The work is structured around the life of protagonist George Willard, from the time he was a child to his growing independence and ultimate abandonment of Winesburg as a young man. It is set in the fictional town of Winesburg, Ohio not to be confused with the actual Winesburg , which is based loosely on the author's childhood memories of Clyde, Ohio.
Mostly written from late to early , with a few stories completed closer to publication, they were " Each of the stories shares a specific character's past and present struggle to overcome the loneliness and isolation that seems to permeate the town. Stylistically, because of its emphasis on the psychological insights of characters over plot, and plain-spoken prose, Winesburg, Ohio is known as one of the earliest works of Modernist literature. Winesburg, Ohio was received well by critics despite some reservations about its moral tone and unconventional storytelling. Though its reputation waned in the s, it has since rebounded and is now considered one of the most influential portraits of pre-industrial small-town life in the United States.
In , the Modern Library ranked Winesburg, Ohio 24th on its list of the best English-language novels of the 20th century. Though there is practically no argument about the unity of structure within Winesburg, Ohio , few scholars have concluded that it fits the standards of a conventional novel. Promoted to younger writers by Anderson himself,  Winesburg, Ohio has served as a representative early example of the modern short story cycle in American letters. It is widely acknowledged that the fictional model of the book's town, Winesburg, is based on Sherwood Anderson's boyhood memories of Clyde, Ohio ,   where Anderson lived between the ages of eight and nineteen — ,  and not the actual town of Winesburg, Ohio.
This view is supported by the similarities between the names and qualities of several Winesburg characters and Clyde's townspeople,  in addition to mentions of specific geographic details of Clyde  and the surrounding area. It is not known why Anderson chose the name Winesburg for the town in the book.
What is known is that the name was not necessarily inspired by the stories themselves. In actuality, Anderson had been using Winesburg, Ohio as a base for Talbot Whittingham, the protagonist of an unfinished novel he had been writing on-and-off for several years prior to the composition of the Winesburg stories. A direct relationship between the real Clyde and the fictional Winesburg, however, remains the supposition of scholars. Anderson wrote in A Writer's Conception of Realism that he reacted with "shock" when he " Because Sherwood Anderson was so ambiguous about what directly influenced him, it is difficult to say that any specific writer or work inspired him to write Winesburg, Ohio as a whole.
Still, most scholars affirm the obvious connection between Anderson's cycle and the Spoon River Anthology of Edgar Lee Masters published in April , which Anderson reportedly stayed up all night to read. Huebsch , Anderson's publisher, sent out a statement, upon the release of Winesburg, Ohio , heading off comparisons between the two works by stating erroneously, as it turns out that the Winesburg stories were printed in magazines before the Spoon River Anthology was published, the similarities in small-town setting, structure, and mood of the works have been noted by several reviewers,    with one going so far as to call Winesburg, Ohio , the Spoon River Anthology " Gertrude Stein , whose work Anderson was introduced to by either his brother Karl   or photographer Alfred Stieglitz  between and , is also said to have played a key role in helping shape the unique style found in the stories.
Through his interaction at first satirizing it before ultimately accepting it as essential to his development with Stein's Three Lives and Tender Buttons , Anderson found the plain, unambiguous voice that became a staple of his prose. Numerous other writers and works have been mentioned as possible sources from which the elements of Winesburg, Ohio were drawn, most of them either denied or unacknowledged by Anderson himself.
The influence of Theodore Dreiser and the Russians Chekhov , Dostoevsky , and Tolstoy were discounted by the author, the former for stylistic reasons,   the latter because he had apparently not read them prior to writing his book. Finally, the regional focus on the Midwest has been linked to the writing of Mark Twain , particularly The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ,  and while Anderson read and revered Twain,  the connection between Twain and Winesburg, Ohio has largely been made by scholars seeking to place the book within the canon of American literature, not necessarily by the author.
According to Anderson's account, the first of the stories that became Winesburg, Ohio probably "The Book of the Grotesque" was composed, on the spur of the moment, in the middle of the night, probably while he was staying on the third floor of a rooming house at Cass Street in Chicago: I was there naked in the bed and I sprang up. I went to my typewriter and began to write. It was there, under those circumstances, myself sitting near an open window, the rain occasionally blowing in and wetting my bare back, that I did my first writing I wrote it, as I wrote them all, complete in the one sitting The rest of the stories in the book came out of me on succeeding evenings, and sometimes during the day while I worked in the advertising office Phillips wrote that the manuscript of "Hands" contained " Additionally, slightly different versions of ten stories that ended up in the book were published by three literary magazines between and as follows:.
