Manual Bees & Other Stinging Insects: Bee Aware and Bee Safe (10 Things to Know Book 2)

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They may report you to the city or worse, they may try to vandalize your hive. Now, there are some alternatives to smoke that some believe are less stressful. Essential oil and water mixtures that you can spray in a squirt bottle or some simply spray sugar water. I am not against experimenting with these methods, but you should still have a smoker on hand because it is the most effective.

Personally, I think the concept of a wildfire is a whole lot more natural than spraying bees with sugar water or oils so, I prefer to use a smoker. Starting with just one colony. I recommend that you start with at least two colonies. Managing two hives instead of one will not take much more work and it has several advantages. First, when you have two colonies, you learn more.

Simply being able to compare two hives side by side will provide opportunities for this, but you could also test for specific theories. Maybe you want to try two different hives styles or two different breeds of bees. You might compare the success of a nuc vs. Second, having two hives will give you management advantages.

Maybe one colony is weak, while the other is strong. You could take some brood from the strong colony to help boost your weak colony. Maybe you lose a queen in one colony and they fail to make a new one. You can take eggs from your other colony to try and make your queenless colony queenright.

Lastly, new beekeepers often lose their hives. Having two gives you a better change of keeping one alive in your first year. Being satisfied with a limited knowledge of beekeeping. They are happy to leave the bees mostly alone and then go in every once in awhile to take honey or to make sure there are still bees inside. Personally, this always shocks me. Learning about the bees is the best part of beekeeping! There are so many resources available. Classes, mentors, books, documentaries, forums, blogs, YouTube videos!

Find what works for you and never stop learning. Uneducated hobbyists make us all look the fool. Want to make sure you get started off on the right foot? Check out my new online Introduction to Beekeeping class! The online version is a combination of fascinating footage and still images with interactive narration throughout.

This class is packed with absolutely everything you need to know to get started with bees! Plus, it focuses on natural, bee-centric, sustainable beekeeping practices. Read what others had to say about it on Yelp. Thinking about starting your own backyard beehive? Amen, 10 times over! ALL of these points we have discussed at one time or another with almost every new beekeepr we mentor. This 10 point presentation needs to be presented to ALL new beeks taking the Beekeeping Class, and is WHY we are successful with those who DO understand these 10 points, as we have not used chemicals since !

Its unfortunate that so many who want to help bees are actually the ones doing them great harm. Love this, thank you. Headed into my first winter with a hive and relating to many of these missteps. Not a word about mites in any of the 10 potential mistakes. A new beek could diligently follow the advice associated with all 10 mistakes. The advice here is a nothing more than a one-way ticket for a quick trip into the Trough of Disillusionment.

Mite treatment is a controversial topic I did not care to tackle in this post. I happen to be a treatment free beekeeper so, I disagree with you completely. Have you thought about how as a pro treatment beekeeper you are weakening the entire gene pool? The mite-bomb is not a theory. If they did, they would be sick in the spring. So the question is what do we do now? Let it turn in to a mite-bomb… that helps no one… or do something about it.

A treatment-free beekeeper can do nothing about it… and in my treatment free yard… I would fold up that hive. I tell my mentees to use the first year to get to know the bees and do the 10 things you list above, again great article… and not to be discouraged if they lose some bees. Beekeeping is not like raising chickens. You do have to be watching, and learning. I usually requeen when I see a colony struggling with mites. If you really want to give treatment free a shot, I find that the reason most people fail is because they cannot find the genetics necessary.

It takes time to weed out the strong bees and breed from them. I intend to write an article about this soon. Thanks for your comment. For all I respect the folks on BEE-L, anyone may participate—and lots of times the above beeks have posted. And the treatment free model is not a rare discussion point. For one thing, how do you explain the ability of Apis cerana, of SE Asia, where it lives in harmony with the varroa mite, to continue to prosper if humans are not treating them with chemicals?

EHB was not exposed to this pest till very recently, and, like the American Indians mowed down by smallpox and measles on the arrival of Europeans, the evolution of immune response will be the only real answer in the long run. I am using partially Africanized feral bees taken from the urban environment here in LA from situations of conflict with humans. These cutouts, trapouts and swarms are vigorous, resilient, small cell, and never get treatment. They are kept foundationless bees have been drawing their own combs for 70 million years so their wax is less contaminated with toxins from foundation, they make great honey crops and are a pleasure to work.

