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According to Assouline he said: But the characterisation is superb, with some marvellous individual characters. Michonnet, the vulgar ex-boxer, M. Oscar, and most of all the enigmatic Else come to life on the page. This map section from the Baedeker Paris and its environs shows the Boulevard de la Seine there. The broad street at the far right of the map is the Avenue de Neuilly, today's Avenue Charles de Gaulle. The section, about 30 kilometres c19 miles across, stretches from Arpajon in the north west to Morsang-sur-Loire, St. It was a transitional period in his career as a writer, completing his contracts for his fiction under pseudonyms, and launching into the work that he was striving to write.

And it was during the night of the 20th and the 21st of February that Simenon, with his publisher Fayard, launched two of the Maigret novels M. From then on he was published under his own name. Returning from Paris in March , he stayed at Guigneville-sur-Essonne where he produced two more Maigret novels and a lengthy short story.

Following on from this, in May, he travelled the short distance back to Morsang. Once again his output included two more Maigret novels and three lengthy short stories. All of these works, whether novels or short stories, were of the same genre, a mystery to be investigated by a police detective or a private individual. As Simenon has said, he did not feel ready at that time to attempt to write the "romans durs", as he called what was to be later labelled the "psychological novels" or "novels of destiny".

In spite of his ability and skills, it must have been difficult for him to switch from the pulp fiction, with its stock characters, which he had been writing since , to different ideas of characterisation and plot structure. But it can be seen in the early Maigret novels the direction in which he was going. Simenon must have enjoyed working in this region of France and it provided him with some of the settings for his writing, which included La Nuit du Carrefour. A short distance from the crossroads, eastwards, along the D26 is the village of Avrainville. Simenon wrote this Maigret novel in April whilst he was staying in Guigneville-sur-Essonne, less than ten miles away from its setting, which the author establishes in a few succinct sentences in the first chapter: A garage and its five petrol-pumps, painted red.

On the left the road to Avrainville, marked by a signpost. All around, fields as far as the eye could see. There were only three houses. First the garage proprietor's, in plaster tiles, run up in a speculative fever. A big sports model, with aluminium coachwork, was being filled up. Some mechanics were repairing a butcher's van. Facing the garage, a villa in millstone grit, with a narrow garden, surrounded by railings six feet high.

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The other house was at least two hundred yards away. The wall surrounding the park allowed only a glimpse of the first floor, a slate roof, and a few imposing trees. Within this setting Simenon places three very different sets of characters, Oscar, the garage owner, a former boxer, amiable, confident and relaxed, with his wife Germaine and a few mechanics. It is the enigmatic Else who becomes the centre of attention, and who plays a psychological game with Maigret. Just three groups of people from very different backgrounds living near each other along a main route at an isolated crossroad in the midst of large tracts of rural France.

And it is around these that Simenon weaves his convoluted plot, with Maigret moving from one individual to the next. Having arrived at the crossroads on a grey April afternoon, Maigret first encounters Else in her home, the largest of the three houses set in its own park, in the twilight.

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The tension builds, as there is very little light to illuminate the interior of the rambling house. In the ensuing darkness of the evening, the only lights at the crossroads come from the illuminated petrol pumps and the workshop, an occasional passing vehicle, but little else. It is Sergeant Lucas who expresses not only his theories, but also his fearful concerns of the location, while a gruff Maigret remains with his instinct.

Later that evening, a visitor to Avrainville is shot emerging from a car, with Maigret trying to pursue the perpetrator across a field in the glare of the car's headlights. Even the bright spring sunshine of the following day does little to alleviate the atmosphere. But once again the darkness of the following evening and night, punctuated by significant light, witnesses the final drama played out in each of the three establishments near the crossroads. It was intriguing to see it, as I have come across quite a few references to it from various sources.

The film has attracted attention for some time, as it is the first screen adaptation of a work by Georges Simenon, because of its director Jean Renoir and the first portrayal of Maigret on the screen. Jean Renoir and Georges Simenon, together, worked on the screenplay. The film was shot in the first three months of , so that the exterior scenes at the crossroads capture the dismal atmosphere of the late winter that conjures up Simenon's prose. Renoir not only uses the physical elements to create the overall feel throughout the film, but also instils a feeling of anticipation and tension in various ways.