Winesburg, Ohio - Wikipedia
Though the stories were published to some acclaim in literary circles,  John Lane , the publisher of Anderson's first two novels, referred to the Winesburg, Ohio stories as "too gloomy"  and refused to publish them. It was not until editor Francis Hackett , showed the manuscript to Ben Huebsch , owner and editor of a small publishing house in New York, that the stories Huebsch suggested calling them "Winesburg, Ohio" were brought together and published.
The cycle consists of twenty-two short stories, one of which consists of four parts: The book is written as a third-person omniscient narrative with the narrator occasionally breaking away from the story to directly address the reader or make self-conscious comments in "Hands", after describing the poignant nature of the story, he writes that "It is a job for a poet",  later in the same story adding, "It needs a poet there". Though each story's title notes one character, there are a total of over characters named in the book, some appearing only once and some recurring several times.
According to literary scholar Forrest L. Ingram, "George Willard [recurs] in all but six stories; 33 characters each appear in more than one story some of them five and six times. Ninety-one characters appear only once in the cycle ten of these are central protagonists in their stories. Indeed, the climactic scenes of two stories, "The Strength of God" and "The Teacher", are actually juxtaposed over the course of one stormy January evening. The major themes of Winesburg, Ohio largely concern the interaction between the individual citizens of Winesburg and the world around them.
As each of the book's stories focuses primarily though not exclusively on one character, the narrator develops these themes continuously, sometimes adding new insights about previously introduced characters Elizabeth Willard's relationship with Dr. Reefy in "Death", for example, was never alluded to when she was first introduced in "Mother".
Because George Willard is a fixture in much of the book, his character arc becomes just as important a theme of Winesburg, Ohio as that of the rest of town's inhabitants. The most prevalent theme in Winesburg, Ohio is the interplay between how the Winesburg citizens' " The story ends with Cowley telling himself, "I showed him I guess I showed him. I guess I showed him I ain't so queer",  a proclamation obviously laced with dramatic irony. In the latter two stories, Elizabeth Willard was the "tall and gaunt In her youth, Elizabeth " Reefy,  Elizabeth Willard finds no solace.
Instead, both of her stories conclude with Elizabeth Willard attempting to communicate with her son but, like the dumbfounded Elmer Cowley, winding up unsuccessful.
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In contrast with the stark view of Winesburg, Ohio above, a number of scholars have taken the perspective that the cycle is, in fact, about escape from isolation instead of the condition itself. Bort writes, "Criticism of Winesburg, Ohio has recognized this desperate need to communicate, but what has not been understood about Anderson's work is that this continual frustration serves as the context out of which arise a few luminous moments of understanding Such moments are at the heart of Winesburg, Ohio , although they are few and evanescent".
While not all of the adventures are so dramatic, each has its place in the annals of the town, sometimes as told to George Willard, other times in the memories of participants. George Willard, a young reporter for the Winesburg Eagle , figures prominently in much of Winesburg, Ohio. Much of George's story is centered around two interconnected threads: Most of the time, these two formative elements proceed together; it is solely when George loses his virginity to Louise Trunnion in "Nobody Knows" that the adventure is exclusively sexual.
In "The Teacher", a central point in George's development, "Kate Swift, George's school teacher, realizes his literary potential At last, however, George begins to perceive that there is something more to be communicated between men and women than physical encounter The climax of George's sexual and artistic coming-of-age comes in the second-to-last story of the collection, "Sophistication". He felt old and little tired George's masculinity is balanced by the feminine qualities of tenderness and gentleness, an integration that Anderson suggests is necessary for the artist.
The style of Winesburg, Ohio has often been placed at various points in the spectrum between the naturalism of Anderson's literary predecessor, William Dean Howells who died almost one year after the publication of the book , contemporaries Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis , and the Modernist writers of the Lost Generation. In the book, Anderson reoriented the facts typical of realist novels by incorporating his characters' inner beliefs about themselves as part of "reality".
The symbolism in Winesburg, Ohio plays a large role in allowing for this reorientation. Beginning with the idea of characters as grotesques whose " Reefy in the sketch 'Paper Pills' calls 'the sweetness of the twisted apples'".