I have 27 colonies in the city. I do not run a bee hospital, counting mites. But I have a lot of fun beekeeping and teaching newbees, giving talks, and selling honey. Good luck in that treatment free regimen. Mark you calendar for a thousand days from now and send me an email on how it went, ok? I have 50 colonies. Typically lose less than 10 in a year. Normally small colonies I rescued late in the season or nucs that never took off.

I have been reading your comments about natural beekeeping and am impressed. Here in Australia there are commercial beekeepers, and a bit of monoculture going on as well, but not as extensively as in the USA. So far we are Varoa-free , seemingly the only country in the world, next to new Zealand, which, I understand has had some signs of it recently. Australia is isolated from infected countries, but it is inevitable that it accidentally hitches rides on aircraft and other modes of transport. Fortunately the Australian quarantine has honed its skills to such a degree that airports have bee traps set up around the unloading areas etc, and more traps further afield.

We also have sugar coating tests and other methods to check any future infestation, which is bound to occur sooner or later. There is advice about using chemical strips and other drastic methods, but we have a higher percentage of natural bee keepers who would not contaminate the hive and the resulting honey with chemicals. I have used natural methods with my show poultry and have never vaccinated against Marrecks and other contagious diseases, and have found that they build their own immunity, and over the years I have never had any of those diseases.

Some people like to see the glass half empty and they are not prepared to see the other side of the coin, or learn from the experience of others. Sarcasm is a sign of frustration, not knowledge. I live in the mountains and a valley with thick Australian bush, and am encouraging beekeepers here to plant bee-friendly plants. I have organized the propagation of Leatherwood and Geraldton Wax plants to plant in their gardens which are Australian native plants famous for their beautiful honey.

The health of the bees and strength of the hive depends on the foraging abilities and hive care, and nothing can beat the natural environment and clean living for the production of pure, natural honey. Keep on promoting Natural Beekeeping, and have a wonderful christmas and New Year. My husband is a novice. His hive was doing great but had an abundance of beetles. Last weekend he refilled beetle traps and added a couple. He also put in something to prevent mites. Today he checked and all the bees are gone! Do you have any suggestions? What did he use for mite treatment? Most mite treatments are pretty harsh on the bees and come with really specific instructions.

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It can easily be applied incorrectly by a new beekeeper and cause the bees to abandon the hive. It may also be that the hive was already weak and left because of the many problems it was having. What makes you say they were doing great? Did they have a good brood pattern? Check out this article I wrote: Steve, I have a 7-year old top bar hive that has never had any treatments, and actually very little intervention. They are still thriving. One of these colonies was a swarm and the other was a purchased nuc. I just started beekeeping for the fun of it and to hopefully help the bee population.

Both these same colonies have made it through the winter each year including this year which is season 5 and are thriving. I live in Georgia south of Atlanta. I believe mite treatment makes weak bees and strong mites. Ruby, the sugar dusting is not a treatment. If you do it correctly, you put about bees into a container with icing sugar and roll them gently in the sugar, whichi then dislodges any varroa mites attached to the back of the bees.

This is a test to check whether there is varroa mite in the hive. When you release the bees they lick the remaining sugar off and get on with their lives. If you think it works as a treatment, you may have no need for treatment in the first place. Although that is a technique for counting mites, there is another method for supposedly controlling varroa populations that also uses powdered sugar.

Yes, this is the technique we use. However, we have measured mite loads before and after the powdered sugar and they have been significantly decreased. The mites fall off in the roll, and would do the same when used on the entire colony. But you would need to have a mite trap at the bottom of the hive to collect all the mites? Meaning you have to disassemble the hive to get to the base every time you need to clean it.

So far so good, but this sounds interesting, if it works. Ruby, out of curiosity, since you are doing it to help the bees, are you taking any honey from them? If so how much do you take? That said every family member I have has asked me for honey when the time comes… But I feel like if I just leave the honey for the bees they will be better off… Can you tell me what your policy is for that with your bees?

Diana, as a general rule of thumb, you should not harvest any honey from a first year colony. They need all the honey to build up and get strong. When friends and relatives hassle me for honey, I tell them to plant a bee garden and then talk to me. Diana, in 4 years I have taken a total of 2 medium frames of honey.

A medium frame of honey actually equals about 3 maybe 4 qts of honey to my amazement! Well, my bees usually go into winter with 3 supers of honey and they do fine and a small amount will be left in the spring.


