Guide Political Waters

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Riparian water rights have become issues of international diplomacy, in addition to domestic and regional water rights and politics. Most importantly, fresh water is a fundamental requirement of all living organisms, crops , livestock and humanity included. The UNDP considers access to it a basic human right and a prerequisite for peace.

Contaminated water jeopardizes both the physical and social health of all people.

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It is an affront to human dignity. This, however, has led to increases in air and water pollution, which in turn have reduced the quality of water supply. More sustainable development practices are advantageous and necessary. According to the WHO , each human being requires a bare minimum of 20 litres of fresh water per day for basic hygiene; [13] this equals 7.

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Based on the availability, access and development of water supplies, the specific usage figures vary widely from country to country, with developed nations having existing systems to treat water for human consumption, and deliver it to every home. At the same time however, some nations across Latin America , parts of Asia , South East Asia , Africa and the Middle East either do not have sufficient water resources or have not developed these or the infrastructure to the levels required.

This occurs for many varied reasons. It has resulted in conflict and often results in a reduced level or quantity of fresh water per capita consumption; this situation leads toward disease , and at times, to starvation and death. The source of virtually all freshwater is precipitation from the atmosphere , in the form of mist , rain and snow , as part of the water cycle over eons , millennia and in the present day.

In places, surface water can be stored in a reservoir behind a dam , and then used for municipal and industrial water supply , for irrigation and to generate power in the form of hydroelectricity. Sub-surface groundwater, although stored in the pore space of soil and rock ; it is utilized most as water flowing within aquifers below the water table. Groundwater can exist both as a renewable water system closely associated with surface water and as a separate, deep sub-surface water system in an aquifer.

This latter case is sometimes called " fossil water ", and is realistically non-renewable. Normally, groundwater is utilized where surface sources are unavailable or when surface supply distribution is limited. Rivers sometimes flow through several countries and often serve as the boundary or demarcation between them. With these rivers , water supply, allocation, control, and use are of great consequence to survival, quality of life, and economic success. The control of a nation's water resources is considered vital to the survival of a state.

Competition for these resources, particularly where limited, have caused or been additive to conflicts in the past. A University of Victoria report says that since , overall water use in Canada has increased by This is five times faster than the overall OECD increase of 4. The Ganges is disputed between India and Bangladesh. The water reserves are being quickly depleted and polluted, while the Gangotri glacier that feeds the river is retreating hundreds of feet each year [19] experts blame climate change [20] and deforestation in the Himalayas is causing subsoil streams flowing into the Ganges river to dry up.

Until the late s, India used the barrage to divert the river to Calcutta , to keep the city's port from drying up during the dry season. This denied Bangladeshi farmers water and silt , and it left the Sundarban wetlands and mangrove forests at the river's delta seriously threatened. The two countries have now signed an agreement to share the water more equally. Water quality , however, remains a problem, with high levels of arsenic and untreated sewage in the river water.

Pakistan is building the same type of dam called Neelum Jehlum Dam. But still a growing dissatisfication exist on Pakistani side for sharing its water with India. In the Middle East, water is an important strategic resource and political issue. By , it is predicted that the countries of the Arabian peninsula will be using more than double the amount of water naturally available to them.

Water politics is not an emerging field within international relations discourse, nor is it a force insignificant in comparison to other political pressures, such as those of critical infrastructure for example, petroleum for the United States , or that of strategic geopolitical control for example, control of the Suez canal or the Persian Gulf. Finding themselves without control of their waterways, Syria and Iraq formed an alliance, ignoring the previous disputes which had divided them, to confront the issue of water control.

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  • Within the Middle East, all major rivers cross at least one international border, with the most important, the Tigris and Euphrates, crossing through three major Middle Eastern nations. This means that the nations, cities and towns downstream from the next are hugely effected by the actions and decisions of other groups they have little practical control over.

    In particular this is evident with the cutting of water supply from one nation to the next, just as issues of air pollution affect the states surrounding that which is producing the pollution initially.

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    According to the BBC, the list of 'water-scarce' countries in the region grew from three in to eight in with another seven expected to be added within 20 years, including three Nile nations the Nile is shared by nine countries. According to former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak , the only conceivable flashpoint Egypt may encounter in the 21st century is the control of fresh water resources. With substantial, but falling rates of fertility, the issue of water distribution in the Middle East will not be easily dismissed.