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Reefy's own knuckles that make a habit of stuffing crumpled notes bearing his thoughts unread into his pockets itself a symbol of the "ineffectuality of human thought". Reefy are just two examples of how throughout Winesburg, Ohio , Anderson builds myriad themes by adding symbolic significance to gestures,  weather conditions and time of day,  and events,  among other features of the stories.
Another major characteristic of Winesburg, Ohio that separates its style from Anderson's contemporaries, as well as his previous novels, is the minimal role of plot. According to critic David Stouk's article "Anderson's Expressionist Art", "As an expressionist drama, there is little development of a story line in the Winesburg tales in term of cause and effect.
The critical reception to Winesburg, Ohio upon its publication in was mostly positive,   even effusive. Hart Crane , for example, wrote that " America should read this book on her knees,"  while H. Mencken wrote that Winesburg, Ohio " The popularity of Winesburg, Ohio among readers and critics has remained fairly high but has fluctuated with Sherwood Anderson's literary reputation. Phillips, following the lukewarm reception of The Letters of Sherwood Anderson in , commented that " Anderson is out of fashion.
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In the film Heaven Help Us , Danni reads a passage from "Sophistication" to her grief-stricken father. Lovecraft said that he wrote the short story " Arthur Jermyn " after he "had nearly fallen asleep over the tame backstairs gossip of Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio. Henry Miller references the book on the first page of his novel Sexus of The Rosy Crucifixion series. Other actors include Steve Cochran and Hugh Herbert.
Francis Albert Sinatra ; December 12, — May 14, was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in , becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers". He released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early s, and he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack.
It is based on the stage musical of the same name. Joan Baez and Bob Dylan perform at 's March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year Specific locations in British music in Norwegian music Specific genres in country music in jazz Events January 3 — The Beatles begin their first tour of with a five-day tour in Scotland to support the release of their new single, "Love Me Do", beginning with a performance in Elgin.
January 7 — Gary U. By late January , a lawsuit brought by the Ink Spots caused Deek Watson to claim that he would form a new group based on a "completely new idea". This new idea was simply to change their name to the Brown Dots and to sound as much like the Ink Spots as possible although the Brown Dots employed more extensive harmonies. At their first session, they recorded four songs, including "Sentimental Reasons" written by Pat Best and led by Joe King.
Sentimental Tommy The Story of His Boyhood
Billboard Pop Memories is a series of compilation albums released by Rhino Records in , each featuring ten hit recordings spanning a five- or ten-year period from the s through the s. The tracks from the s and s compilations were major hits on the various Billboard magazine best-sellers, jockeys and jukebox charts. As the rock era moved into full swing, chronologically the series continues with "lighter" hits from the s in the Billboard Top Pop Hits series of albums. These were followed up by sets of adult contemporary and easy listening music from through with the Billboard Top Soft Rock Hits series.
The following is a list of compilation albums of songs recorded by U. They include material from her solo career, and recordings she made with artists such as Gordon MacRae, as well as her foray into comedy with husband Paul Weston as New Jersey lounge act Jonathan and Darlene Edwards.
A second album, titled Jo Stafford and Friends featuring the same tracks was released o Radio Days is a American comedy-drama film written and directed by Woody Allen, who also narrates. The film looks back on an American family's life during the Golden Age of Radio using both music and memories to tell the story. It stars an ensemble cast. Plot Joe, the narrator, relates how two burglars got involved in a radio game after picking up the phone. He goes on to explain that he associates old radio songs with childhood memories.
During the late s and early s young Joe lived in a modest Jewish-American family in Rockaway Beach. His mother always listened to Breakfast with Irene and Roger. His father, who regularly gave him a beating, kept his occupation secret. Joe later found out that he was ashamed of being a taxi driver. The latter was a serial dater, always on the lookout for a potential husband. Joe's own favourite radio show was The Masked Avenger. It made him dream of buying a secret decoder Enoch Henry Light 18 August , in Canton, Ohio — 31 July , in Redding, Connecticut was a classically trained violinist, danceband leader, and recording engineer.
As the leader of various dance bands that recorded as early as March and continuing through at least , Light and his band primarily worked in various hotels in New York. For a time in he also led a band in Paris. It must be remembered that at the time there was always some crossover between popular and jazz music and that the most successful bandleaders frequently played a mixture of both to some extent in order to cater to the demands of their audiences, alt This article is about the US number-one songs chart held during the s.