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Thanks Hilary for promoting Natural Beekeeping. For me, mites rank very low in my list of apiary issues. Yet, it continues to be a hot topic. I violate 6 located in full shade and continue to deal with the elevated beetle level as best I can. But its only been an issue for nucs, queen rearing, cutouts with comb, and hives that have swarmed. Hi Hillary, yes, I was not planning on taking any honey the first year.

I had read that and have had several people tell me not to expect any honey the first year. The theroy is that if you spray something like olive oil on the shelf then the mites fall through the screen and get stuck on the olive oil on the shelf. Excellent article and thought provoking. I would have never thought of keeping two hives, however it makes complete sense.

If people would do their research about beekeeping months to a year prior to keeping bees, it will make a better keeper.

Thanks for the information! It can be very intimidating. I live in PA. I have bears in my backyard daily… Other than in winter. I am concerned about keeping the hive safe from them.

Heidi Connolly

To keep bees safe from bears, use electric fence. There are many ideas how to use it, all work good under certain circumstances. Mine is to use a high joule output charger — delivers 6 joules of strength. That is the sizzle in the snap. Here in Massachusetts, our black bears are well populated, and sometimes mobile, meaning we have locals, and some passers through.

Should a bear try to reach or climb, they will feel the error of their ways, if they dig down to go under, they will hit damp ground even during dry spells, and the 6 joules will send them packing. Overbuilding for security is worth it. If you are not near a standard power source, you can use a smaller output charger and bait the predators in with bacon strips or else peanut butter smeared on aluminum foil wrapped around the hot wires. I feel the biggest problem is not adequately preparing themselves for managing bees. This is somewhat related to number 10 on your list, but I feel it starts way before an individual even first acquires bees.

For example I usually recommend the bee-curious spend a few years helping out other beekeepers so they know what they are getting themselves into. When speaking to urban beekeepers I feel this is doubly important as the potential cost of mistakes is higher. My full list of considerations for aspiring urban beeks is here: Hi, yes, I agree. Corporate trolls are a big part of the bee keeping experience.

Their agenda is to focus on mites and ignore Monsanto, Bayer, etc. I am new to bee keeping and treat for mites but that does not make me unaware of the real problems facing the world. Bees are the canary threating a mine closure. Monsanto, Bayer, etc want you to know that the canary died from other causes. There are some beekeeper who are employed by these chemical giants and try to spread misinformation to distract from the fact that neonicotinoid pesticides are killing the bees. However, there are a lot of other beekeepers who truly believe treating mites is best for bees.

In the end most beekeepers want the same thing. To keep their bees alive and healthy. I try to take an organic by EU standards approach and manage the varroa with minimal pharmaceutical treatment. The long term answer will lie in natural selection, I believe. I own a bee friendly farm. Neonicotinoids are small part of what is killing this planet. I have observed that beehives located away of agriculture have mites but not a mite problem.

Thus my feel that farming is killing bees more then mites. Current farming practices can not be sustained. Farmers are just starting to get it. Mostly because they are forced into getting it loss of irrigation rights, soil being tits up, etc. I think the correlation between mite load and farms is likely because of neonics. Nice article with some good information, but I also disagree with some of what you said. I am only going to address 8. Not using your Smoker. As I approach any hive I take notice of active and their behavior towards me. I knock on the hive, to be polite, prior to popping the cover off.

And then proceed into the hive for inspection or harvest. I rarely get stung. I do have colonies that are more aggressive and these I will dawn my veil and use a bit of smoke, but not much. During season, I am constantly around these hives inside and out and I am sure they know who I am. Come harvest time, not blowers or chemicals are used to remove the bees for the frames selected. Instead, a Goose feather is all I need. No chemicals are added to the hives for any reason and smoke is used ONLY if I have to, but very little is used.

Knowing your colonies and knowing how to work a colony without using aggressive techniques are far superior to scaring the shiite out of your bees with smoke. Now, for new keepers, I would recommend suiting up and have the smoker at ready. I agree with you and I actually do the same thing, but this post is written for new beeks. Also, keep in mind I am in an Africanized zone. I have seen some pretty frightening behavior from unsmoked bees. Timing is everything — the season, the weather, even the time of day affect my bees.

Yes, the more I work with them, the better I understand them. I wear a white jacket, but mostly for the pockets and to protect my clothes. One thing I hate about the smoker is arriving home smelling like a campfire! Many years ago, before I even had my first hive of bees, I went to a commercial beekeeper — a man who was the 4th generation in his family to have beehives — and the words he said still ring in my ears to this day.

