Ultimately, the once vibrant and integral Jewish Iraqi population all but ceases to exist within Iraq's borders today. Operation Ezra and Nehemiah was a legal airlift of approximately , Jews from Iraq to Israel between and 8. The s were a time fraught with political upheaval. Many nations barely recovering from WWI , and the Great Depression of the early s, were then plunged into yet another world war.
The rise of the US and the USSR sent the world into an interesting place, with nations either choosing to align with the democratic capitalist US or the communist USSR, or choosing an ardent nationalist, non-aligned and anti-imperial stance. All politics were held in Iraq, a region in which Jews were experiencing new and grander levels of antisemitism than ever before. Jews were active in all of these sites of political and social activity 9. Then came 'the Wathba,' a failed nationalist attempt to overthrow the government in This was a highly politicized time, and Jews, always integral yet somehow separate from Iraqi society, were caught in the middle--often targeted and attacked by politically frustrated groups.
This is painfully evident in the 'Farhud' violent dispossession of Following what was seen as another 'colonial' victory in supposedly "independent" Iraq, and in concert with the Shavuot an open Jewish holiday , frustrated Iraqis attacked and looted the Jewish neighborhood, killing hundreds of Jews, non-stop for two days The Jewish community was never able to psychologically recover from this.
The year , with the partition of Palestine and the subsequent Israeli victory in its war for independence against Arab countries, placed Jews in ever-increasing precarity. The 'dangerous' conflation in the mind of many Iraqis and the nation's leadership of Judaism and Zionism became a stigma Iraqi Jews could not thwart Popular violence and state-sanctioned discrimination resulted, and Jews were yet again dispossessed. It speaks volumes that even with the harsh laws passed by Iraqi Parliament in and , demanding that those who chose to emigrate forfeit both their Iraqi citizenship and all of their property, approximately , Jews left When viewed in the light of all of these trying events and experiences, it becomes less difficult to understand how an entire demographic of people would leave their ancestral homeland in a matter of a few years.
There have been complex relations between Iraqi Kurdistan and Israel ever since the partition of Israel in Despite engrained differences between Arab nations and Israel, the Kurdish non-Arab are said to have been keeping "secret" relations with Israel since the s Yee 10 March Jews, Gentiles and Ethnic Reconciliation: Paul's Jewish identity and Ephesians.
An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader. Westminster John Knox Press. University of California Press. A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood.
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Israelite origins and kingdom: Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Noll, Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: Thompson , Early History of the Israelite People: Society of Biblical Lit, pp. Like the premonarchic period and the late Persian period, the exilic period, though set in the bright light of Ancient Near Eastern history, remains historically obscure. Since there are very few Israelite sources, the only recourse is to try to cast some light on this darkness from the history of the surrounding empires under whose dominion Israel came in this period.
A Brief History, Volume I: Botticini, Maristella and Zvi Eckstein. A Human Capital Interpretation of History. Accessed 21 November Massacres account for roughly 40 percent of the decrease of the Jewish population in Palestine. Moreover, some Jews migrated to Babylon after these revolts because of the worse economic conditions. After accounting for massacres and migrations, there is an additional 30 to 40 percent of the decrease in the Jewish population in Palestine about 1—1.
Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. Generation and the Ground of Jewish Diaspora. Somehow the Jews have managed to retain a sense of being rooted somewhere in the world through twenty centuries of exile from that someplace organic metaphors are not out of place in this discourse, for they are used within the tradition itself. It is profoundly disturbing to hear Jewish attachment to the Land decried as regressive in the same discursive situations in which the attachment of native Americans or Australians to their particular rocks, trees, and deserts is celebrated as an organic connection to the Earth that "we" have lost" p.
When the Romans destroyed the Second Temple in AD 70, it was Babylon that remained as the nerve- and brain-centre for Jewish life and thought Once again, Jews had been unable to sustain a national homeland and were scattered to the far corners of the world" p. According to Jerome, many Jews were also sold into slavery, so many, indeed, that the price of Jewish slaves at the slave market in Hebron sank drastically to a level no greater than that for a horse. The economic structure of the country was largely destroyed. The entire spiritual and economic life of the Palestinian Jews moved to Galilee.
Jerusalem was now turned into a Roman colony with the official name Colonia Aelia Capitolina Aelia after Hadrian's family name: Aelius Hadrianus; Capitolina after Jupiter Capitolinus.
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The Jews were forbidden on pain of death to set foot in the new Roman city. Aelia thus became a completely pagan city, no doubt with the corresponding public buildings and temples Cassius Dio's Roman History: Soon, however, all Judaea had been stirred up, and the Jews everywhere were showing signs of disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts; 2 many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up over the matter.
Then, indeed, Hadrian sent against them his best generals. First of these was Julius Severus, who was dispatched from Britain, where he was governor, against the Jews. Very few of them in fact survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred and eighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground. Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease and fire was past finding out.
For the tomb of Solomon, which the Jews regard as an object of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed, and many wolves and hyenas rushed howling into their cities. Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors, 'If you and our children are in health, it is well; I and the legions are in health'" para.
Israel Studies 10 1: Diaspora [galut] connoted deracination, legal disabilities, oppression, and an often painful adjustment to a hostland whose hospitality was unreliable and ephemeral. It also connoted the existence on foreign soil of an expatriate community that considered its presence to be transitory.
These included the language, religion, values, social norms, and narratives of the homeland. Gradually, this community adjusted to the hostland environment and became itself a center of cultural creation. All the while, however, it continued to cultivate the idea of return to the homeland. Is the Jewish Diaspora Unique? Reflections on the Diaspora's Current Situation. This attitude has further been buttressed by the equally traditional view, which is held not only by the Jews themselves, about the exceptional historical age of this diaspora, its singular traumatic experiences its singular ability to survive pogroms, exiles, and Holocaust, as well as its "special relations" with its ancient homeland, culminating in with the nation-state that the Jewish nation has established there First, like many other members of established diasporas, the vast majority of Jews no longer regard themselves as being in Galut [exile] in their host countries.
It means that the basic perception of many Jews about their existential situation in their hostlands has changed. Consequently, there is both a much greater self- and collective-legitimatization to refrain from making serious plans concerning "return" or actually "making Aliyah" [to emigrate, or "go up"] to Israel. This is one of the results of their wider, yet still rather problematic and sometimes painful acceptance by the societies and political systems in their host countries. It means that they, and to an extent their hosts, do not regard Jewish life within the framework of diasporic formations in these hostlands as something that they should be ashamed of, hide from others, or alter by returning to the old homeland" p.
The Cambridge History of Judaism: Although Dio's figure of as the number of villages destroyed during the war seems hyperbolic, all Judaean villages, without exception, excavated thus far were razed following the Bar Kochba Revolt. This evidence supports the impression of total regional destruction following the war. Historical sources note the vast number of captives sold into slavery in Palestine and shipped abroad.
The Judaean Jewish community never recovered from the Bar Kochba war. In its wake, Jews no longer formed the majority in Palestine, and the Jewish center moved to the Galilee. Jews were also subjected to a series of religious edicts promulgated by Hadrian that were designed to uproot the nationalistic elements with the Judaean Jewish community, these proclamations remained in effect until Hadrian's death in An additional, more lasting punitive measure taken by the Romans involved expunging Judaea from the provincial name, changing it from Provincia Judaea to Provincia Syria Palestina.
Although such name changes occurred elsewhere, never before or after was a nation's name expunged as the result of rebellion. Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Exclusive Inclusivity: We find no expressions of sympathy to the deported community for its dislocation, no empathic expressions towards the People Who Remained under Babylonian subjugation in Judah. The opposite is apparent: Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 10 November Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 26 August The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization.
To these civilizations, the Jews added a leaven of astonishing creativity in business, medicine, letters, science, the arts, and a variety of other leadership roles. Accessed 16 August Doctors to Princes and Paupers: Jews, Medicine, and Medieval Society. U of California, Dimont 1 June Jews, God, and History.
Paterson 21 May An Analysis and Brief History. The dietary and legal codes of Islam are based on those of Judaism. The basic design of the mosque, the Islamic house of worship, comes from that of the early synagogues. The communal prayer services of Islam and their devotional routines resembles those of Judaism. Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.
Johannes ; Ringgren, Helmer , eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Translated by Green, David E. A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary 11th ed. Archived from the original on August 5, How To Solve It". University of Louisville School of Law. A History of the Jewish Nation: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Retrieved 5 April University Press of America. Themes and Issues in Judaism. Although culture - and Judaism is a culture or cultures as well as religion - can be subdivided into different analytical categories Jewish Intellectuals and the Experience of Modernity.
Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 6 October An Introduction for Students. Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 24 December The Struggle for Identity Today. Birth, Death, and Femininity: The Beginnings of Jewishness. Oxford University Press published 8 May Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity.
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The Story of the Jews: A Short History of the Jews. The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Retrieved 1 April After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [ Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view.
The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period c. The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature.
Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period. New Insights and Scholarship. Western civilization 8th ed. What is generally agreed, however, is that between and B. Yoder 1 May Power and Politics in the Book of Judges: Men and Women of Valor. The Book of Judges. Thompson 1 January Early History of the Israelite People: In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in Biblical Origins.
The Jewish Study Bible 2nd ed. The Ancient Near East. The Bible and Interpretation. The Israelites in History and Tradition. Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Handy, Continuum, 1 May Quote: Retrieved 15 March Critical Notes on the Myth of the Mass Return". In Lipschitz, Oded; Oeming, Manfred. Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period. Archived from the original PDF on 21 July Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 11 October Explicit use of et al. The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October Moving Beyond the Nature Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1.
Mordechai Vermebrand and Betzalel S. London and New york. The Hidden Heritage of Diaspora Judaism: Volume 20 of Contributions to biblical exegesis and theology. Judaism And Hellenism Reconsidered. The Times Literary Supplement. Jewish Life and American Culture. State University of New York Press. The Israeli State and Society: The Jewish Cultural Tapestry: International Jewish Folk Traditions. Journal of Biblical Literature. The Society of Biblical Literature.
Journal of Semitic Studies. Embassy of Israel in Washington, D. Archived from the original PDF on 13 October International Handbook of Jewish Education. In contrast to other peoples who are masters of their national languages, Hebrew is not the 'common possession' of all Jewish people, and it mainly—if not exclusively—lives and breathes in Israel Although there are oases of Hebrew in certain schools, it has not become the Jewish lingua franca and English is rapidly taking its place as the Jewish people's language of communication. Even Hebrew-speaking Israeli representatives tend to use English in their public appearances at international Jewish conventions.
It is English rather than Hebrew that emerged as the lingua franca of the Jews towards the late 20th century Negotiating Language Policy in Schools: This priority given to English is related to the special relationship between Israel and the United States, and the current status of English as a lingua franca for Jews worldwide. Contemporary Jewish Collective Identities. Archived from the original on 7 March Only a minority of the Jewish people today can actually speak Hebrew. In order for a Jew from one country to talk to another who speaks a different language, it is more common to use English than Hebrew.
Retrieved 12 March Contemporary Sephardic Identity in the Americas: Jewish Languages Research Website. A History, 4th Edition. Multicultural Perspectives in Working with Families. Muslim Attitudes towards Jews and Israel. The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews. The community is divided between 'native' Georgian Jews and Russian-speaking Ashkenazim who began migrating there at the beginning of the 19th century, and especially during World War II. Readings in the Sociology of Jewish Languages. Jews in Tadzhikistan have adopted Tadzhik as their first language.
The number of Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazic Jews in that region is comparatively low cf. Both Ashkenazic and Oriental Jews have assimilated to Russian, the number of Jews speaking Russian as their first language amounting to a total of 6, It is reasonable to assume that the percentage of assimilated Ashkenazim is much higher than the portion of Oriental Jews.
A View of Basic Ecological Relations. Transnational Spaces and Identities in the Francophone World.
Jewish Culture and Society in North Africa. Archived from the original on 16 October Explorations in Jewish Historical Experience: From Sanctuary to Boardroom: A Jewish Approach to Leadership. The American Journal of Human Genetics. New York Review of Books. Major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". Lessons of population substructure in a closed group".
European Journal of Human Genetics. Retrieved April 1, Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Archived from the original on 16 November Genetic Studies Spark Identity Debate". Williams, Scott M, ed. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 8 August Freedom in the World.
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Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 7 August Israel's population nears 8M mark". Retrieved 7 July East European Jews in America, — Retrieved March 28, Moscow Urban News Agency. Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 3 July Jewish Community of Berlin. Rosenberg, Hamilton Books, , p. Archived from the original on 3 October Defining and Calculating Intermarriage". Archived from the original on 12 August La lente progression des mariages mixtes" PDF in French.
Archived from the original on 21 May American Society of Human Genetics. Retrieved 12 November