    A recent report " Water Cooperation for a Secure World " published by Strategic Foresight Group shows that active water cooperation between countries sharing trans-boundary water resources is directly correlated with security and peace of nations involved. Conversely, absence of active water cooperation is directly correlated with risk of war between countries sharing trans-boundary water resources. This conclusion is reached after examining trans-boundary water relations in over shared river basins in countries.

    Countries in the Middle East face the risk of war as they have avoided regional cooperation for too long. The report provides examples of successful cooperation, which can be used by countries in the Middle East. Jordan has little water, and dams in Syria have reduced its available water sources over the years. A desalinization project will soon be started in Hisban , south of Amman. The dam was first proposed in as part of the Johnston mission's Unified Plan ; however, political differences between Israel and Jordan prevented construction from beginning until The dam is currently listed as a "Work in Progress" on the website of the Turkish contractor Ozaltin.

    According to the treaty the two countries would cooperate in order to allow Jordan better access to water resources, notably through dams on the Yarmouk River. Water is an important issue in the Arab—Israeli conflict —indeed, according to former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon , it was one of the causes of the Six-Day War. Israel obtains water from four sources: Almost all the water used in the Palestinian areas other than rainwater is drawn from the underground aquifers mountain aquifer c. The Palestinian Authority has not developed any significant wastewater treatment facilities.

    The mountain aquifers lie mostly under the West Bank and the coastal aquifer mostly under the Israeli coastal plain. Israel took control of the West Bank in , including the recharge areas for aquifers that flow west and northwest into Israel and limits were placed on the amount withdrawn from each existing well. Currently, a total of million cubic meters per year is consumed by its residents— million cubic meters per year by Palestinians and 35 million cubic meters per year by Israelis.

    For these reasons, the question of water supply for both Israel and a potential future state of Palestine is a very serious issue in a comprehensive agreement. It is replenished by water from rains and small rivers and streams, mainly on its margins.

    Cong Jmm Together For Testing Political Waters

    Obuasi, Ghana is the home of one of the world's top gold mining sites. It was in when the first machinery was used to mine the gold from the region. The average amount of contamination in the water system of Obuasi was over 10—38 times the maximum amount that is allowable by law.

    During precipitation or rainfall, the dust "may be oxidized to the trioxide by the air and be converted to the sulphate in dew and rainwater". Residents have seen the environmental changes especially in the water. Sludge floats down on streams that were once main sources of drinking water according to local residents. Many local farmers suffered the hardest with the contamination of the water.

    Due to the irrigation systems using the contaminated water to irrigate all of the soil were then contaminated as well. According to Action Aid, many schools have been flooded with the over flow of the local streams, causing the children to leave school, sometimes permanently.

    AngloGold Ashanti AGA has put up standpipes to compensate for the contaminated water supplies, but these have also been useless to the locals. No compensation has been giving to the local residents for the damage they have done to their water and environment. Globalization has benefitted the economy greatly through increased trade and production of food, energy, and goods. Water is a finite resource that is shared between nations, within nations, multiple interest groups and private organizations. Poor water politics and practices can result in water conflict , which is more common surrounding freshwater due to its necessity for survival.

    Countries that have a greater supply of water have greater economic success due to an increase in agricultural business and the production of goods, whereas countries, which have limited access to water, have less economic success. The World Trade Organization has emerged as a key figure in the allocation of water in order to protect the agricultural trade. This water conflict begun in as a result of poor water politics and management between nation states and negotiations are ongoing.

    Currently, negotiations have attempted to establish a fair divide and share of the Jordan River, but have had little success. The water conflict in the Aral Sea is an ongoing transboundary conflict starting from between Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Turkmenistan , Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Water politics is present within nations, otherwise known as subnational. The shared jurisdiction of access to water between intergovernmental actors is crucial to efficient water politics.

    Inefficient water politics at the subnational level has a greater impact on the local economy through increased costs for businesses, increased costs for the agricultural sector, decreased local competitiveness, decrease in local jobs and infrastructure costs.

    Political Waters

    The Colorado River Basin demonstrates intergovernmental conflict over the autonomy of water politics. Cooperation in subnational water politics can result in economic benefits through shared costs and risk for infrastructure. In addition, efficient water politic management results in profitable allocations of water that can sustain irrigation and the agricultural sector. Drawing on detailed, actor-oriented, and ethnographic analyses based on political ecology and on organization sociology, the main findings develop important aspects of rule and emphasize the relevance of studying local micropolitical contexts in order to understand macropolitical dynamics.

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