At the garage, at times, there is almost a lackadaisical air amongst Monsieur Oscar and his mechanics, which contrasts to the eroticism of Else Andersen in the charged atmosphere of the old house in which she lives and where Maigret questions her. Maigret is played by Pierre Renoir, the elder brother of Jean, and he brings to the role many of the qualities of the policeman that Simenon created in these early novels. Moving around the few, but varied, individuals, none of who originate from the area, Maigret attempts to get to know them, gradually recognising the veneer and play-acting that he encounters.

Under Renoir's direction the film becomes less of a murder mystery than his own idea of a group of people whose lives are changed by accident, association or design, similar to the nature of Simenon's mature work. First released in April , a year after the novel on which it was based was written, the film attracted criticism as some of the plot sequences were missing. At first this was put down to reels of film being lost, or to Jean Renoir being distracted by personal problems, but it was most likely a lack of finance.

By knowing the content and plot of the novel, any viewer shouldn't be puzzled by any lack of continuity within the film. It is certainly an interesting film to see if the opportunity comes along. Le charretier de la Providence Maigret meets a milord - 2. Maybe some of the more expert contributors out there have some ideas on this?

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It smelled of stables, harnesses, tar and groceries, oil and gas". And there, in the summer of , he wrote, on the trot, three full-length novels: In reality this canal was constructed in to run parallel to the river Marne. This river meanders considerable, so that the canal, which runs straight for many stretches, is preferable for the barge traffic. In two trips, Simenon explored much of this network of canals and rivers in his first boat, the " Ginette ", in and then, between and in his larger craft the " Ostrogoth ".

Simenon seemed to have been fascinated by water throughout most of his life, setting some of his novels and short stories by, or on, canals, rivers, lakes and the sea. One of the strengths of the novel is how well Simenon constructs the storyline into the setting of canal life made authentic from his personal experience. In the spring of , he bought the " Ginette ", a boat measuring 13 feet in length by 5 feet wide, which he then fitted with a three horsepower engine.

This was to carry him, his wife Tigy, their maid and cook Boule and their dog, a great Dane named Olaf, from mid-April to the end of September of , through some of the rivers and canals of France. During this trip, Simenon continued to write his novels and short stories under pseudonyms, so the boat had on board his typewriter and a stock of paper.

Most of the other necessary equipment for this journey was towed behind in a canoe. Later Simenon wrote several articles about this journey, commissioned by various magazines, and some of the details are used in Le Charretier de la "Providence". Most of the photographs of canal life that illustrate these published articles were taken at a later date. In July and August , Simenon, accompanied by the Czechoslovak photographer Hans Oplatka, went over the itinerary undertaken in , but this time by car.

In one of his articles in Une France inconnue ou L'Aventure entre deux berges - An unknown France or The Adventure between two banks - published in in the magazine "Vu" , Simenon writes: Eventually the owners of the barge just ahead of them invited them on board to shelter and dry off.

And in the article he continues: Simenon admirably portrays the differences between the two sets of lifestyles. From the beginning, Maigret realises that few craft along the canal remain in one place for long, especially with fifteen locks to negotiate, so he resorts in following their progress by taking to the towpath on a borrowed bicycle. Leaving much of the collection of information to Lucas, Maigret gradually discovers how tragically these two very different lifestyles are interwoven. Three hundred thousand copies of the books of the father of Maigret were sold in , as opposed to one hundred thousand in , according to evaluations of Ipsos of retail sales in metropolitan France.

The number of registered titles increased from to Seventy percent of sales were in paperback, which outsold "Folio" Gallimard and Omnibus, publishers of the Complete Works. Since the beginning of this year, Simenon sales continue to maintain a good level, below , but higher than The phenomenon is not limited to France. The centenary occurred shortly after the sale of Simenon rights by his heirs to the English company Chorion "Le Monde des livres" September 14, This rights management enterprise, which also manages Agatha Christie and Oui-Oui, reviewed all their contracts.

Penguin reissued twelve Maigrets in Britain in , while other publishers published what Simenon called his "hard" novels. Samuel Meyer, Le fou de Bergerac The Madman of Bergerac had pursued his illegal activities in Algeria under the guise of being a postage-stamp dealer. Il innocente le principal suspect, un homme roux Simenon and philately The world of stamp collecting appears on at least four occasions in the works of Simenon, but always without Maigret. An investigation published in in Le Petit Docteur , a compilation of short stories, is the fourth: In the chapter La Piste de l'homme roux , the "little doctor" solves the mystery of the murder of an "old expert in objects of art who lives alone in the middle of his collections".