Billboard number-one singles chart which preceded the Billboard Hot chart , which was updated weekly by the Billboard magazine, was the main singles chart of the American music industry since and until the Billboard Hot chart was established in Before the Billboard Hot chart was established in August , which was based on a formula combining sales data of commercially available singles and airplay on American radio stations, the Billboard used to publish several song popularity charts weekly. Throughout most of the s the magazine published the following three charts: Best Selling Singles — ranked the biggest selling singles in retail stores, as reported by merchants surveyed throughout the country.
Most Played by Jockeys debuted February — ranked the most played songs o Dinah Shore born Fannye Rose Shore; February 29, — February 24, was an American singer, actress, and television personality, and the top-charting female vocalist of the s. She rose to prominence as a recording artist during the Big Band era, but achieved even greater success a decade later, in television, mainly as hostess of a series of variety programs for Chevrolet.
After failing singing auditions for the bands of Benny Goodman, and both Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey, Shore struck out on her own to become the first singer of her era to achieve huge solo success. She had a string of 80 charted popular hits, spanning —, and after appearing in a handful of feature films, she went on to a four-decade career in American television, starring in her own music and variety shows from through and hosting two talk shows in the s.
TV Guide ranked her at number 16 on their list of the top 50 television stars of all time. Stylistically, Shore was compared to two singers who followed he The album was subsequently re-released in by Collectables Records. Narrative These Dorsey sides, recorded between and , unreel an era of chugging, big band togetherness; smooth-as-silk trombone mooing over brass punctuation and rising-and-falling reeds; tremulous, high-timbre, tenor voices undulating against rhythmic, glee club riffing; and the dancers Suzy-Q-ing or big-appling over to the raised bandstand to mill around, and sigh, and gawk DLP released in September, Retrieved September 3, The Early Jazz Sides: Track listing Track Song Title Length 1.
After she began her career as a big band singer in , her popularity increased with her first hit recording "Sentimental Journey" Day's film career began during the latter part of the Classical Hollywood Film era with the film Romance on the High Seas, and its success sparked her twenty-year career as a motion picture actress. She starred in a series of successful films, including musicals, comedies, and dramas. Her most successful films were the bedroom comedies she made co-starring Rock Hudson and James Garner, such as Pillow Talk This article is a list of cover versions recorded and released by the Beatles as a band or solo artists.
This five disc box set contains every studio recording Frank Sinatra performed with Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra, a few tracks of alternate recording takes, and a full disc of mostly-unreleased radio broadcasts. It is considered a definitive look at the first years of what would become a half-a-century long career. The Great Band Era is a compilation album featuring Swing music from Reader's Digest released the album in In , the Recording Industry Association of America certified 9 million sales of the album — making it one of the top selling albums ever within the United States.
The album was released as a ten LP album box set. The album included many swing favorites, as well as new recordings. Promotion Reader's Digest sent out a free promotional record before releasing the album. Voiced by Vaughn Monroe, the record boasted that in The Great Band Era, RCA Victor sound engineers had "remove[d] all the irritating noise and scratchiness that was always present on the original records, even when they were brand new.
It included an entire LP of "theme songs", or songs particularly associated or played exceptionally often by a band. He is perhaps best known for his work with Frank Sinatra in the s at Columbia Records. With his sophisticated orchestrations, Stordahl is credited with helping to bring pop arranging into the modern age. He began his career as a trumpeter in jazz bands which played in several dance bands around Long Island and the Catskills during the late s and early s.
He also began arranging around this time, and in he joined Bert Bloch's orchestra in both capacities. Over the next couple of years, Stordahl sang on the side in a vocal trio dubbed the Three Esquires. She was one of the most popular radio stars of the s. Over four million of her records had been sold by George Bassman February 7, — June 26, was an American composer and arranger. He studied orchestration and composition formally, but in his teens he left home against his father's wishes to play piano in an itinerant jazz group, and subsequently worked as an arranger for Fletcher Henderson in New York.
Bassman also worked in radio as an arranger for Andre Kostelanetz, and made the move to Hollywood in the mid s. He later went to work at MGM, where h He won the Best Original Song award twice: Washington had his roots in vaudeville as a master of ceremonies. In , he was signed by MGM and relocated to Hollywood, eventually writing full scores for feature films. During the 40s, he worked for a number of studios, including Paramount, Warner Brothers, Disney and Republic. During these tenures, he collaborated with many of the great composers of the era, including Hoagy Carmichael, Victor Young, Max Steiner and Dimitri Tiomkin.
