. Army General Classification Test scores for civilian occupations. Educational and Psychological Measurement. Should we end social promotion? Orfield G, Kornhaber ML, editors. Raising standards or raising barriers? Inequality and high-stakes testing in public education. Century Foundation Press; Meritocracy, cognitive ability, and the sources of occupational success. Russell Sage Foundation; Survey response in the long run: The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study.

Will practitioners benefit from meta-analysis? Academy of Management Perspectives. Verbal ability and socioeconomic success: Race-ethnicity, social background, and grade retention. Can unlike students learn together? Grade retention, tracking, and grouping. Work complexity and cognitive functioning at midlife: Cross-validating the Kohn-Schooler hypothesis in an American cohort.

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High school dropout, race-ethnicity, and social background from the s to the s. Confronting the graduation rate crisis. Harvard Educational Publishing Group; A model of stratification with response error in social and psychological variables. Socioeconomic indexes for occupations: A review, update, and critique. Relation of smoking and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption to change in cognitive function: A longitudinal study in a defined community of older persons.

Lessons from the bell curve. Journal of Political Economy. The relationship between alcohol consumption, cognitive performance, and daily functioning in an urban sample of older Black Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. IQ in the meritocracy. Herrnstein RJ, Murray C. Intelligence and class structure in American life. The measurement of occupational status. Occupational prestige in the United States, — American Journal of Sociology. Race of the interviewer and the Black—White test score gap. Trends in Black—White test score differentials: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures.

Convergent trends in Black—White test-score differentials in the U. A correction of Richard Lynn. Will we be smart enough? A cognitive analysis of the coming workforce. Test validation for 12, jobs: An application of synthetic validity and validity generalization to the General Aptitude Battery. Government Printing Office; Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge, and job performance.

Journal of Vocational Behavior. Jacoby R, Glauberman N. The bell curve debate: The determinants of economic success in America. The Wisconsin model of status attainment: A national replication with improved measures of ability and aspiration. Jencks C, Phillips M. The Black—White test score gap. Brookings Institution Press; A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America.

Why Neglect Abilities?

How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Bias in mental testing.

The science of mental ability. The end of equality. The Bell Curve examined. Kohn ML, Schooler C. Occupational experience and psychological functioning: An assessment of reciprocal effects. The reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of work and intellectual flexibility: An inquiry into the impact of social stratification. Alcohol use and cognition at mid-life: The importance of adjusting for baseline cognitive ability and educational attainment. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research.

Occupational prestige in the collective conscience. Childhood cognitive ability and age at menopause: Evidence from two cohort studies. Smoking, drinking, and thinking: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Implications of methodological advances for the practice of personnel selection: How practitioners benefit from meta-analysis. The structure of success in America: The secret history of the American meritocracy. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Levy F, Murnane RJ. A review of recent trends and proposed explanations. Journal of Economic Literature. Christine and Allen Smith board a advertisement send to Venice to spend their honeymoon in spite figuring out that they're within the first section of the second one international battle.

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Bound By Love Christine and Allen Smith board a advertisement send to Venice to spend their honeymoon in spite understanding that they're within the first part of the second one international conflict.