You do it before you put on your veil. Before you ever approach the hives. It uses their natural instincts to make them go in and eat a bit of honey — and a fat bee is a happier bee. It also will cover the alarm pheromone that the guard bees of ALL hives will produce. In a nutshell, it WILL reduce the likelihood of a person getting stung. It makes the decision on whether or not to use smoker or not a very easy one. I know a little something about teaching newbees…. Hey, Bill—you do not say where you live—urban or rural or in between—or what kind of bees you are keeping.

These things matter in regards to using the smoker. Too often, newbees in this environment do not use their smoker with good technique and the fallout can be bees passing over the fence to the next patio, stings to the neighbors and a resulting call to the authorities. Not all of us may have the distance from neighbors to opt out on smoker use. Bees that are fractious can be much easier to work—as our partially Africanized ferals can be—with judicious smoking. The package bees I have seen and worked are so complacent, they hardly seem alive at times.

Finally, I do not use the smoker only at the beginning of a inspection. The bees do not respond well to having their sisters ground up in the woodware. I break propolis bonds slowly and allow the bees the time to adapt to my movements. Great artical, I shared it. I am passionate about getting new people into bees. I have different types of hives. This past year I put two styles of hives on a school roof so students could watch them.

I had 5 queens emerge from cells placed in an incubator in the classroom. You left out the one big mistake I see many newbies make — giving the bees too much room. My first two years seemed to be my most productive in terms of honey production but the colony died during the second winter I live in Utah and was using Langstroth style hives.

I also stacked bails of straw around the hives during the winter to help provide wind protection. I bought new packages at the beginning of the 3rd season and started a second hive. They both appeared to be doing well for the first 8 weeks and then one of the hives vacated. The other hive appeared to be ok but died during the winter. The 4th season, I again bought packages but had queen problems and neither colony did very well. That was 3 years ago. I read what I can but often see contradictory information in the available literature.

My wife and I would love to go to one of your classes. Perhaps a California vacation is coming up. As a bonus, I would love eating honey from my own hives again. Thanks for the helpful and encouraging information. Thank you for sharing your story. I am so glad I am helping you to be inspired again.

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Losing hives can be very frustrating. If you start again, maybe you can try catching a feral hive. They tend to do better than bought bees in my experience. Dan—I teach beekeeping in Los Angeles and have 27 colonies of feral sourced honey bees—meaning they came from swarms, cutouts, and trapouts and were surviving spendidly in their unconventional location, but were not in acceptable digs for humans.

If you can get survivor stock swarms or cutouts, you will likely get bees adapted to their location and with strong genetic diversity. You need to figure out what type of beekeeping you are interested in doing and then winnow out the educational sources that are not in line with that philosophy. You need to find a mentor or bee club that supports your interest. Personally, Michael Bush of Bush Bees his whole book is online at http: I decided I did not want to run a bee hospital, counting mites and applying in-hive chemicals. I knew what I wanted to do, so I arranged with a group member to help me with a cutout of some bees I found in a water meter box.

Finally, like a lot of newbees I teach, try to get over the fixation on when you get honey. I will start looking for people who are in line with that philosophy. Also, I agree that I was probably too focused on honey during my first attempt and a large portion of my problems was probably related to taking too much honey and trying to make up for it with feeding sugar water. In the meantime, it is good to find a community that can provide me some advice and support. Just so you know, L. Most of the rest of us had to go at it solo and were discouraged by local beekeepers.

I made a lot of gut decisions as a newbie and decided not to listen to the old timers telling me I was wrong. Hi, Dan—you have not said where you are, but as Hilary says, there are more feral beeks out in LA than a lot of places. BUT—they are out there! Sam Comfort, at Anarchy Apiaries, is all over the US, check his website and could probably point out some contacts. I will start looking for local rebels and see if I can strengthen the movement. Thanks for your advice and information. And that was only honey amounts, there was a lot more about bees shared too.

Thanks for the great info. This was my first year beekeeping a i learnt you can never get too much info. Thanks for great info. My first biggest mistake was that I had one hive swarm 4x times. I was devastated, lucky the hive was strong; but I feel no one warned me.

I will be telling new beekeepers. I found your post very interesting Hilary, with some great advice for newbees. The one point where I would strongly disagree is the frequency of hive inspections. As you correctly note, hive opening is extremely stressful for the bees. In Australia we have very strong honey flows which require somewhat more active management of hives, but three to four times a year should be enough. Both diseases such as chalkbrood and pests such as small hive beetle are known to result from over-frequent hive openings. In my area we have Africanized bees.

