This is an extensive resource that requires no reference to alternative texts and is essential reading for all people involved in including children with SEN in PE. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Learn more about Amazon Prime. Offering practical strategies to include children with SEN fully into physical education, this unique title: Read more Read less. Routledge; 1 edition December 29, Language: Be the first to review this item Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video.
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I feel that children with disabilities suffer considerable humiliation from their non-disabled peers in the regular classroom. I feel that the appropriate educational materials are available so that I can teach children with disabilities. I feel that support services such as reading support, speech therapy, tutoring, psychology, diagnostics and nursing are readily available to me. I feel I have sufficient financial resources to purchase the materials to plan my classes and work with children with disabilities.
I intend to attend additional courses to broaden my knowledge about the education of students with disabilities. In this item, the intention of the teacher to participate in refresher courses in the area of Physical Education for people with disabilities was also analysed - minimum of three and maximum of 12 points. In addition to this instrument, teachers completed an anamnesis with general data on gender, age, length of teaching experience and whether they had already taken any extracurricular courses in the field of Physical Education for people with disabilities.
Data was initially presented through descriptive statistics, detailing the frequencies of responses for categorical variables and average values and variability for continuous variables. In order to compare the results of each category of the scale among teachers of both genders, different age groups, with different amounts of experience, who had students with different types of disability and who did or did not take extracurricular courses, t-student test for independent samples and analysis of variance were used. The data was processed in the statistical program SPSS This research aimed to analyze the attitudes of Physical Education teachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classes.
A change of attitude on the part of the teachers is fundamental so that they can have more favorable behaviors towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Thus, positive attitudes may strongly influence a positive approach to inclusion, making the process more beneficial and enriching. Moreover, more positive attitudes on the part of the teacher can affect the whole school environment, reaching other students and the community involved. The general characteristics of the teachers who participated in the study are summarized in Table 1.
It is possible to verify the predominance of male teachers, with more than 35 years of age and more than 10 years of teaching experience. In addition, the prevalence of those who took extracurricular courses on Physical Education for people with disabilities was also verified among participants.
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In Table 2 , the general data regarding the categories of the questionnaire are detailed, considering all the teachers participating in the study. Regarding the disabilities present among the students, 17 indicated intellectual disability; 15 motor disability; 15 multiple disabilities; and three. The results showed that teachers are generally optimistic about the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. The item reported with lower optimism was the perceived Support. In this item, which deals with how teachers perceive the support received from the school, the presence of a multidisciplinary support team and material resources, no participant indicated the maximum score 12 points and two indicated the minimum score three points , revealing dissatisfaction with this item.
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On the other items, no participating teacher scored a minimum score, and at least one on each item scored the maximum score, which indicates an optimistic general view of the study participants about their own professional skills, the benefits of inclusion and acceptance of the students included. The Acceptance item was the one that proportionally received the highest score on the part of the teachers researched, emphasizing that they perceive the students with disability are well accepted by the other classmates.
When dealing specifically with the Support received by the school, which involves the availability of human, material and financial resources to work with students with disabilities, Fiorini and Manzini highlight in their study with public school Physical Education teachers that the lack of pedagogical resources and the inappropriate spaces for the classes constituted in difficulties for the process of inclusion. Other negative points presented by the authors refer to the difficulty of teachers in obtaining access to information about the disabilities of the students and the lack of a support professional to collaborate in the classes, especially in the case of more severe disabilities.
In a literature review on inclusive education, Qi and Ha emphasize that when there is adequate support and infrastructure, both disabled and non-disabled students can benefit from the inclusion process.
The authors identified possible facilitating factors: Contrary to this, the negative aspects of the process would be the lack of adequate teacher education, insufficient support and the severity of the disability, with the more severe conditions generating greater difficulties. Perhaps these differences may be due to the fact that the male teachers who participated in the present study had more professional experience than the women, which may have influenced the observed result. It was found that more experienced teachers were more optimistic about their readiness to deal with students with disabilities and more optimistic about benefits from inclusion.