Specific locations in British music in Norwegian music Specific genres in country music in jazz Events January 24 — Ernest John Moeran completes the revised version of his Symphony in G minor, dedicated to conductor Hamilton Harty. Frank Sinatra's musical career began in the swing era in , and ended in Influences Sinatra's vocal style represented a strong departure from the "crooning" style of his idol, Bing Crosby.
Sinatra's generation represented the first generation of children that had grown up in the era of the microphone, and the amplification of sound enabled singers to sing in a much softer, personal and nuanced style. However Sinatra, as he himself once noted, sang more, by which he meant that he introduced a bel canto sound to the tradition begun by Crosby.
And, more importantly, he might be said to have brought the Crosby tradition to artistic completion, taking it to levels of intensity and depth of feeling that, because of the displacement of the Crosby — Sinatra tradition by rock and roll and subsequent genres, are unlikely to be achieved again. Two other great performers of the s and s were significant influences on Sinatra: Billie Holiday and Mabel Mercer. Sinatra regularly heard "Lady Day" in New Yo Admired for the purity of her voice, she originally underwent classical training to become an opera singer before following a career in popular music, and by had achieved more worldwide record sales than any other female artist.
Her song "You Belong to Me" topped the charts in the United States and United Kingdom, the record becoming the first by a female artist to reach number one on the U.
Born in Coalinga, California, Stafford made her first musical appearance at age twelve. While still at high school she joined her two older sisters to form a vocal trio named The Stafford Sisters, who found moderate success on radio and in film. In , while the sisters were part of the cast of Twentieth Century Fox's production of Alexander's Ragtime Band, Stafford met the future members of The This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year It is an adaptation from the film score to Alexander Nevsky. Roy Hamilton April 16, — July 20,  was an American singer.
By combining semi-classical technique with traditional black gospel feeling, he brought soul to Great American Songbook singing. In the summer of , when Hamilton was fourteen, the family migrated north to Jersey City, New Jersey in search of a better life. New Glarus yodelers in traditional Swiss garb Yodeling also jodeling is a form of singing which involves repeated and rapid changes of pitch between the low-pitch chest register or "chest voice" and the high-pitch head register or falsetto.
The English word yodel is derived from the German and originally Austro-Bavarian word jodeln, meaning "to utter the syllable jo" pronounced "yo" in English. This vocal technique is used in many cultures worldwide. Sir Walter Scott wrote in his June 4, , journal entry: I cannot but think their yodeling Eleanora Fagan April 7, — July 17, , better known as Billie Holiday, was an American jazz singer with a career spanning nearly thirty years.
Nicknamed "Lady Day" by her friend and music partner Lester Young, Holiday had a seminal influence on jazz music and pop singing. Her vocal style, strongly inspired by jazz instrumentalists, pioneered a new way of manipulating phrasing and tempo. She was known for her vocal delivery and improvisational skills, which made up for her limited range and lack of formal music education. She signed a recording contract with Brunswick Records in Throughout the s and s, Holiday had mainstream success on labels such as Columbia Records and Decca Records. By the late s, however, she was bes RAF Mildenhall chapel performs Christmas music.
Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music normally performed or heard around the Christmas season. Music associated with Christmas may be purely instrumental, or in the case of many carols or songs may employ lyrics whose subject matter ranges from the nativity of Jesus Christ, to gift-giving and merrymaking, to cultural figures such as Santa Claus, among other topics. Performances of Christmas music at public concerts, in churches, at shopping malls, on city streets, and in private gatherings is an integral staple of the Christmas holiday in many cultures across the world.
Music associated with Christmas is thought to have its origins in 4th-century Rome, in Latin-language hymns such as Veni redemptor gentium. Frank Sinatra had many close relationships throughout his life. He was married four times and had at least six other notable relationships in between. He had three verified children, as well as more than one of questionable relationship.
It was released in as a 10" album Capitol H and consisted of only eight songs, as each side of the record only allowed approximately fourteen minutes of music.
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As its title implies, the record concentrates on up-tempo swingers done with a light touch. Again, the songs were all standards -- "Just One of Those Things," "Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams," "All of Me" -- which the singer felt benefited from the new thematic setting, new arrangements, and his increasingly playful and textured vocal style.
The following is a sortable table of all songs by Frank Sinatra: The column Song lists the song title. The column Year lists the year in which the song was recorded. Such words as a, an, and the are not recognized as first words of titles: Getting Sentimental over Tommy Dorsey. Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 26 April