Their hives grow large, swarm and become aggressive and then they are completely unprepared for how to handle the situation. It can be disastrous in backyard settings. Our club in Tulsa Northeast Oklahoma Beekeepers Association is working on advancing mentoring as an integral part of its educational activities. Thank you for this article and all the comments and responses are very interesting. I live in central Virginia and will be starting 2 Langstroth hives in the spring. They will be 8 frame medium hives. And will be getting 2 packages of Italian bees from him in mid March.

Those bees are coming from Georgia. I feel pretty sure that after I learn the ins and outs I could probably do it but I have asked Jerry about going treatment free and he does not recommend it, so I would have no support from him. Like Dan, I too was a biology major in college and understand the need for our bees to evolve natural resistance to the varroa mite. I even understand the process. Even tough everybody in my family asks the same question, When can we get some honey? I intend to write an article soon on how to be a treatment free beekeeper.

Just from reading your comment here, I think Jerry is probably right in this case. If you want to be a treatment free beekeeper you need to be careful where you get your bees. Check with your breeder. So, that is something to keep in mind. Lastly, it is unlikely that you will find support for most natural beekeeping practices in your local area.

When I first started out, everyone in the beekeeping group here told me I was crazy. Now, they want me to be a board member. If you are interested in foundationless beekeeping or small cell beekeeping, check out my two most recent posts. They are always large cell stock bees, and you must regress them with small cell foundation well described by Michael Bush and Dee Lusby This process is a whole other advanced technique, but you could do it if you had a experienced mentor. Small cell foundation is sold by a few bee suppliers in the US.

Your fear that not providing them foundation means they will become crosscombed is missing a understanding of the in between issue—-that large cell bees will tend to draw large cells in their brood nest. The average cell size can be assessed by measuring with a millimeter marked ruler, horizontally, across 10 cells and dividing by 10 to get the average per cell The theory with encouraging small cell bees is that their development time for the worker brood is shorter than the time required for the full development of the mites within the cell, so the brood hatches before the mite has completed development.

Since the drones are more expendable in terms of the work needing to be done in the hive, the drones can be sacrificed. My two biggest mistakes not on your list have been 1 opening up the hive after it got too dark. The bees got very very defensive and I got stung through my vented gloves 15 times on the wrists. They even found a little opening under the velcro and got inside my hood and stung my neck and 2 not making sure the cinder blocks under my hive were secure.

We had a very long lasting rainstorm and the ground shifted and my hive collapsed. Those are good ones. Opening too close to dark is definitely one I see a lot. All beekeepers will loose a hive. Instead, try to to learn from it. When I started several years ago, I lost hives to moisture buildup at the top of the hive during the winter. We had someone convert their strong hive to bee-cycles by covering her hive with a tarp to keep them warm. Hilary has obviously put a lot of time and thought into writing this article. It is for your benefit. Please read the entire article as it has a lot of useful information.

I do not know Hilary, but I can tell she is passionate about the Honeybee. I too care about raising Honeybees. I have been raising Honeybees for 6 years now and I still go to every class that my mentor gives, every year. You can never have too much knowledge. Things change and new information comes out. I know beekeepers who have been doing it for 30 plus years, and they still ask questions.

You will only get out what you put in. I am thrilled and overwhelmed with the amount of information there is to learn about beekeeping. I live in a rural area in the mountains of Virginia and am going into my first winter with two hives. Some people like to do things one way and others swear by another way. Some people are very methodical about how they approach their bees and others are less so.

I still enjoy reading about others experiences. I look at these experiences as resources for my continued growth and knowledge. One question I had was the selection for queens that you are using for mite control. Second is noticed no talk of AFB, and your control methods that you have used. There is this thought that it is the farmers fault, Monsanto fault,etc. In regards to queens, I think their success for mite resistance is also hinged on their adaptation to the local climate. I had good success with local breeder Wildflower Meadows and Florida breeder Carpenter Apiary, but I confess a lot of my bees are feral rescues.

In regards to AFB I have never seen it and the old timers in my area say they have not heard of a case for 18 years. I think it is one of those things that afflicts commercial beekeepers more probably because you have so many bees in one places and the other stressors that go along with that system. Everyone is apart of it and we are all to blame.

I think, as beekeepers, we may hold more cards than we realize in changing the system.


