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Alongside the formalisation of knowledge transfer e. Sharing knowledge through stories is emerging as a powerful way to exchange and consilidate knowledge. So it is not astonishing that stories and their possible impact in increasing the operating efficiency are worldwide observed among general practitioners as well [3]. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about the possibilities and restrictions of knowledge transfer through narrations. Starting with a review, some theoretical common definitions are presented by a following characterisation of organisational stories and naming their functions in organisational life.

In the principle part the paper tries to define the disposition of knowledge transferred through stories and to show exemplary the transfer of narrative knowledge among communities of practice and also the transfer of knowledge about the organisational culture. Afterwards some possible contributes of storytelling for organisational training effectivness are exemplified. The last part tries to identify possible boundaries and weak points of knowledge transfer through narrations and draws a short survey.

There is a wide spread of definitions and conceptions of the organisational story [4] in science. It includes primarily organisational participants e. In their conceptualisation a story requires a full chronology or script to be a story [6]. Czarniaskawa sees a story basically constituted by three criterias: Similar argues Mitroff, who speaks of an organisational story, when it includes characters, a portrayal of the issue and the action.

A different position is hold by Boje who negates the existence of action, chronology and characters as the premises for the existence of an organisational story and speaks already of an story if merely short sequenzes or a section of an anecdote or experience is told [9]. According to Boje in organisational everyday life only small pieces of experience are shared, but although these chunks of a story suffice to activate the whole one.

Thier tries to combine the divergent views about the conceptualisation. For her an organisational story includes provable or fictive field reports, fairy tales, myths and legends, which circulate among members and teams of an organisation and may comprise although complete stories with starting position, incidence and consequence as well as fragments [12]. Swap enlarges the view and accepts beside narrations about intra- also such about extraorganisational events as a organisational story. Furthermore he points out that a moral of a story is implied if not explicitly stated [13].

Anlogical to the widely spreaded range of definitions literature offers a complex classification of narratives. Nymark splits organisational stories into formal and informal ones.

  • The speech act of apology in an American soap opera and the German equivalent.
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His differentiation is based on the intended purpose a narration has to accomplish. Informal stories have the aim to make sense among organisational members for a certain event while formal stories are used systematically by management to communicate values and visions [14]. Martin et al clasifiy stories by their content.

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  6. They furthermore point out that for every identified story type it is possible to find negative as well as positive examples. It belongs to the genre of soaps and the main character is Clark Kent, the young Superman. The series deals with his adventures during his adolescence and the difficulties in hiding his origin, namely deriving from another planet. All characters in the series have a very close relationship and are always keen on maintaining harmony. I chose this data because of these close relations between the characters and I hope to find mainly sincere apologies that are uttered to maintain or restore harmony.

    Furthermore, I want to compare it with the German translation in order to observe how the apologies are realized and whether there is a shift of any kind. My point of examination is to find similarities and differences in the American genuine and the German equivalent concerning the speech act of apology.

    In the main part of the paper I want to analyse the structure of the 18 apologies, which were found in the data with the main focus on the different strategies, including intensification and vocatives, and social factors that influence the usage of an apology. I transcribed my data with the help of the GAT transcription system because it shows the content of the conversation as well as non-verbal gestures or pitch. For the analysis of the structure I rely on the study of talk in interaction, the conversation analysis CA because it describes best the orderliness, structure and sequential patterns of a conversation, whether formal or informal ones and has to be able to address the question of the form the utterance has to have and also why this is the case Lakoff, Sociology - Gender Studies.

    English - Literature, Works. Politik - Politische Theorie und Ideengeschichte. American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography. Communications - Movies and Television. American Studies - Linguistics. Cultural Studies - Basics and Definitions. Economics - Industrial Economics. GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in in the publication of academic ebooks and books. The publishing website GRIN. Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor's thesis, master's thesis, dissertation or textbook - upload now!

    Register or log in. Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects. Request a new password via email. Realism, Spectatorship and the Female Audience. The Americanization of the German youth culture from to Ebenen der Narration in der Soap Opera. What is a soap? How American is German Politics?

    Knowledge transfer through narrations - Wissenstransfer mit Hilfe von Narrationen

    Informatives und ihre Rolle bei der Etablierung von mutual knowledg Significant differences in Lifestyle between American and German St Identification with the place-world of the movie is thus not possible. And this problem becomes more and more relevant as the second half of the movie does not take place anywhere. A classical Hollywood movie depends on a distinction between diegetic and non-diegetic world. This means a viewer is to believe in a borderline between the world on the screen and the world he himself lives in.

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    Additionally, the screen world has to make sense, it has to be logical in itself and characters on the screen should have no knowledge of spectators. An explicit violation of this rule, meaning a crossing of the borderline, would be if a diegetic character would look straight into the camera or address the viewer.

    The spectator would become aware of the camera and would therefore doubt the validation of the story world. However in Vanilla Sky we have no explicit crossing but rather something that I will call an implicit crossing of diegetic and non-diegetic form. This technique is used rather frequently. I will exemplify it by using a certain scene of the movie. The Psychology of Perception. Routledge and Paul, Narration and fiction Film.

    English Language and Literature Studies - Literature. Literature - Modern Literature. English - Literature, Works.

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    Sport - Sport Economics, Sport Management. GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in in the publication of academic ebooks and books. The publishing website GRIN. Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor's thesis, master's thesis, dissertation or textbook - upload now! Register or log in. Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects. Request a new password via email. Introduction and thoughts about the subject 2.

    The story of the film 3. The Misrepresentation of Characters 4. Overall anti-narrative effect on the viewer and examples from other modern movies 5. Introduction and thoughts about the subject For a long time, most Hollywood directors stuck to a certain kind of narrative strategies to convey their view of the world to the recipient. The story of the Film David Aames Tom Cruise is the boss of a very successful, globally acting company and he is very handsome.

    Top 10 Soap Opera Cliches

    Anti-Narrative strategies The problems we have in describing the story of the film also foreshadow the problems we will have in analysing the movie itself. Vanilla Sky DVD In addition, as we find out at the end of the film, the time that has passed throughout the second half of the movie was neither narrated time nor narration time. Tom Cruise on the lonely Time Square — a sublime sight.