He clears the principal suspect, a red-headed man If you do a search on this site, from the bottom of this page, you will get links to all that I have been able to find regarding Simenon's pipe smoking, including a link to alt. It was also said, in the Paris Match article , and on the alt. S, it was labelled "Coupe Maigret", but maybe it was merely "Elizabethan" spiced up with a little more Perique. Of all the photos I have seen of Georges Simenon, with pipe in mouth, they were all straight stem pipes.

But in that same Paris Match article of there are a couple of bent pipes in the foreground of the photo showing his "work table". Like you, I would like to see something where Georges Simenon talks at length about his pipes and tobacco. Let us know if you find something won't you? Keep looking, Bob Kerr. The canal setting allows Simenon to activate his recent observations and enthusiasms, transferring them to Maigret, who noses out the secret by absorbing the canal-life atmosphere.

The skeleton in the closet is the long-lost love of a young doctor for a jazzy, destructive woman who betrays him. The doctor goes overseas and returns years later as an inarticulate bargehand, one of Simenon's innumerable dropouts. Accident brings him in contact with his beloved, whom he murders. Solving the crime and finding pathos, Maigret displays his characteristic sympathy for a technical criminal, who dies at the end, obviating any legal questions of criminal justice.

New British TV Maigret? They are currently producing new TV films based on the novels of Agatha Christie, four Poirot films have been showed on TV recently and a Miss Marple series is also being prepared. Another choice would be a series based on novels by E. Crispin featuring Gervase Fen.

The Burglar's Wife was broadcast last week but can be heard here. On Monday 26 April they will broadcast The Yellow Dog and it looks very much as if there will be others subsequently. For those wishing to retain the audio for personal use in the future, Net Transport does the job very nicely. Hope this is of some use I have identified the following. Can anyone add to the list? Can anyone confirm this?

All of these are from the early nineteen-thirties, and of course not all of them are Maigrets. Additions and corrections are welcome. No luck so far. We have already talked this one to death here and several of us have asked the BBC to make this available again to no avail. There seems to be a market for this product for this and you're missing it. Oh, the evils of socialism and state ownership of what should be a private business! There are 4 dramatisations with Nicholas Le Provost as Maigret.

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They can be obtained from www. Unfortunately, for some reason Fenton Bresler has indicated the wrong Morsang. The confusion could have arisen from the fact that the two Morsangs are only a few miles from each other and both near Corbeil. But can anyone tell if it's actually wooden, horse-drawn? I suspect it's not With the publication of Le Charretier de la "Providence" , his third novel in three months, the word record became increasingly linked to his name.

But few of his contemporaries had any idea of the labor and creative energy that went into his easily denigrated novels. Assouline, p In an article entitled "For and Against the Police Novel", [Robert] Brasillach compared Simenon to Malherbe, raved about the power with which he describes a canal in Le Charretier de la "Providence" , hailed the portrait of decay and degradation in L'Affaire Saint-Fiacre , and called Maigret the Monsieur Bergson of the police novel.

But in the end he criticized Simenon for neglecting the action Assouline, p In a quote which might refer directly to Le Charretier de la "Providence" , Simenon said: It would have been easy to put words in the mouths of people like myself. Complex characters are easy to create, since the writer, by definition complicated, senses and understands them better than any others. Le charretier de la Providence Maigret meets a milord - 9. Le charretier de la Providence Maigret meets a milord - It would seem the film was never made.

Simenon apparently writes about his experiences with the film industry in one of his autobiographical books, Point Virgule. Does anyone know any more about this? The following extract gives a brief reason for his notoriety: He openly espoused fascism after the February 6, riots in the Place de la Concorde. Brasillach was tried by the High Court and sentenced to death for collaboration on January 19, His trial stirred angry debate among French intellectuals regarding the responsibility of writers for the actions their works incite.

Albert Camus signed the petition, but only because he opposed the death penalty in all cases.


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De Gaulle refused commutation, holding firm in his belief that intellectuals must be held accountable for the consequences of the ideas they propagate. Brasillach was executed on February 6, Maigret et le clochard Origine: Dominique Garnier et Christian de Chalonge. Maigret, qui a pris l'affaire en main, l'interroge et va ainsi de surprise en surprise.

Maigret se voit contraint de continuer ses recherches. One summer evening, on the banks of the Seine, a man is hit on the head and tossed into the river. Saved in the nick of time by a mariner, the victim turns out to be a clochard of the area. Maigret, taking charge of the affair, questions him, and finds one surprise after another. A physician, he'd abandoned his profession and family one day, for no apparent reason, to live under the bridges. And all the more astonishing is that he refuses to say a word to help the commissioner. Maigret finds himself compelled to continue his investigation on his own.

The following details add more food for thought. Also with the manuscript is the yellow envelope with preliminary details concerned with the novel, and a card containing more details. Years before, Simenon had bought a supply of cheap yellow coloured envelopes and it was his ritual to write on the envelope preliminary details which he was going to use in his novel as a memory guide.

At times he also used small sheets of card as well as additional sheets of paper to note down further details. With these there is also the Calendar another ritual on which he marked off the days that he spent writing the novel, and its revision. The manuscript is signed and dated Epalinges, the 13 th of October , and with it is the yellow envelope, as well as 14 other sheets of documentation, plus the Calendar.

Nine days are marked off, the 5 th to the 13 th of October for the time Simenon took to write the novel, with nine days of revision, the 13 th to the 21 st of January The Calendar indicates that this novel was written over seven days, from the 25 th of February to the 1 st of March five days and then from the 8 th to the 9 th of March two days. Apparently Simenon went down with influenza in between the two writing sessions.

The revision was carried out between the 29 th of March and the 2 nd of April five days. There is a part entitled "La Paris de Maigret" and comments about the way Simenon's books have been adapted as movies. And there's a link to a description of a filmed Simenon interview with Commissaire Massu in 'A la recherche de Maigret'. I'll try to go see it Look at Jerome's most recent letter and click on the link there. At the bottom is a link to www. Click that and then Agenda , and you'll get to the display below.

There are at least three double DVD's available or six episodes out of a total of They may also be available from other French sources like Amazon. It opened in There are three parts, as Simenon wrote: Simenon knew Josephine Baker and met her often. He became her secretary in order to disguise their affair. Well-known writers like Kessel or Hemingway, and painters like Picasso and Giacometti were some of the artists who came there. Some of the pillars of the main room were decorated by Marie Vassilief [] in There is still a counter in the left part of the main room.

Do you know why this Maigret was printed in French with two different titles: Does the latter come from the movie? The actor on the cover of the book above left is the star of the film, the English actor, Charles Laughton, best known perhaps for his portrayal of Captain Bligh in Mutiny on the Bounty. The Paris-Match photograph showing Simenon with Josephine Baker is in fact part of a group photograph that has, on the left, Tigy Simenon's wife , then Simenon, next to him is Josephine Baker and next to her Giuseppe Abatino for a time, her manager with two others.

But was this taken at La Coupole? Some publications reproducing this photograph date it as Paris-Match and Eskin's Biography or Bresler's Biography , but La Coupole did not open until the 20 th of December , by which time Simenon had finished his relationship with Josephine Baker. All of the early photographs and drawings of the basement of La Coupole that I have so far seen show that it was a dance floor for the general public and not a stage area for entertainers. Perhaps minor points, but does anyone have any more information about these items?

Doyle ran out of ideas for Sherlock Holmes. The plot varies, but the pace, the order of development, and the personality of the detective all remain the same. At a certain point, the Dick Francis hero of the day will get beaten within an inch of his life. Sooner or later, the Ross Macdonald investigation will turn up some past psychological trauma that led, decades later, to the crime. Hercule Poirot will find a second, or a third murder victim. I've just re-read "Maigret et les temoins recalcitrants.

Then all of a sudden he interrogates a woman he really likes. The reader likes her, too, and hopes all her dreams come true. Then, as Maigret leaves her apartment, he sees a clue that will destroy all her hopes. What a plot device! And then I realized, with great appreciation, that Simenon had written forty Maigrets in which he did not use that particular trick.

Each novel has its own tricks and twists. After the earliest novels, almost every book has some character you come to like, but the fate of the sympathetic character is always unpredictable. She had arrived from St Louis; she was 19 years old; and she lived in an apartment near the Parc Monceau.

She was obscene and divine as she excited her audience, mocked them and rejected them. In private life Josephine Baker was rather as she was on stage: Among her lovers was 'le petit Sim', who, unknown to Tigy, became one of her most fervent and regular admirers. They made love with a violent energy that Sim found overwhelming. He wrote in Memoires intimes: It must be the only bottom which has become the centre of a cult. And it is everywhere, on music sheets, on magazine covers, plastered all over the city's walls, because it is the only bottom that laughs! In the summer of Sim said later that he had fled to get away from Josephine Baker because his affection for her was disturbing his marriage, but it was as much a flight from the kind of life they had been living, which had started going too fast and which was threatening his work.

Il est cinq heures.

Simenon sort brusquement de son bureau et nous l'entendons crier: It is five o'clock. The sky is growing dark. Simenon comes out of his office suddenly, and we hear him shout, "Denise his wife , would you bring me my wallet, a handkerchief and a handful of change? I've just noticed that since this morning my pockets have been empty. Trois femmes comptaient dans la vie de Boyer: If so, where can they be purchased? Thank you, Jane Geltner. A documentary on Simenon But the conflict between Simenon and the film industry went deeper. Individualistic novelist and solitary creator that he was, he was uncomfortable with the collective efforts and industrial procedures inevitably entailed in filmmaking.

The ponderous chain of production annoyed him. Too many people had something to say about how the film came out. He was horrified by the sums of money and numbers of people involved and disoriented by a human and economic organization whose functioning eluded him. When he wrote a book, he was the sole master. When a film was made of one of his books, his role shrank steadily as the date of shooting approached, until finally he was the fifth wheel on the cart, a condition that finally seemed aberrant to a man who was used to being the center of his own universe and the heart of his own production system.

It was especially unpleasant for him to confront it for the first time just when his recent but promising success had fanned his most sensitive traits: Simenon was a stubborn man resistant to allowing his own personality to be dissolved in a project based on a gathering of talents of diverse origins. Even after collaborating on two screenplays, he did not understand that the director had to present in images what the writer tends merely to suggest in words. He refused to admit that adapters might have to take liberties with the novels on which their films were based. He therefore decided to make his own movies.

He believed that if he had learned to write by doing it, there was no reason why he could not learn fimmaking the same way. He would flout norms, schools, and rules, trust his own intuition, genius, and whims. Most of all he would get rid of all those irksome intruders who constantly urged him to modify, correct, add, or delete on the basis of criteria he did not share.

Some warned him of the difficulty of the enterprise and of the technical expertise required by this craft of which he knew nothing. He refused to listen. He made the proud announcement of his plans in an interview with Paris-Midi. He fell so in love with the place that he tried to buy it immediately, but the owner rejected his offer, and he had to be content with renting. It was in these surroundings that "his" film was to be born. The murderer in question is a twenty-five-year-old medical student of Czech origin.

Though he fled the Soviet regime, he had earlier participated in the revolution, and the police therefore regarded him as a Bolshevik propagandist. Simenon's murderer had many points in common with Ehrenbourg, and to top it off he gave him the name Jean Radek. This was a clever touch: Several years later he would be expelled on charges of Trotskyism. Simenon wanted Pierre Renoir to play Maigret again. He was the right man for the role, and his mere presence in the film would suggest to audiences that the films, like the books, were part of a series.

Simenon thought of everything, including the promotion of the film, which for the moment only existed on paper. When he invited Inkijinoff to his house in Charentes to work on the script, he made sure to alert a photographer from the movie magazine Pour vous.

The subsequent article struck just the right tone: In the end, alas, the film industry prevailed over Simenon's desire to go it alone. As he tells it, crooked producers paid him with rubber checks, thus forcing him to abandon the project. Perhaps the results of his cogitations in Charentes struck them as too amateurish and therefore too risky. One way or another, a furious and disgusted Simenon was forced to pull out.

Marcel Vandal and Charles Delac, producers at the Films d'Art company, then assigned the picture to Julien Duvivier, a seasoned director with some thirty films to his credit, including several literary adaptations.


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With Duvivier there would be no unpleasant surprises. Simenon wanted nothing more to do with this film or with films in general. Two commercial failures and his own aborted project convinced him that he would be boycotted by the industry, a prospect that did not concern him unduly. He expected his work to endure, and he was sure the movie companies would one day rediscover him, if only out of simple common sense: They would make movies the way he wrote.

Until then he would renounce films. If he could not make "his" great picture, he would refuse to allow anyone else to make it in his place. Film rights to his books were no longer for sale, a boycott that would last for seven years. But the false start had not been a total loss. He had made as fair amount of money, a hint of what he could get from the cinema if ever he decided to bow to its laws. In , movies were his second biggest source of income 75, franc , after the Maigret novels published by Fayard.

If we take into account the financial resources the Simenons needed for their extravagant lifestyle, we get an idea of the strength of principle required to keep his inspector off the screen, albeit temporarily. Assouline , pp Roddy. Penguin Editions UK: In late April this publisher reissued two non-Maigret novels: The latest Penguin edition has the original Geoffrey Sainsbury translation with updates by David Watson.

Penguin Books brought out the same translation in Scheduled to be published on the 29th of July The paperback was issued by Penguin Books in A mouthwatering article about cooking with ingredients bought at the market on Bd Richard-Lenoir. April in Paris , By Stephanie Alexander. Maigret of the Month - month title January. Pietr-le-Letton - Maigret and the Enigmatic Lett. L'ombre chinoise - Maigret Mystified. The first of these two novels is set in Sneek, whilst the second is set in Groningen and Amsterdam before moving to Paris. Simenon set it in the small Dutch port of Delfzijl Province of Groningen , on the estuary of the Ems, in the north-east of The Netherlands.

The author had reached Delfzijl in his boat during September where he had to have it caulked, forcing him to stay there until the work was completed. Whilst waiting for the repairs to be completed on his boat, Simenon had written the novel Train de Nuit , under the pseudonym of Christian Brulls, in which there is a police detective stationed in Marseille named Maigret, although his role in the novel is only a small one. Simenon wrote A Crime in Holland almost a year after The Crime at Lock 14 Le Charretier de la "Providence" , both being written on his boat, which was moored, more or less, at the same place on the river Seine at Morsang, seemingly a favourite spot for him.

Both novels have canal settings, but are very different in outlook. The Crime at Lock 14 is very much concerned with the people who operate the canals and provide facilities along them, as well as those who use the canals for their livelihood, with the occasional pleasure craft.

A Crime in Holland centres, in the main, on three families who live near a canal but don't have to use it in their daily lives. Maigret is thrust into both situations, having to learn quickly how the daily routine works for the people involved, especially with a murder in their midst. Lock 14 finds him in rural France, but with the later enquiry he finds himself in the north-west part of The Netherlands and having language difficulties.

He is there in a semi-official capacity at the request of the University of Nancy as one of their professors, on a lecture tour, is a possible suspect. Simenon describes Delfzijl and its environment as a close-knit community influenced in some cases with the Protestant ethic. This creates considerable tension among the groups of people with whom Maigret has to deal and it forms the crux of the problem he has to unravel.

Also it is one of the earliest works that has the theme of flight, where a person develops the need, mentally or physically, to flee from a situation. It is a theme that Simenon explores in different ways in quite a number of his novels and short stories. In these early novels, Maigret is brusque in his manner without turning aside from his instinct of " to understand and not to judge ", which is a characteristic of his approach to certain individuals. Perhaps in this novel his abruptness is conditioned by a certain undercurrent of hostility engendered by his probing into a community that is not his own.

With them all together he gradually unfolds the truth. By being among a not particularly endearing group of individuals in a confining atmosphere, admirably realised by Simenon, Maigret is clearly not in a frame of mind to stay for long and takes a very early morning train out of Delfzijl for Paris. The wayward translation, the only one so far of this novel, is by Geoffrey Sainsbury, but it is Simenon who has altered slightly the name of two of the locations.

The island of Workum in the mouth of the estuary of the Ems must surely be Borkum, whilst the smaller and little used canal Amsterdiep in reality is the Damster Diep. The first was written under the pseudonym of Christian Brulls, the other two by Georges Sim. Does anyone know if they are available in Dutch or English? Greetings, Jan Laffeber Netherlands. It can be obtained from fnac.

La reprise avec un autre acteur? For more information, visit www. They had been living in a service passage in a tram tunnell no tracks or trams for a very long time. One of them had actually died a month or more before the other, who continued to sleep next to the corpse of his friend. The second tramp's name was Ernest Picard and he was 75 years old. The reason I mention this is there is a tramp named Picard in M and the Fortuneteller.

His final destiny was not mentioned in the story and I hope it was better than his namesake here. Incidently, I ran across Moers the other week. It's a small city in Germany near Essen, where I was going to visit the big tire industry trade fair that takes place there every other year. Moers was just off the expressway I was driving on. I did not actually go there. It is Duclos in this chapter who articulates Simenon's theme, talking about the austerity of the Protestant sect to which Popinga's wife, father-in-law and sister-in-law belong he himself is also a Protestant.

This world-view permeates the bourgeois society of Delfzijl. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App.

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