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What a ironic duo—companies like Bayer make drugs and pesticides. As an interested bystander an eavesdropper to your discussion concerning Urban Dwellers etc. Most of our commercial honey producers follow a code of ethics and guidelines presented by our government department of environment, and very few will use chemicals, although the mono-cultures that are increasing also demand bees trucked to the orchards for a single season, then get moved on to the next blossoming season.

You are lucky not to have encountered AFB yet. I had it in my first ever hive, and had to destroy the colony and hive, notifying the Dept of Environment, and following their instructions closely. They also now provide apiarists with sugar shake kits to be able to trace any varoa mite that has the temerity to sneak into Australia. Monsanto is the only culprit still promoting and using glyphosate and other poisons for profit.

The same applies to their trying to control the fruit and vegetable market by manipulating seed production that have been tailored to GMO standards, and requires farmers to buy a new lot of seed every season instead of being able to grow and collect their own. If anyone reading this has seen the movie: The scariest part is the end result of using chemicals in countries like China which has NO bees left. They have to collect pollen manually, package it at a profit and sell it to other farmers who then use tiny paint brushes and pollinate huge almond and apple orchards BY HAND.

Lucky they have people power. It answers a lot of questions.. Remember the guy doing a cutout from the eaves of the house? Acaracides affect the fertility of the Queen, the health of the brood, and the navigational ability of the workers. Varroa will show up in Australia. It is only a matter of time.

Heidi Ratner-Connolly (Author of The 10 Things You Need To Know To Attract the Mate of Your Dreams)

The impact and explosion of international trade via ships, planes and other artificial means, has removed former natural barriers that stopped invasives in the historical past. Susan — you are quite right about bees — all animals for that matter — build up their own immunity, and feral bees are equivalent to hybrid vigour. I did mention that Australia has strict quarantine and border controls, and that there are bee traps specifically set up at harbours and airports, meant to trap hitchhikers. It is not the ultimate safeguard, just the first step.

I have been pontificating about inoculating poultry. I breed and show Orpington chickens, and have lost a few valuable clutches to vaccinations. I think varoa has created panic waves globally, and yet I have not heard of hives dying out from varoa. I might be wrong, but they are unlike bird mites which can suck the blood out of their hosts to the extent of causing anaemia and death.

One varoa mite per bee is going to fall off sated and build immunity for future attacks. Hi, Eve—thanks for the reply. Hives of highly inbred, medication-dependent bees such as used in all commercial pollinator operations DO die out completely. The problem is the diseases vectored by the mites are sometimes worse than the direct feeding, Deformed wing virus and Parasitic mite syndrome are just two of the diseases.

I have chickens for many years, so familiar with your analogies—partially apt, in this case. Bees that originated with varroa, read about Apis cerana to learn about this exist with the mite as a background stressor, in the same way as you exist with incidental exposure to rhinovirus the common cold The challenge to the immune system is REQUIRED to elicit a response.

Sterilizing hives of all varroa is not the answer, since it does not mimic the realities of the environment. The strong, resilient hives will prosper, the weak ones die. More and more farmers are starting to understand this and are looking into no till methods.

Urban Dwellers understand this better then the new farmers. We are old farmers that never could afford the new ways and thus in the end will be saved. My family owns two old style farms. Eve and Susan, For an interesting informed conversation about bees ability to build up their own immunity please follow the below link. I am not affiliated with honeybeesuite. I try to read very widely on the issue of varroa and resistance and chemical treatment, and that is the best any beek can do to figure out what to do.

I guess there are a lot of politics and strong feelings about this subject…. Thank you, Diane for the brilliant link and informative article. Does so differ from the genetics of mammals, and I think this is the difficulty getting your head around the issue. Nobody would visualize dogs eating their male pups if they have a diploid gene, but that also means that the bees know best!

Tampering with genetics can be dangerous to a certain extent. Deep down, many have this belief that bees can just exist in the urban environment with no particular plan or knowledge or management on the part of the owner. I have to chase after these folks to continue the communication after a visit and THEY are the one ostensibly in need of knowledge—-not me.

I no longer chase them. And I now have a strict contract of understanding they must read and sign before I work with them or I say so-long. Because our children are learning from us, I like to give some guestlessons at schools. Oh, and if you ever need to know how we are keeping our bees, please contact.

Your method of telling all in this article is really nice, every one be able to easily know it, Thanks a lot. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I will be grateful if you continue this in future.

Many people will be benefited from your writing. Yet failures do provide an opportunity for learning. This was my first big mistake as a new beekeeper and I do my best to make sure others avoid it. My daughter lives in Naples Florida.