In contrast to this, teachers with less experience had a more pessimistic view about the support received by the school for the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classes. Hwang and Evans , when analyzing the attitudes of 29 South Korean teachers on the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education, found that most of them Another relevant fact in the research is that, in the same way as in our study, many teachers In addition, teachers with more experience were more pessimistic about inclusion, probably because of the lack of support received and the frustrating experiences they experienced during attempts to include pupils with disabilities in their classrooms.
In the present study, the amount of professional experience showed influence in the attitudes of the teachers, with greater optimism manifested among those with more experience. However, the literature points to controversial results in this regard.
Goodwin and Rossow-Kimball point out that successful experiences of Physical Education teachers with students with disabilities can positively reinforce self-efficacy, that is, how teachers perceive their competence to adequately deal with the various situations during class. Support must be provided for the experience to be positive and, consequently, to improve its self-efficacy. Negative and frustrating experiences with students with disabilities may lead to a reduction in self-efficacy, which may be a major hindrance to the inclusion process, since people tend to avoid situations in which they do not feel competent Bandura, No significant differences were found for the other disabilities.
This fact shows that these teachers perceived less competence to deal with situations involving the differentiated conditions of their students with intellectual disability. Some recent studies diverge from these findings. They show that motor disability, especially cerebral palsy with greater severity, is pointed out by Physical Education teachers as the most complex for inclusion in activities during classes Hodge et al.
The reason for such differences may lie in the severity of the condition, since the teachers participating in our study had students with motor impairments with lower degrees of impairment, while in the other studies cited, students presented greater loss of mobility, using, in many cases, a wheelchair as a means of mobility. In addition, the lack of specific classroom materials as well as inadequate architectural accessibility may lead to a greater tendency towards pessimism in the inclusion of students with motor disabilities.
For the participants of the present study, the greater severity of the intellectual disability presented by the students, which generated deep difficulties of understanding and participation in the activities, may have been responsible for the results observed. Other studies have also pointed out that the type and severity of pupil disability may interfere with teachers' attitudes towards school inclusion.
In the present study, since all teachers taught grades of very close proximity, such differences were not found. In both situations, teachers who took extracurricular courses demonstrate more optimistic perceptions about their ability to deal with students with disabilities as well as the support received by the school for inclusion. Moreover, extracurricular courses in the form of extension or graduate courses that deal with topics related to Special Education or adapted Physical Education may favor the improvement of the competence perceived by teachers to deal with the situations arising in the process Taliaferro et al.
Thus, education courses in the field of disability are seen as a fundamental part of continuing teacher education and can have a positive effect on how they perceive their competence to deal with students with disabilities in inclusive situations Florian, In summary, in the present study, the most positive attitudes were expressed by older male teachers, with more professional experience and who had done education courses for students with disabilities, both at the extension and lato sensu levels. However, some limitations can be raised, such as the reduced number of participants and the use of a quantitative tool to analyze teachers' attitudes.
Nevertheless, the data collected here reveal relevant information about how Physical Education teachers perceive the inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular classes of Physical Education at school. From the data obtained, it can be observed that the attitudes of Physical Education teachers towards the inclusion of students with disabilities are often contradictory, on the one hand demonstrating clarity about the benefits of the process for all students, but on the other hand fear that they do not have the necessary competence for proper performance.
The teacher's amount of experience and gender, as well as the type of student's disability, were factors influencing attitudes, reinforcing that women with less amount of experience, especially with students who have intellectual disabilities in their classes, present more negative attitudes of inclusion. The growing number of students with disabilities who are currently enrolled in the regular school system poses an imminent challenge to the entire school community.
Although Physical Education teachers in many situations show that they are more predisposed to inclusion than their peers in other areas, only adequate professional education and the implementation of new curricular approaches can improve the sense of competence of these professionals, helping to change their attitudes.
What is expected as a consequence is that the differences come to be perceived not as an obstacle in the educational process, but as an essential condition for human development in any teaching-learning context. Inclusion practices in elementary Physical Education: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education , v. Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Information Age Publishing Inc. Creation and validation of the self-efficacy instrument for physical education teacher education majors toward inclusion.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly , v. Inclusive Education in India: