It was interesting to see how the water had carved its way down through the rock over the millennia. There were some interesting micro climate effects too - the gorge was clearly cooler than the wider valley with quite a well defined transition. A couple of points along the way were narrow enough to touch both sides and you really wouldn't want to be there after a storm.
So we get close to the end where it starts to get wider and Wife spots a bird sitting on the opposite side and although it skulks about in some vines so I never quite see it I'm wondering if it was a wall creeper. Need to look it up update: Finally we get to the end of the walkway where there is a platform and a couple of benches where we sit and drink and eat mars bars not me I'm a good boy!
The stream carries on up the hill but less gorge-like from here so I can see why the walkway stops here. We make much quicker time back pausing to allow Daughter to do some ballet natch. Oh and for Son to drop leaves in the stream. Back at the entrance Daughter spent five Euros on some nice shiny stones.
We bravely use the hideous loos then set off for home. Stop for petrol as we are definitely not going to have enough to get to airport. And it's attended but I can't for the life of me remember how to say 20 so have to pull out a note. Redeem myself slightly with "j' ai oublier" which whilst entirely correct is at least one of the past tenses - technically perfect but wrong, berdum-tisch. Further down the road we get to a place where the road is clearly new and we ignore Jane who for several miles clearly thinks we are in a field.
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This would be funny but I'm tailgated by an absolute idiot who had the chance to overtake me at the start but didn't and now wants to get in the boot. This road is odd being 1. Anyway we somehow avoided the toll road so there are plenty of roundabouts and so on and he undertakes me at the first chance. Of course he then travels the next few miles at the speed limit so what he has gained can only be in his head. Finally get home and claim the last space in the square. The light is great and the sky clear so Wife pulls off a veritable feast of balti and Son eats like he wants to do something after tea ie quickly for a change and we pile into the car at 7.
I'm confused by satnav and we end up having to drive back through the square to get pointed the right way then still can't make the right turn out to be fair steep ramp up then degree turn on v narrow road everyone must need to do some reversing to make that one! A couple of km out we are treated to a glorious view of distant hills and valleys and I take a few quick shots. A very brisk wind means there are some fair lenticular clouds too though still nothing really classic.
At the next great viewpoint I take a few more but it is clear the light has now gone at the ground level in the valley so no point going to the lake. Son disappointed but even though road is better than expected still difficult ESP in the dark I feel. I nick a single taster grape of nearby vine very sweet and delicious!
Back in the village we reclaim our space and again Son is sad we won't be forced into the steep road of the overflow parking. That boy is a nutter. Next three hours is kids-to-bed and packing and clearing up. We're all done by 11 so one final mash Wife-at-Blokus seals the end of our time in Belesta. I wanted to include one of the gorge but to be honest they just couldn't compare with this view - I mean I enjoyed the gorge but the shock of seeing this view is still with me we just didn't expect to see it around the back of the village. The colouring is from a varicolour filter, and in my view it does enhance the image.
One of them is a sign confirming that small planes are a sign of a snuff film but also how that can be averted like in the crash of a Cessna where 5 people were rescued in story at minutes into class 72 at www. Also small planes are like a red Honda car that are just as a sign of the wrath of God. I also have an update about Firefox from videos 50 and 72 on playlist 4 at www. Safari was 86ed when I found out the Apple Store deliberately didn't teach me how to use iMovie but God was saying that murder is a far worse offense and to go back to Safari.
The signs I got that Chrome wanted me back reminded me of Al Pacino in The Godfather and in Scarface when the macho idiots find out how offensive it is when you try to or succeed in murdering somebody. I explain why YouTube blocked me from working on these playlists at vimeo. Now finally back to what I originally wrote at this Pearl Harbor picture 6. I'm really glad that I wrote at Pearl Harbor picture 5 tonight because it gave me the trump card I needed to watch the Mozilla Firefox Start Page video, it was to evil to even look at before.
Except a refrigerator wit at 8: TF also means private propeller planes like Tom Feliciano owned, it can mean a sign of a death when I hear a small plane. It's like on the date when street sweepers changed from a sign of Happy Days into a sign of DP pegged out waste as the number This is the first line of the description of PL Apparently the people that own private planes didn't like that being the symbol of a Tire Fire so a lot of them get together once a year at a place called Burning Man Alive, Nevada to have a communion of their hatred for me, apparently.
One thing nice about it is I just got a big insight to how and why Michael Jackson died. When I looked up Burning Man Alive, Nevada on Google I noticed the similarity of the pictures of a burning man that looked a lot like Michael Jackson on the cover of Michael Jackson's greatest hits CD and when I saw that I got a rqam with that fight still going on outside. Except next to it means that he was twins with the state of Alaska like in class vimeo. The insight to Michael Jackson is also what I just wrote on the previous page from class vimeo. It's gets EX-pensive when the stars try to steal glory from God.
Class 15 is about Hollywood's best kept secret: As soon as he said that Tom left the room, hurt and or sad. Tom Feliciano told me he was called to be a prophet God, like I was but he couldn't handle the rejection. He said that because I just spent a week at work barely talking to anybody and not socializing or eating with anybody at breakfast, lunch or dinner. I only had to do that for one week at pump Station five, probably in , but I had to do that for six months straight at pump station one in ?
Here's what I wrote about it in my Bible notes at friendfeed. In I was called to be a prophet if gloom at Pump Station 1, to show them what they would look like when Alaska's evil joke on me backfired on them, see Jer Send them away from my presence! Do not eat and drink with them at all. In your own lifetime, before your very eyes, I will put an end to the happy singing and laughter in this land. The joyful voices of bridegrooms and brides will no longer be heard. This was my calling at PS-1 to show them what they would look like depressed when their Devils Club joke on me backfired on them.
Here's an example of how God can cover for your overpaid sins in my Bible notes, [in the brackets]. That was confirmed at rwpm on when I said "it's because I'm married to God", that was a confirmation because we were. Then I realized on that God got me a milepost job, at miles on the Alaska pipeline was the easiest job I had in the 16 years I worked on the pipeline.
There was nothing happening on night shift so I spent 11 hours of my 12 hour shift watching the. If you're in God's will you can come through with a bit of magic once in a while and that will get God to smooth over how over paid you are. But to watch it fall on company time then UR2EZ applies and it helps explain these next two verses. His bread will be supplied, and water will not fail him. In class 1a1 vimeo. Then I show a scene from the movie Anastasia where all the people are singing this song:.
I neglected to point out the huge difference between that whole city gossiping versus me refraining from it because I knew it would become obvious later, like right now. It's especially a big sign because by the end of that song the whole city is dancing in perfect choreographed harmony which was a sign of them all being in harmony on the latest gossip. I did my best hard-hitting class against them, actually God made it because , the media got EX-posed as Evil liars in that 15 minute class Lc www.
Thank you to Fraulein Simoneaux for leading a fun and informative discussion on women in and how to incorporate our knowledge of the period into our rp. Here's a copy of the discussion for those of you who couldn't make it. My apologies for not cleaning up the typos! Teruumi Jacqueline Simoneaux Korina Asamoah: As Fraulein Zoe mentioned we had a lovely chat about women last week. I noticed that many people not even involved with Berlin or SL in general had a very one sided view of what women were like during the 20s.
I think we all can agree that most likely the flapper is a reaction to WWI. And women cut their hair, started smoking, the corset was dumped. Women started to gain a voice in the society. When we look at our RL selves we can notice a change. We are influenced by all kinds of different global and private events and happenings and it changes us as people.
But we in SL are stuck in a way, especially here in Berlin because we replay the events of but none of us have lived during that time so we can only trust our imagination. Tequila Mockingbird Tequila Krovac: And on that note I thought it would be great for us to meet and discuss how can we enhance our roleplay. Great for me, too. I often forget myself and chatter OOC stuff at inappropriate times. Have you seen Boardwalk, the series? I think that show is well in terms of research regarding our time. For example, I did some reading here and there and I found information that by there was a new kind of flapper evolved.
She danced, smoked, drove cars but she was a lot tamer from the first flappers. Without the sense of having a man around or a mother around who cares what we do it is easy to go wild an play a flapper. They didn't participate in petting parties, wore a lot less makeup. Gustav von Rosenheim gustav Resident: Recently I'd found out that learning about s is very important to understand s Berlin. Greta Fuchsin GretaFuchsin Resident: They were becoming more respectable and "professional". I guess s Berlin or German, is quite similar to s. Lots of men dead or gone. And hunger gave women to position to work in society.
Amazingly watching the movie, "Berlin Symphony". I think there is a lack of older women also, and we have to consider that not all the females were flappers. That was actually a minority, as I understand. Has anyone watched the 13 hour "berlin Alexanderplatz". And not all young females were flappers Aside from it being difficult to find older women skins and shapes, I'm not sure why I continue to be a young woman as a character in Berlin. I think another thing we don't have is a clear social structure.
Oh, I think there is also a huge woman, I think she is named Lolle? Finding a good "aged" skin is bit tough in SL I have a question. In what ways do you behave different here in Berlin as opposed to other places in SL, as a nod to historical accuracy. Aside from your appearance, I mean? I come here roleplay so as I said when we spoke last week, I try to approach it as a writer. I gave this example to Herr Web yesterday. Imagine five people sitting at a table. When I came here, I was scared to death about the roleplaying.
I wasn't sure what to expect. Listening to some of the residents showed me how to be "me" but still "in character". I try to keep in character but be me also. I try not to IM at all while in RP. If there one thing I hate is when I enter a room and everyone is quiet, sending IMs, instead of being engaged in RP chat. Some things will not translate from the 's to the 21st century.
We, not matter how much research we do, will not be perfect 's people. But we can also respect the time we are in here and act as close to the times as we can.
I think in order to have a better rp, we all must have our roles clear…otherwise the local chat is simply not interesting. Of course, but say you walk into the Keller and it's full of people but dead silent mostly. That's because everyone is IMing. For the newcomers, we have a Facebook page.
I'm thinking thats a good place to post the film list, as that way oithers can contribute. Some prefer not to because then they can really "meet" people and get to know them the way they would in RL. I have some info. I like to learn about people by interacting with them in RP, but I give a little background. I keep a short blurb in my picks and then when I rp needs it I share more. Also, there are oral history interviews you can read on Flickr. To learn more about the histories of some of the old timers. Correct, but do we have to give a full bio in our profile? For me, it kind of ruins the RP fun.
To me it, helps my character reacting to events if I understand where it comes from. Exceot that the script is being written while we do that. But I mean, even if having cear roles in the city, sometimes rp simply does not happen…Like Morgie has all those stores, and Addie have the photo studio. How many of you had visited her studios to rp a portrait? Morganic's really not that much into RP, as far as i know, he's into building and organizing.
True, he doesn't rp much. But he's very knowledgeable about the period. He's a good resource and fun to talk to. Anyone would be able to make a little synthesis for Frau Jo? I do not think we have met any agreements, have we? Morganic is friendly and has a lot of knowledge of the time, i've learnt lots from him. Vera started one last autumn, but then it all ended. I am sorry, but its very difficult to type when every letter appears 2 seconds later sorry for errors.
Criminal women is a must have…they help a lot as they are less suspicious of things. Frau Jo Yardley Jo Yardley: Yes, the police that checks the political events is different than criminal police, no? So, criminal police could be easily rp'ed without interfering with Dantiz. Yes, police forces have divisions as far as I understand…some place investigate protests and political crimes, while the criminal police would be on charge of investigating murderers, no? My mother was still ill but my father might come next week to Berlin!
Depends on mothers health. And you can always be with or against nazism, no? In RL not every German citizen would be in agreement with it. I hope people see the movie M and get excited about creating a Berlin based underworld. I read a book that is called 'the wet fish' and it is very interesting, involving some Russian gold that is leading to several murders, but the book is not translated to English for some weird reason.
Pola, you have to kidnap Alf and give him a makeover, so, there, I've given you a first criminal underworld plan ;. May I participate in that one? The fashion police arrests Alf! Well, don't go getting to movie star-ish I'm tellin' ya, being handsome in Berlin ain't for sissies. Some of the women are crazy. Fru Jo, do you think it is possible to profile some characters for the May protests?
I mean, I have no clue on where my character would fit in that event Like a flapper for example…. But well, all of my friends are I think a little bit of reading is good for imagination…. I have guests at home RL this evening and most go to organize everything, but I will be following this conversation via FB if you post it there. I think it's safe to say that ladies should wear proper underthings. Thank goodness we don't carry those here. Lori Miles Lorelai Winslet: Thank you for organizing this event Frl Foodiboo and Frl Simoneaux. I hope it was fun and informative to you despite the fact we kind of traveled further from the topic.
The NoHo East Historic District, which is centered on Bleecker Street between the Bowery and Lafayette Street, consists of forty-two buildings constructed between the early nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, and includes residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. The earliest developments were rows of Federal-style row houses that were constructed in the first decades of the nineteenth century for middle-class New Yorkers who were moving uptown as the lower Manhattan business district rapidly expanded into existing residential neighborhoods. While many of these houses were replaced or greatly altered later in the nineteenth century or during the early twentieth century, a rare group of Federal row houses survive at 7 to 13 and 21 to 25 Bleecker Street, as well as at Elizabeth Street and to Bowery.
A second period of residential development occurred following the Civil War, a period during which the NoHo East area began its transformation from a low-scale neighborhood of row houses to a densely built-up and crowded urban sector. During this period, many of the leading New York architects of the day designed speculative multiple dwellings. The following year, architects David and John Jardine designed a group of small, Italianate-style apartment buildings at 1, 3, and 5 Bleecker Street, and Bowery. Five neo-Grec-style tenement houses with ground-floor commercial space were constructed in at , , and Elizabeth Street and and Bowery by members of the Humphreys family; all were designed by architect Charles Mettam.
By the s, larger commercial buildings began to spread into the area from the west and south, replacing several early-nineteenth-century houses. Raht to design their Romanesque Revival-style printing plant at Bleecker Street, which was built in In , owner William S. Also that year, renowned architect Frederick C. A seven-story, Renaissance Revival-style factory, designed and built by John T. Williams, was built at Bleecker Street in A six-story, Renaissance Revival-style, store-and-loft building was constructed at Bleecker Street in , designed by architect Ralph S.
Townsend for owner Harry Chaffee. Some smaller-scale commercial buildings were also constructed after the turn of the century. Stier, who assembled wagons here into the s. In , a stable with lofts on the upper floors, designed by architect Frederick Musty, was built at Elizabeth Street for owner E. In , a seven-story store-and loft building, designed in the neo-Classical style by architect Frederick Eberling, was built at Bleecker Street for owner Keba Chodorow, whose fur business occupied space in the building into the s. Residential development resumed around the turn of the century, at a time when many Italian immigrants were moving into the neighborhood.
Soon afterwards, both buildings were completely occupied by Italian families. In the s, when many people of Italian heritage still lived in the area, two new buildings were constructed and many alterations performed. In , a store and dwelling, designed in the Colonial Revival style by architect Louis A. Sheinart, was constructed at Elizabeth Street for owners Joseph A. In , the Church of our Lady of Loretto, which was located on Elizabeth Street, constructed a brick building to house a school and rectory at Bleecker Street; it was designed in the Colonial Revival style by architect Silvio A.
An early nineteenth-century house at Mott Street was redesigned in by architect Ferdinand Savignano into a Colonial Revival-style dwelling for owner Joseph Pellitieri. The historic district includes an unusual street pattern featuring a gentle curve along Bleecker Street and closed vistas at the northern termini of Elizabeth and Mott Streets. This distinctive enclave retains much of its nineteenth and early-twentieth century residential and commercial character, although some storefronts, window sash, and similar materials have been altered.
Today, this diversity of small dwellings, apartment buildings, factories, lofts, and stables represents an intact and unusual historic mixed-use neighborhood in lower Manhattan. It occupies a low ridge rising from south to north that was known as Sandy Hill. The lower part of Elizabeth Street was laid out by and extended to Bleecker Street in Mott Street, which was named for prosperous colonial-era butcher, Joseph Mott, was laid out by , while Mulberry Street, named for a mulberry grove in the area, appeared by Both of these streets had been extended through to Bleecker Street by the s.
In , Broadway was extended north from Astor Place. This narrow lane originally provided access to the stables behind the houses on Broadway, Bond Street, and Bleecker Street. Although the Commissioners' Plan of superimposed a grid of avenues and streets over Manhattan, it did not regularize the existing streets in the NoHo area. Thus, the gentle curve of Bleecker Street between Broadway and the Bowery, and the northern terminations of Mulberry, Mott, and Elizabeth Streets at Bleecker Street, survive and give the NoHo East Historic District a distinctive character consisting of block-front panoramas and closed vistas.
By the first decade of the nineteenth century, a few houses had been built along the existing streets, with the greatest concentration standing on the west side of Broadway, between Bleecker Street and Astor Place, and along the Bowery. He leased the property to a Frenchman named Delacroix who opened Vauxhall Gardens, which offered concerts, fireworks, and pastoral relief from the city.
This amenity attracted wealthy families, who constructed splendid new homes in the area. By , the area had become a full-fledged suburb populated by many of New York's leading citizens. After the opening of Bleecker Street through his farm in , Anthony L. Bleecker began to sell building lots individually or in groups. Often, these properties changed hands many times during a short period of speculation. In , however, David G. Giles constructed a two- story, brick residence, now altered, at what is now 4 to 8 Bleecker Street, just west of the Bowery.
Three years later, a Federal-style, brick dwelling was constructed at 7 Bleecker Street by either financier James Roosevelt or tobacconist George Lorillard as an investment property. Construction along Bleecker Street, east of Broadway, continued through the s; by , it was completely built up. However, James Copeland, who built 21 Bleecker Street in c. During this period, similar houses were put up on the Bowery, which had long been a major route through the area, and along the newly-opened Elizabeth, Mott, and Mulberry Streets.
By the s, the NoHo East area was considered a "respectable neighborhood, of single-family dwellings occupied by affluent families who either owned or rented the houses. Other surviving Federal-era dwellings, some of which have been extensively altered, include , , and Bowery all built in c. Brinckerhoff ; 41 Bleecker Street built in c. In , public transportation to the lower Manhattan business district, heretofore limited to stagecoaches, was greatly improved with the introduction of the New York and Harlem Railroad's horse-drawn streetcars on rails along the Bowery.
Many of the Federal-era houses were subdivided into apartments and boarding rooms; some had been partially given over to commercial uses. Many of the new inhabitants were recently-arrived immigrants from Ireland. NoHo East was a thriving urban neighborhood whose residents represented a wide spectrum of ethnicity and social standing. For example, Charles McCaffrey, a physician, lived at 21 Bleecker Street with his family and butler in , while Robert and Martha Powell operated a boarding house next door at No. Also on Bleecker Street, there was a dentist at No. The Bowery had a druggist at No.
There was a butcher, a carpenter, and a cigar shop on Elizabeth Street, while Mott Street had a tailor, barber, and a liquor store. Adult men not working in these establishments toiled as bookbinders, laborers, seamen, dock workers, clerks, porters, salesmen, smiths, carpenters, policemen, servants, painters, masons, cartmen, plasterers, stone cutters, and artisans.
Many of the women worked as housekeepers, teachers, dressmakers, boarding house proprietors, upholsters, seamstresses, launderers, milliners, and shop keepers. In addition, by the s, the Bowery had become a central entertainment area in the city, and its sidewalks were lined with taverns, oyster bars, dance halls, and legitimate theaters.
The competition for space among businesses and residents soon pressured NoHo East landlords to enlarge or replace the existing early-nineteenth-century building stock. Many of the new buildings and building alterations were designed by the leading architects of the day. In , architect Nicholas Whyte designed a new Italianate-style building at Bowery aka 2 Bleecker Street ; although the New Building application at the Department of Buildings listed it as a store and dwelling, it appears that the building was soon in use as a store and warehouse.
That year, Whyte also designed a completely new Italianate-style facade for an early-nineteenth century house at Bleecker Street. In the late s, many Federal-style row houses, most of which were 2 VJ stories high, were raised to three stories and given new Italianate-style ornament, such as bracketed wood cornices and applied cast-iron window lintels. First-floor storefronts were sometimes installed during these renovations; and many interiors were divided into smaller apartments. The early-nineteenth-century buildings at 11, 13, 15, 21, and 23 Bleecker Street remain largely intact to their mid-century, Italianate-era enlargements and make-overs.
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, immigrants continued to pour into an ever more crowded NoHo East neighborhood, and commercial development began to push in from the south, west, and east. In the s, many of the businesses along the Bowery catered to the German population. There were popular theaters offering melodramas and variety shows, dime museums, concert halls, taverns, restaurants, oyster bars, pawn shops, and cafes. By the mids, raunchier forms of entertainment, such as peep shows, brothels, boxing rings, and gambling rooms, were thriving.
The seedier saloons offered sex as a mainstay. By the turn of the century, buildings along the Bowery were occupied as cheap lodging houses, missions, saloons, dime museums, penny arcades, and brothels. By the end of the nineteenth century, two Federal-era buildings at and Bowery had been combined and converted to a "museum" and a slot machine parlor.
He also described poor immigrant families huddled together in overcrowded houses and tenements on the side streets. In , while the elevated train was being erected overhead, two four-story, neo-Grec- style buildings, designed by architect Charles Mettam, were built by George W. Taylor at and Bowery. Although their new building applications listed them as a stores, both buildings were in use as a lodging houses within a year of completion.
The Federal census, which combined these buildings statistically, listed forty-three single male residents, aged eighteen to fifty three.
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In , these buildings housed eighty-five men, aged eighteen to seventy five; in , there were sixty three, from age sixteen to sixty-four; in , the population had skyrocketed to , and in , it was 81 men and boys, aged two to sixty four. An increasing number of men from Italy and Russia arrived in the latter years. Most of these men found work as laborers, drivers, waiters, cooks, and clerks, as well as in a variety of other blue-collar jobs. The New York State Census described these buildings as lofts, although records at the Department of Buildings still listed the use as lodging houses.
Nevertheless, city directories continued to list Bowery as a single-room occupancy hotel through the s. In , Charles N. Crittenton, a wealthy New York drug supply manufacturer, purchased two dwelling houses at 21 and 23 Bleecker Street and joined them internally for use by his newly-established Florence Crittenton Rescue Home for Girls and Night Mission for Fallen Women later the National Florence Crittenton Foundation.
He founded the institution, which he named after his late daughter, in as a shelter for troubled and runaway young girls, many of whom were orphaned, and as a mission for women of ill repute. The mission gained renown for its midnight gospel readings. While the New York City Police Census lists but ten residents, the Federal Census counted thirty-four people, including four staff, twenty-seven female inmates, aged 17 to 56, and three children of inmates.
By the tum-of-the-century, the Crittenton Foundation operated in many large U. Upon his death in , Crittenton bequeathed a large part of his fortune to the. In , it relocated to West 27th Street, at which time No. Other late-nineteenth residential developments include Bowery and to Elizabeth Street. According to the Federal census, the apartments were rented by Germans and German- Americans. By the turn of the century, however, they had been replaced mainly by Irish and Russian immigrants. Three neo-Grec-style tenements with stores, designed by architect Charles Mettam, were built in at , , and Elizabeth Street by the heirs of Horatio N.
Through the turn of the century, they were occupied mainly by German, Irish, and Italian immigrants. These lofts, which were designed by many of the leading architects of the day in a variety of then-fashionable revival styles, towered over the residential buildings with which they mixed. Their arrival profoundly changed the scale of the neighborhood, and heralded the modern-day NoHo East Historic District. The store and loft building type originated in the early nineteenth century as merchants and real estate speculators began to build structures in Manhattan specifically to satisfy the commercial needs of the growing city, which was then developing into the country's major port and trading center.
This growth followed a northward pattern, with commercial development pushing up Broadway, supplanting prime residential areas that were reestablished farther to the north. In the s, this growth accelerated due, in part, to the opening of the trans-continental railroad and the ensuing economic boom. By this time, Manhattan's spreading dry goods district was approaching the section of Broadway north of Houston Street. Broadway was redeveloped first, followed at a slower pace by its surrounding streets, which remained residential in character for a longer time.
High rents for commercial and industrial space along Broadway produced the right economic climate for the construction of larger buildings and also spurred the development of new loft buildings on the side streets. The textile trades — silk, wool, cotton, hosiery, underwear, knitted goods, and commission houses — were centered in the area, as were jobbing houses, retail specialty houses, and the offices serving these firms. At the time, many printers and lithographers were moving to the NoHo East area.
The original building, which consisted of brick and marble facades with a mansard roof, was substantially damaged and partially collapsed in a fire in The building was immediately rebuilt to its present form by the same architect and owners. In , it became the American Lithographic Company. Ettlinger was also a director of the Crowell Publishing Co. Interested in horticulture, Ettlinger imported and cultivated trees from around the world at his estate in Peekskill, New York.
Ettlinger owned the building until A small, Renaissance Revival-style store building, designed by well-known architect Frederick C. Withers, was built by E. Day at 9 Bleecker Street in for owner Aaron Wright. A seven-story Romanesque Revival style commercial building, designed by architect Albert Buchman, was built at Bleecker Street in , for owners Alexander List and Thomas Lennon.
These four loft buildings displaced at least ten Federal-era row houses, although many row houses had already been converted at least partially to commercial use. Rebuilding continued through the turn of the century with the addition of six loft buildings and two new-law tenements by , replacing altogether at least sixteen early- nineteenth-century buildings. In , the Record and Guide advocated that Lafayette Place be extended to join Elm Street, a major north-south thoroughfare, to improve vehicle accessibility to the increasingly commercial street. It took the next nine years for the city to debate the plan and complete the property condemnations necessary to carry it out.
The total or partial demolition of scores of buildings located on the three blocks between East Houston Street and Great Jones Street began in The project was completed with the opening of the subway line after the turn of the century. The new thoroughfare incorporated Elm Street and Lafayette Place.
The opening of Lafayette Street greatly improved access to the streets in the NoHo East Historic District and served as a catalyst for the construction of large, new loft buildings. In , a large, Renaissance Revival-style factory building was erected at Bleecker Street, designed and built by John T.
He was listed in various New York directories as a civil engineer, architect, and capitalist. He was involved, as engineer and owner, with a number of manufacturing enterprises, opening an office in New York in Williams served as president of the Virginia Consolidated Chemical Corporation and of the firm he founded with his son, John T.
A six-story Classical Revival style commercial building, designed by architect Ralph S. Townsend, was built in at Bleecker Street for owner Harry Chaffee. The consolidation of the modem City of New York took place in That year, the Record and Guide detected signs of a real estate slump due to overbuilding in what was called "Middle Broadway," the mercantile district located along Broadway from Murray to 14th Streets, including what are now the NoHo and NoHo East Historic Districts. On Broadway alone, buildings contained vacant space, including lofts, stores, and offices.
The rapid addition of new mercantile buildings created an oversupply of loft space and resulted in depressed rents. Also, many businesses were relocating to new mercantile areas north of 14th Street. The upper floors in the older, narrower buildings were the most affected, but rents also declined within the area's newer, more desirable loft buildings. In the years that followed, however, the NoHo area experienced a turnaround. Following consolidation, New York City had tremendous growth in population and commerce. A city-wide building boom ensued. Rents and property values in the area between Houston Street and Union Square increased, and the construction of new loft buildings continued with additional textile dealers and garment makers moving in.
A large, Classical Revival-style store-and-loft building, designed by architect Louis F. Heinicke, was built in at Bleecker Street for owner Vincent Minnerly. The building, which replaced four existing buildings, originally had a one-story comer tower. Stier had acquired the property in , and his company, George J. A vernacular commercial building with some classical ornament, designed by architect Frederick Musty, was built at Elizabeth in Street for E.
The last store-and-loft building in the NoHo East Historic District is the neo-Classical-style store-and-loft building at Bleecker Street, which was designed by architect Frederick Ebeling and constructed in for owner Keba Chodorow. Chodorow, a Russian native, immigrated to the United States as a child, and entered the fur business as an adult. In , he purchased the house at 19 Bleecker Street, opening his fur shop on the ground floor and moving with his wife and five children to the apartment above.
In Chodorow acquired the adjacent building at 17 Bleecker Street. Both buildings were demolished by Chodorow in for his new loft building, in which his business occupied space into the s.
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Also, at least twelve early-nineteenth-century residential buildings were converted entirely to commercial use between and They were Elizabeth Street; , , and Bowery; and 7, 11, 13, 15, , 25, and 41 Bleecker Street. After , commercial areas south of Fourteenth Street began to face increasing competition for tenants by newly-developing districts uptown. High-quality garment makers and their suppliers preferred to locate more and more to these areas. In , the Record and Guide reported that the area was experiencing declining rents and property values as the lace, silk, ribbon, wool, and embroidery industries moved away in large numbers, leaving many of the district's buildings empty.
Part of the impetus for the move was the textile industry's preference for locations closer to the major department stores in the Herald Square area. Another factor was an aging and increasingly substandard building stock, and the cost involved in bringing such buildings up to code.
Rents had fallen twenty-five to fifty percent since , and tax assessments began to exceed market values in many instances. Newly-constructed and recently- modernized buildings fared somewhat better, but the area was unable to compete with new uptown locations for the best tenants.
The slide continued in the years following World War One. Loft floors were either subdivided for occupancy by sweatshops or small industrial manufacturers, used for storage, or left empty; many of the converted houses became industrial workshops. The economic boom of the s somewhat improved the commercial occupancy rate in the district, but the quality of the tenants remained below that of previous decades. Included in the new design is an incised panel in the parapet with year of alteration and initials of owner Hyman Kaufman.
In , furrier Henry Appel and his business partner Samuel Benjamin hired architect Nathan Langer to design a new Art Deco-style facade and a rear extension at 15 Bleecker Street, originally a Federal-style dwelling built in c. The building features grouped fenestration, decorative brick panels, and a stepped roof parapet. During the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century period of commercial expansion in the greater NoHo area, a large number of buildings remained residential, and two new large apartment houses were constructed in the present-day NoHo East Historic District.
In , the buildings, which replaced several early-nineteenth-century row houses, were occupied entirely by Italian immigrants and their families. By that time, Italians had become the largest single ethnic group in the area, having supplanted - along with some eastern Europeans from Russia, Poland, and Hungary - the Irish and German populations that had dominated the area through much of the nineteenth century. Italian immigration to New York City took off in the s and accelerated through the turn of the century. Italians first settled in the Five Points, which was located at the south end of Mulberry Street near the present-day Columbus Park, in By the late s, Italians had replaced the Irish as the largest ethnic group living along Mulberry, Mott, and Elizabeth Streets below Bleecker Street, By the s, however, Little Italy had grown into a vast area bounded to the north by West Fourth and Bleecker Street, to the east by the Bowery, to the south by the Five Points and Canal Street, and to the west by Greenwich Village.
A great many of the Italians in this area came from the Naples region; in , they organized the first San Gennaro Festival for the patron saint of that city. In , a temporary bandstand was erected in front of Elizabeth Street for the feast. The rise of the Italian population coincided with a period of intense residential overcrowding in NoHo East. The average population per floor, which measure no more than twenty-five by sixty feet, was twenty. That same year, a similar building at Elizabeth Street housed fifty- four people, forty-two of whom were adults.
All of the people occupying these buildings at the time were Italian. The adult males found work as low-paid laborers, dock workers, peddlers, garment workers, and painters. Many of the women worked in sweatshops. A number of successful Italian businessmen lived in the area. For example, Joseph Livoti, a local butcher who immigrated from Italy in , built a Colonial Revival-style store and dwelling at Elizabeth Street, designed by architect Louis A.
It replaced a one-story slaughterhouse and chicken market that Mr. Livoti had operated at this location since he purchased the property in Livoti closed the shop in the early s, the Livotis occupied the house until they sold the building in In , Egidio Pelletieri purchased the Federal-style row house at Elizabeth Street, and engaged architect Ferdinand Savignano to raise the house from two-and-a-half to three stories and to convert it to a multiple dwelling; in , Pelletieri constructed a one-story rear addition. The Pelletieri family occupied one of the apartments at Elizabeth Street through , and sold the building in Most of the immigrants from Italy were Roman Catholic, and the Church of Our Lady of Loretto was founded in to serve their growing numbers.
The church building was located at Elizabeth Street outside of the boundaries of the historic district in two early-nineteenth-century brick row houses now demolished that were joined internally and converted to a church in In , the church constructed a Colonial Revival-style grammar school and rectory, designed by architect Silvio A. Minoli, at Bleecker Street. The widening of East Houston Street in the late s required the demolition of many buildings in the area, and the resultant wide new street cut the Italian neighborhood north of Houston Street off from the larger Little Italy neighborhood to the south.
Subsequently, the NoHo East area gradually lost its association with the Italian neighborhood south of Houston Street. When New York recovered form the Revolutionary War, most building was undertaken in the Federal style, although few buildings were constructed on the grander scale of Federal-style residences in Boston, Philadelphia, or Charleston. The style came late to New York and lingered longer than in other cities.
A large number of Federal-style residences were erected as far north as 14th Street, with scattered examples even farther uptown. The Federal style is characterized by modest scale and simple architectural ornament, inspired by ancient Greek and Roman architecture; two to three stories high, with basement and an attic half-story; dormer windows; metal or slate peaked roof; brownstone base with red brick upper facade laid in Flemish bond pattern ; low stoop and wrought-iron hand rails, fence, and newels; six- or eight-paneled wood entrance door, sometimes with leaded transom, sidelights, and colonnettes; six-over-six double-hung wood windows often flanked by paneled shutters ; stone window sills and paneled stone window lintels; classical wood cornice with dentils, modillions, and moldings.
Many such rows existed in the greater NoHo area, especially around the elegant Bond Street neighborhood. Most of them were later replaced by industrial buildings and tenements in the late nineteenth century after the affluent residents moved uptown. However, there are two surviving, notable concentrations of Federal houses in the NoHo East Historic District, located on the north side of Bleecker Street and at to Bowery. Although somewhat altered, these buildings retain many of the characteristics of the Federal style, such as paneled, brownstone window lintels and Flemish bond brick patterning.
This is the area where I grew up between and the s, on a red clay and greywacke hill astride the O'Connor Ridge overlooking the Limestone Plains of Canberra - aka "The Bush Capital". The following relates to the experiences of many youngsters who first saw the world through this great playground in the s and s. Stories I must thank my sister for motivating me to put down, before they begin to fade away The first home my family had on this hill was briefly on Quandong Street tagged on far right of aerial photo , which as it happens was named after a native nut. After our Australian grandfather passed away we were able to move to a bigger house further up the hill on Nardoo Crescent, which happened to be named after a spore-producing native plant.
I can still remember our parents telling us quite early on these strange names were both plants the Aborigines used in their bush tucker. Just in regard to our late grandfather , like many young men he had volunteered as a Digger in WWI, although he was not destined for the mud and chalk dust of the trenches. Instead he was trained as a specialist rotary engine mechanic in the Australian Flying Corps, servicing such aircraft as the Sopwith Camel - an effective but notoriously difficult fighter plane to master in the air. He recalled during his service in the United Kingdom there were many training accidents, leading him to estimate about as many pilots were killed learning to fly as were dying fighting the Germans over France and Belgium - part of a colossal casualty toll Australia could ill-afford, which despite all the blood sacrifice also led Australia like so many others into ever greater debt with mother England's mother of all banks.
After the Great War our grandfather helped establish a public speaking club called Rostrum Australia, becoming its first president, for which he was much later very proud to be honoured with a MBE by Queen Elizabeth II. Dress ups of course are a trip for a kid, so naturally I wanted to try it all on, but dad wasn't so keen on that. We could even make out the thunderbird eagle of the Australian-American Memorial , perched high on its pole over yonder in Russell - an inspiration of Sir Robert Menzies, built with the mass donations of a public forever grateful to the United States in the wake of WWII.
Many years on it was interesting being reminded of these old TV shows when Team America: The World Police hit our screens. My brother and I also watched Dr Who together, and I remember preferring to peer from under a blanket, especially when the Autons first revealed themselves. It meant we didn't get all the well known TV shows of that era, but still there was plenty to watch.
Flipper was another show I recall - but one which is definitely better remembered now for what went on behind the scenes. Which reminds me of Skippy the Bush Kangaroo - how could we forget old cime fighting Skip? I can remember quite a bit still, like Sonny's bedroom, which had a few Airfix model planes beside the bed my brother and I loved building and painting models. I also remember a forlorn looking Eastern Grey Kangaroo in a cage, with the sign "Skippy".
Even as a 6 year old I knew something was a bit awry though, Skip never needed a cage! Some years later, it was nice to see Tony Bonner again in Anzacs with Hoges - the original Band of Brothers miniseries. Sad so many of that cast are gone now. It would be good though to see both those actors perform some roles again in an adaptation of Anzacs - something which instead also shares focus on Aboriginal Diggers , as the fine film Beneath Hill 60 did, but with their family back story too to add some real perspective.
F Troop was another show I remember well, which our mum also happened to watch a bit too. I still can recall our giggles when she'd do her "ze Burglar of Banff-f" impression, I guess an episode which tickled her fancy because she too was from the backwoods of Canada and she spoke and taught French as well.
But it was really more than that for, just like the Captain of F-Troop, one of mum's great grandfathers had also survived service in the Union Cavalry during the American Civil War and later settled in Montana. Actually it was his rider son who eventually rode his horse up into Canada and there fathered our mum's mother - he went up there to work at Buffalo National Park, protecting one of the last surviving herds of Plains bison in North America.
She also told us she had some native American heritage too, but sure as heck it wasn't Hekawi. I remember also how mum would softly sing to herself a rendition of I Dream of Wrangler, as sung by the late great Paul Lynde as The Singing Mountie aka the Burglar of Banff , which got us kids singing too. Like it's worth noting also, in the s and '70s that I remember, south-east Australia was a lot wetter - eg I recall often seeing the vast expanse of Lake George full to the brim as we drove past. As a result there was a thriving swamp beside our hill, astride Dryandra St and Kunzea St.
As kids do, we used to go there to look at swamp critters and it wasn't unusual to come across huge Southern Bell frogs, as well as other smaller species. Indeed, on one occasion a friend found a yellow and black striped frog , which one of the dads who was a scientist at the nearby CSIRO identified as a Southern Corroboree frog. Unusual for sure and these days a frog that's only now known in the Kosciusko National Park and is seriously threatened by the Chytrid Fungus.
Back in WWII he had developed a personal insect repellent for the troops fighting in the Pacific, which they called "Mary". When Queen Elizabeth II visited Canberra in for the 50th anniversary of its' naming, she also happened to rely on that same formulation to escape the incessant flies, with notable success.
After that it was successfully marketed as Aerogard , which in turn become a household name in Australia. Our dad's cousin also approved the introduction of dung beetles to Australia to combat the burgeoning blowfly population. Overlooking our old frog swamp, by the way, was a big old Yellow box eucalyptus tree with an unusual sideways eye-shaped scar etched into its bark. We were told the Aborigines had used the bark to make a shield for protection and for carrying food while on their way to feast on roasted Bogong moths up in the Brindabella Mtns - something they'd been doing for thousands of years, if the region's rock art and stone artifacts are anything to go by.
Because of this, in our youthful minds that old ghostly gum tree could have been thousands of years old. But whatever its' age it surely was there providing shade and utensils to the Aborigines for a long time - long before the likes of James Cook, or Ned Kelly etched their passing in our history. Thanks to our parents and, it must be said the ABC of old, we young kids had some inkling why there were no aborigines coming to our swamp anymore. On the lighter side, I do remember chuckling though, when my older brother would refer to him as "the bad ham" my brother did cop a thrashing from him more than a few times - me just the once from him at aged 8 for being engrossed by harmless curled leaf spiders in bushes I wasn't aware were "strictly out of bounds!!
I can still see his severe face now: A man who wore what I seem to recall was a RSL badge with pride, on a lapel pungent with the stale pong of tobacco smoke, as he strode the corridors of a school where it was a struggle to see any Aboriginal pupils. A weekly journey skippered by an old, grey haired man of the cloth, with a stiff white collar and a very short temper, of either Roman Catholic or Protestant faith I can no longer recall. Not all that long into this voyage his ark began to rapidly sink, after he became red faced with rage and then abandoned ship, after two boys challenged him in a conversation about the logic of creationism vs evolution.
This was only natural though, as what he was saying about creation completely contradicted everything we'd been told by our parents and in school. The "bad ham" also became very cranky about this, to the extent of standing before the class and ordering each pupil, including those who weren't involved, to buy a 10 cent postage stamp and each write an individual letter of apology to the preacher. Letters in the end never eventuated though, after several of us told our parents and they intervened.
I still have the stamp in my collection actually. Before long both these remarkably un-Christian souls soon disappeared from our school altogether, along with the bamboo whipping cane - although thrashing hands with wooden rulers and smacking bottoms remained government approved options for the principals that followed. A kind of surreal policy to think back on now, but not as bad as seeing kids with welts and bleeding cuts, courtesy of the "bad ham's" cane. Of course it was never quite as bad as Tomkinson's Schooldays , but like Tomkinson, the abused often became abusers themselves, with some going on to lead troubled lives.
I understand it was no better at other schools in that era — caning was a widely sanctioned disciplinary measure after all. I often wonder if the burnt and blackened skeleton of nearby Lyneham Primary School, which I saw as a 4 year old in , had something to do with this system of child abuse. Good old Turner, where in infants school in the early '70s we were still being served half-pint milk bottles at recess and said grace before lunch: God is gracious, God is good.
Thank you for our daily food. I also remember witnessing the building of a facility on the Hartley Street side, where I'd earlier spent kindergarten, dedicated to disabled students, which continues to well serve the community to this day. Even back then I remember thinking it was a cheesy tune with even cheesier lyrics.
As for the curriculum, the thing I most vividly was recall the official line "Australia is a young nation and only has a short history". Some decades on, one might be forgiven for thinking such entrenched vision slit views of our history still commands those who proudly bear the RSL badge - if a quiet stroll around AWM is anything to go by But what about that gnarly old man gum tree up on the ridge which told us otherwise? Well sadly that Aboriginal scarred tree by our old swamp was lost forever in a bush fire in - that being the year before the huge terrible firestorm which would overwhelm parts of south Canberra with such tragic consequences.
The ostinato appears as a Nebenstimme. The instrumental texture changes following the frame as the clarinet 1 begins to accompany the ostinato played by the piano and then by the strings in m. In addition to these changes in the instrumental texture, two percussion instruments, the snare drum and the bass drum, play together for the first time in the FMI.
The second appearance of Dr. Though both annotations also correspond to single eighth notes played by the contrabass in divisi, these notes are so soft and quick that their novelty is unlikely to be immediately appreciated. These changes are weak supporting evidence for both frames. At best, the internal frame corresponding to the witnesses is questionable.
The analogous passage and frame in mm. The frame is internal and obscured because the winds, which do not play the ostinato, compete with it for dominance in the foreground. The latter image corresponds to the first entrance of the English horn in the FMI. The horns, trumpets C , vibraphone, and strings play Dr. The intensity of the ostinato is so strong that a distinct frame can be identified here.
The Agitato ends in m. This change in voicing suggests a sectional frame or extreme that at the same time serves as an internal frame. The heightened intensity of the instrumental texture at the end of the Agitato is released through longer note values and rests in many of the instrumental parts at the beginning of the new section.
Because of the new section and these changes, this internal sectional frame is distinct. The new image takes place after the beginning of the Sempre vivace section, and even though many voices are marked Hauptstimme prior to the annotation there is too much overlapping of these voices to set up a new musical frame here. This annotation comes after breath marks in the winds and brass as well as the piano and harp that play prior to this frame.
The sustained notes played after the frame by the alto saxophone, horns, trombones, and tuba provide another distinct surface change in the music. There is one particular aspect of this music that overflows this frame: This passage and its frame are analogous to m. There is an absence and presence of a musical frame in mm. It seems to set up the anticipated closing of the curtain. The exception to the notion that Berg employs the Hauptrhythmus in the FMI to anticipate the opening and closing of objects occurs when it does not occur, as expected, prior to the opening of the curtain in the second Curtain Music in mm.
The sustained notes played by violin 1 and the continuation of the upper winds, harp, and piano obscure this internal frame, which seems to be setting up the instrumentation of the following section, the Vivace. One would expect the music to slow down, perhaps to a stop just seconds after this indication, but then the music becomes even slower in m. The only new material that enters is the passage marked Nebenstimme that is played by trombones.
Rests in many parts and a change in instrumentation follow this annotation and expected frame. But the overlapping voices and lack of perceivable changes on the surface fail to suggest the expected internal frame. The double bars in mm. The trumpets and trombones play immediately before and after the double bars, which help emphasize the presence of the obscured frames. In addition to these passages, the rests before and after the frames also helps define them, though more so visually than aurally.
These two obscured frames contain passages played by the clarinets, bass clarinet, vibraphone, piano, and solo violins. After all, the music clearly overflows the frame here and it makes sense to label the frame as obscured. During the fermata, the instruments employed are either sustaining notes or following rests written in their parts.
Nothing stops during the fermata; the performers resume what they were doing just before it. The fermata imposes extra beats to the frame at the midpoint of the FMI. Because the second part has a beginning here, it must establish a distinct frame. This frame prevents the previous music from m. It is also an internal frame because it is surrounded by ongoing music. This analysis of the FMI shows that most of the frames before the fermata run parallel to those in corresponding passages after the fermata, thus almost forming an audible symmetrical pattern.
Berg tends to use distinct frames for the beginning of every new section. The music in the beginning of one section differs from the music at the beginning of its analogous section, but the function of the frames in both places is the same. It is remarkable that, despite being surrounded by different music, the internal nonsectional frames also preserve symmetry via their analogous functions. The repetition of these frames is varied because their content and surrounding music change. Up to now three kinds of varied repetitions in the FMI have been discussed: For instance, distinct internal frames can be sectional and nonsectional.
Just as with the distinct sectional frames, the obscured, questionable, and expected internal frames hold their own within the musical structure by recurring through varied repetition. They participate in keeping the FMI from being mere accompaniment by bringing to the fore its filmic essence. From both the annotations in the score and the Film Music Scenario it appears that the composer had in mind certain camera angles and framing techniques or editing devices. Fades and dissolves, graphic and rhythmic matches, and wipes can be used in the film that the FMI accompanies and there are many filmic musical passages that suggest certain framing devices 25 Ibid.
As discussed in the Introduction, intellectual and creative interactions between prominent composers interested in film in general as well as film music and film theorists emerged early in the twentieth century. This chapter explores writings in early film theory and the application of their ideas to the FMI. Essays and Addresses, ed.
Burton Pike and David S. Luft Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, , Eine Filmdramaturgie, 2d ed. Verlag Wilhelm Knapp, , It is well known that Berg knew Musil; the extent of their acquaintance is not known. See Ingolf Schulte, ed. Klampen Verlag, , and The normal condition is more familiar because it is connected to human experience: The Other condition is less familiar: For Musil, there are only imprecise definitions of the Other condition partly because this spiritual condition has left only traces on the human experience.
And not only because the other parts of our body are covered by clothes. Our face now resembles a small, clumsy, elevated semaphore of the soul sending us signals as well as it can. This visible man has not only had his expressive power reduced; his expressive power has not been utilized to its fullest potential: Today, however, this visible man is no more and not yet entirely here; because it is a law of nature that, when not used, every organ degenerates and becomes deformed.
In the culture of words, our body has not been fully used as means of expression. It has thus lost its expressive power [and] has become awkward, primitive, stupid, and barbaric. German Cultural Criticism, no. They are allowed only a life of the second or third order, and even that only in rare movements of especially clear-sighted sensitivity in the people who observe them.
But in the shared silence inanimate things become almost homogeneous with people, and gain thereby in vitality and significance. This is the riddle of that special film atmosphere, which lies beyond the capacities of literature. One could simply say meaning. For symbolic means as much as having significance, going beyond its own sense to a still further sense.
What is decisive in this for film is that all things, without exception, are necessarily symbolic. It is connected to reality--every film subject is, including the fantastic--and it is at the same time an isolated, cut off world in which nothing is like anything in are presented again many years later in his final and much better known monograph. Dennis Dobson, ; reprint, New York: This is also the first monograph to present his film theory and criticism in English.
Musil writes about the self, feelings or the soul, and the Other condition in his essay: One of the two is familiar as the normal condition of our relationship to the world, to people, and to ourselves. This Other spiritual condition is always described with as much passion as imprecision, and one might be tempted to see in this shadowy double of our world only a daydream, had it not left its traces in countless details of our ordinary life and did it not constitute the marrow of our morality and idealism lying within the fibrous threads of evil.
It is in this condition that the image of each object becomes not a practical goal, but a wordless experience; and the descriptions quoted earlier of the symbolic face of things and their awakening in the stillness of the image belong without a doubt in this context. Presented to the audience at the same time are the real world, possessing the normal condition, and the film world, possessing both the normal and Other conditions.
Prior to the showing of the film in the opera house, the opera audience has already become conditioned to accept the opera Lulu as the seedy reality of its main 8 Ibid. Films that emphasize form draw from more artistic camera techniques and are considered more experimental than those that are content driven; the latter kind of film focuses more on telling the story.
For instance, concerning the normal condition, the seedy reality of Lulu is full of characters who are driven by their desires. Good and evil are distinct although for some this distinction is not grasped immediately. At the same time this is a theatrical work and, concerning the Other condition, the distinction between good and evil is less precise than what the audience is familiar with based on their realistic experiences. It is in the film that Lulu and the other characters employed here are more closely related to the images of objects.
The materials of this art consist of light and shadow [just] as those of painting consist of colors and those of music of sound. Facial expression and pantomime, soul, passion, fantasy. And what photography cannot express the film will not contain. A View from Delft: Morgan Chicago and London: Likewise, a musician can never compose what a poet has devised.
His muses are the sonorous potential of his instruments, material, and technique. For the director everything is readily available in the black-and-white shadow play just as it is for Michelangelo in a piece of rock , from which he only needs to help it emerge.
Not even the best film script can thus be sufficient for the director. It is exactly that which is essential that [the script] can never contain because it still contains nothing but words. But the material must show its will. But Berg also had to create and choose his own materials; e. Berg exhibits a good deal of control over his film by creating and combining these materials in the FMI. How he juxtaposes the normal and the Other condition has been discussed to some extent already. In addition to the web-like world he creates with his Film Music Scenario and film in which objects and people become more closely related, the normal condition constantly contradicts the Other condition.
For instance, in mm. But at the place the weapon is to be shown, the ostinato is promoted from Nebenstimme to Hauptstimme. Auch ein Musiker kann niemals komponieren, was sich ein Dichter ausgedacht hat. Gerade das Wesentliche wird es nie enthalten, weil es trotz allem nur Worte hat. Interestingly, in the analogous passage in mm. The FMI and its music make clear that Dr. During this passage Dr. The ostinato in both passages is also penetrating objects that consist of jagged contours two perfect fourths joined by a minor second and take over the music.
That the objects and people featured in the film appear to be almost equal is only one perspective. But there are visual hierarchies in the film. Lulu is more important than any object or person in the FMI. The audience naturally accepts the people shown onscreen as more important than the objects in the film because they are people and because the opera provides a history of the characters who appear in the film. From the analysis in Chapters 1 and 2, one knows that there are both visual and aural hierarchies in the music accompanying the film.
The normal and Other conditions also work against each other here. The Other condition is present because the row materials that represent characters in both the opera and the film are also objects. It is also present because there are no precise distinctions between good and evil found in the music itself.
And even though Berg can use all four row forms, he prefers prime and retrograde over inversion and retrograde inversion in the FMI. Nevertheless, there are important passages in which he allows inversion and retrograde inversion forms to prevail, as in the vicinity of the central axis in mm. For Musil, the Other condition in music also consists of expressive elements that are separate from any context and are sensed and felt emotionally.
Music has expressive qualities that evade precise explanation or description: But even when an art is turned in on itself as music is, full of objectless form, abnormally heightened feeling, and inexpressible meaning: His perspective here is that of the listener who considers the expressive qualities that cannot be explained or described precisely. Indeed, one can also read music from the score.
Nevertheless, the score is not the music itself but its abstraction. The ground plan is an abstraction, the architecture is not. This kind of criticism about art and music can be found in literary works about art that predate Musil. When listening to a symphony, one does not sit in the midst of the brass, but in the place where the sounds of the different instruments blend into the harmony desired by the composer.
Afterwards one can enjoy dissecting the score note by note, and so study the manner of its orchestration. Likewise, when viewing a divided painting, one should first stand far enough away to obtain an impression of the whole, and then come closer in order to study the interplay of the colored elements, supposing that these technical details are of interest. The Rockefeller University Press, , Hermann, , Aber die Partitur ist nicht die Musik selbst, sondern ihre Abstraktion.
The score--as deterrent for immediacy--enables the Other condition in the music to be much more easily perceived. Above all, one is inclined to see in film a wayward and degenerate child of the theatre, and one views [film] as a corrupt and garbled degeneration, as a cheap substitute for the theatre that relates to genuine stage art as, for example, a photographic reproduction to an original painting. In both cases--so it seems--invented stories are presented by actors. Film should not make explicit what it offers the spectator, but rather present and exploit what it omits: For the experiences of our senses are almost as conservative as theater directors.
What is to be understood through seeing and hearing even if not at first glance cannot be too far removed from what is already known. As incomparably as something unutterable may be expressed at times in a gesture, a grouping, a picture of feeling, or an event, this always happens only in immediate proximity to the word; as something hovering, so to speak, around its core of meaning, which is the real element of humanity. A stubborn prejudice insists that the human spirit and thought be reflected in these things on the stage, but not be allowed direct expression.
Happily, film, in the phase when it was imitating the stage, produced such a babble of expressive gestures that it undermined the idea that passions and events speak for themselves and only need to be hung on the line. Notice in the following passage that Musil is also dealing with film spectatorship: Every art involves such a bifurcation. Silent like a fish and pale like something subterranean, film swims in the pond of the only-visible.
In making connections and working out relations among impressions, on the other hand, film is apparently chained more strongly than any other art to the cheapest rationality and platitude. It appears to make the soul more immediately visible, and thoughts into experience; but in truth the interpretation of each individual gesture is dependent on the wealth of interpretive resources that the spectator brings with him; the comprehensibility of the action increases, the more undifferentiated it is just as it does in the theater, where this is taken to be especially dramatic.
Thus the expressive power increases with the poverty of expression, and the typicality of film is nothing but a coarse indicator of the stereotypical quality of everyday life. Because of that, it seems to me, film will always in certain regards be on a lower level than and at a fixed distance below the literature of the same period, and film realizes its destiny not as a deliverance from literature, but as sharing its destiny. The audience is not only hearing the opera, but seeing it as well.
One must also ask about the identity of the camera as it peers into this new world. Is this world which is about Lulu shown from the point of view of Alwa, Countess Geschwitz, or Lulu, or is it shown from an omnipresent point of view, detached from Lulu? Der Geist des Films can be thought of as both a continuation and expansion of ideas discussed in his earlier monograph. Filmmaking techniques are key to explaining how what appears on film differs from reality: What do we see in film that we cannot see in the studio when faced with the same subject?
Which are the effects that primarily emerge only in a roll of film? What is it that the camera does not reproduce but itself creates? How does the film become its own special language? The close-up and the camera angle appear more closely connected to each other in the following sections dealing with film theory and these techniques.
The montage gives breath to the narration. Something is [either] presented broadly and leisurely in long played-out scenic images, or it is hastily chased in short ones. The excitement of the dramatic content is transferred to the spectator via the power of optical movement. Was ist es, was die Kamera nicht reproduziert, sondern selber schafft? Wodurch wird der Film zu einer besonderen eigenen Sprache? Da wird etwas breit und geruhsam vorgetragen, mit lang ausgespielten Szenenbildern.
Oder es wird im Kurzschnitt, hastig gejagt. Why do they always play music during the showing of a film? Why does a film without musical accompaniment have an awkward effect? Perhaps music functions to fill in the airless space between the characters, which is otherwise bridged by the dialogue.
Furthermore, every movement entirely devoid of sound has an uncanny effect. It would be even more uncanny, however, if several hundred people sat together in a hall silent for hours in absolute silence. Kurt London also discusses how film music is capable of distracting the spectator from the picture: Only at points where the music diverged from the picture, whether in its quality or meaning, was his concentration on the picture disturbed. Bensinger, with a foreword by Constant Lambert London: Warum wirkt ein Film ohne Musikbegleitung peinlich?
Auch wirkt jede Bewegung, die vollkommen lautlos ist, unheimlich. The visual element alone and unsupported can never be sufficient substitute for an actual representation of life, and the film, to attain full artistic expression, must make use of more realistic media.
So the need of sound or music was still felt, even when the primitive conditions of the early cinema had no longer to be reckoned with. The University of Wisconsin Press, , Information used by permission. See Arnheim, Film Essays and Criticism, He creates new realities, in which things can be multiplied, turns their movements and actions backward, distorts them, retards or accelerates them. The connections of these events, actions, and images are as evident in the film as they are throughout the opera. And the insertion of the film into the opera creates even more new realities than the opera would have offered without the moving picture.
For Arnheim the new realities created by the film artist are not reproductions of reality: Unlike reality, film hovers between being two and three-dimensional. Enough information must be given for the three-dimensional image to be perceived on film. In addition to creating three-dimensional images, the images exist within a plane that can be divided into upper and lower screen.
Arnheim adds to this observation: The example in brackets is used later on in the same discussion. The viewer is visually confined to whatever is in the picture. Arnheim adds that this limitation is immediately experienced by the audience watching a film, which must instead give spatial information such as frames of reference for standards of comparison. Determining horizontal lines, distances, ranges of sizes, and focus all depend on the camera, the lens of the projection machine, spectator seating, and the size of the theatre.
Arnheim explains that although time and space are not continuous in some films, the films can have their own continuity. As an implication of any film-within-an-opera, some reality is lost. It is the task of the actors and the director to emphasize the expressive qualities of motion and thereby to define the character of the entire film as well as that of the single scene and the single shot.
In the same manner the various personalities in their similarities and differences will be defined visually. Even on the stage, motion is thus exploited artistically; but this is all the more true for film, where things appear closer and sharper and where the direction and speed of each motion is set off clearly by the narrow rectangular frame of the image. And the black and white film provided a striking contrast in color between the stage and screen during the premiere of Lulu.
Lulu and the supporting actors of the film are suddenly in black and white; color contrasts onscreen differ from the stage. They must rely more heavily on their facial expressions as silent film actors than they do in their theatrical reality. Studio lighting in film is generally different from theatrical lighting and therefore the lighting used in the film differs from the stage lighting used in the opera. Arnheim explains how crucial lighting is to determining shapes and backgrounds and foregrounds in film: See Chapter 4 for further discussion of this passage.
The opera audience has a more realistic range of vision than the film spectators. The distance between the object and the audience as well as the focus of the lens depends on the director of the film and the camera operator. Two specific examples that could not be easily shown on stage are the police vehicle and the ambulance traveling towards their destinations. In montage the film artist has a first class formative instrument, which helps him to emphasize and give greater significance to the actual events that he portrays.
From the time continuum of a scene he takes only the parts that interest him, and of the spatial totality of objects and events he picks out only what is relevant. Some details he stresses, others he omits altogether. It was a much bolder stroke to intervene in one unitary scene, to split up an event, to change the position of the camera in midstream, to bring it nearer, move it further away, to alter the selection of the subject of the subject matter shown.
This has up to present been the most vigorous and stimulating move toward the emancipation of the camera. Berg uses filmic montage to bring the many images, actions, and events 47 Ibid. Arnheim discusses how this danger arises for the film artist: The music tells the audience that the film is all about Lulu. Berg is also giving Lulu the opportunity to be a star in a motion picture.
The crime film is one of the oldest genres in film, 49 Ibid. The crime film often spends a good deal more time dealing with what leads up to the evil deed and its aftermath, engaging the audience as well as the characters in the film to investigate who is responsible, and exploring boundaries that exist between perpetrators, instigators, and innocent bystanders and between criminal existence and normal life.
In the crime film it is typical that the perpetrators are identified and their punishment depicted to some extent in the crime film. Is she a serial killer who cannot control herself a plea of insanity is present in this reading: Or is she actually a victim who kills out of self-defense placing the weapon in her hand and attempting to 50 Ibid. It consists of many subgenres such as the gangster film, the detective film, the street film, and in the s the film noir. Here, Arnheim discusses how the camera angle is used in the film The Mysterious Lady , starring Greta Garbo Is this a wish to be proven innocent or to escape punishment?
Hauser , is a sociological study in which the authors deal mainly with delinquents or young criminals as film spectators; however, their observations can be applicable to any kind of film spectator: Those who are more sympathetic to Lulu would not find the following passage from Blumer and Hauser to apply only to delinquent and criminal spectators. If Lulu is understood as the victim here, then the police and all aspects of authority represented in the film can be perceived as enemies: The punishment of offenders in motion pictures may incite intense resentment on the part of delinquent and criminal observers.
It sits watching the moves and taking part in them, as in a game of chess, without being able to say with absolute assurance what the end will be. Harold Shaylor, , The Macmillan Company, , The film offers an additional opportunity to lose oneself, to temporarily forget what is right or good, and to go as far as to be supportive of Lulu and her actions against the authorities who imprison her: The chief characteristics of emotional possession may be mentioned here: The close-ups of her ascending and diminishing hope, her resignation, and her awakening will to live among other close-ups discussed already in Chapter 2 might be made to be so convincing that some members of the audience do not realize that she actually does commit a crime in the film: This crime is far less serious and violent than the murder of Dr.
Her escape might give hope to the naive film spectator that she will make her life better or at least effect change in it so she stays out of trouble. The film spectators, who have watched the opera this far, however, know enough about the main character of the opera. Lulu had a spectacular life before being apprehended by police and detained by authorities.
Perhaps some film spectators are led to believe that she earned her inheritance and deserves every penny after dealing with the horrors of poverty, the deaths of those who loved her, and especially after her husband Dr. Other film spectators might believe that they know enough about Lulu to conclude that she is nothing more than a have-not who did not earn 55 Ibid.
Blumer discusses this latter mentioned perspective: Again, information about the private lives of motion picture stars and their relations to one another may strip pictures of much of their glamour. The film spectator who finds Lulu and her behavior repulsive and is not fooled by the film as a voyeuristic opportunity would be characterized as experiencing emotional detachment: In emotional possession one is, so to speak, at the mercy of the picture; in emotional detachment one immunizes himself to its grip.
One who approaches the picture in this latter state discounts its character and resists its emotional appeal; whereas in emotional possession one has surrendered himself to the movement of the theme and to the appeal of the scenes. The attitudes which usually yield this emotional detachment are cynicism, scorn, analysis, indifference, superiority, or sophistication. The last two seem to be most common. They do not mean necessarily that interest is lost in the type of picture to which they are directed, but merely that the emotional or sentimental features are subject to a judgment which lessens their appeal.
From the opera, the film spectators already know Lulu as a femme fatale, who leads all who love her to ruin. As with film noir, the production cost of this film would have to be very low in comparison to other films. It is this kind of film that leads to its own depreciation by the film spectator. But the first time opera audience gets no advanced notice from the opera that a film will be shown until it suddenly takes place.
Only after the first few moments can one conclude that this film fits the crime film genre and this observation would be made more likely in hindsight. Clarendon Press, ; New York: Oxford University Press, , Princeton University Press, , and n. University of California Press, , 95 most important double agents are Alwa who is responsible for her arrest in the opera and appears at the beginning of the film to observe her punishment, but helps her escape at the end of the film and Countess Geschwitz who must be hurt that Lulu chooses Alwa, but makes the greatest sacrifice for Lulu by taking her place at the hospital.
The most suspenseful features are the diverse tempi employed throughout, the opening trumpet fanfare with crash cymbals in mm. Historical and Analytical Perspectives, In Act II, Scene 2, Alwa has a similar scene with Lulu, now as emaciated cholera victim who has just escaped from prison. Letters, Pictures and Documents, trans. Crawford London and Boston: For me this is one of the main reasons for considering it.
For instance, in the film, if the goblet suddenly vanishes as if it had never been there, just as if it had simply been forgotten, that is quite different from the way it is on the stage, where it has to be removed by some device. My foremost wish is therefore for something the opposite of what the cinema generally aspires to. The whole thing should have the effect not of a dream but of chords. It must never suggest symbols, or meaning, or thoughts, but simply the play of colors and forms. Just as music never drags a meaning around with it, at least not in the form in which it [music] manifests itself, even though meaning is inherent in its nature, so too this should simply be like sounds for the eye, and so far as I am concerned everyone is free to think or feel something similar to what he thinks or feels while hearing music.
He was correct in criticizing cinema of the time for often attempting to reproduce reality. Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg, ed. Leo Black New York: Faber and Faber, ; Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, , and Many writers have complained about imitative film music that accompanies the images and events too closely.
For example, Romanian poet, writer, and scenario adaptor Benjamin Fondane described how imitative music fails the silent 97 over the project, Schoenberg also wanted to have control over some visual effects of the film. Later in the same letter he explained that he would like for the black and white silent film to be tinted according to his own instructions: Those who had come to understand the coded language of silent film took offense at its intertitles; and they found imitative musical sound irritating--this music that was so good at adding a supplementary text to what was complete in itself and needlessly duplicating the image.
Plasma, , If a machine was shown on the screen, the music had to whir, if a man was walking along the street, the music had to walk etc. Marjorie Meyer New York: International Publishers, ; Berlin: Seven Seas Books, , Over a decade after the letter to Hertzka, the composer was still interested in the color film and how opera can be reproduced cinematographically.
But in this essay, he also considered the audience for these films: Add music, and the general public will hardly need to hear an opera sung and acted any more, unless a new path is found. Employing a painter to color the film began in the late s; since then, the film industry made stencils and used them to color the film in a method similar to theorem painting as well as relied on a number of mechanical coloring methods that had varying success by the early s.
If the work is skillfully performed the results are distinctly pleasing and effective. After one has been watching brilliant black and white pictures, the introduction of a colored film comes as a restful interlude to the eyes. The colored cinematograph film was introduced by Robert Paul, shortly after he established his studio.
As lantern slides could be colored by hand with brush and paints, he saw no reason why a film 40 feet in length should not be treated in the same way. Accordingly he enlisted the services of an expert artist to make the experiment. But it was a laborious undertaking. A magnifying glass had to be used, and a considerable length of time was needed to treat a whole film. How They are Made and Worked Philadelphia: Lippincott, , According to the author, when the film measuring feet or more came into vogue, it was understood that hand coloring was not feasible.
The author also recalls that one particular film production firm would not color a film unless it was guaranteed that copies would be sold. This again makes clear the need to seek some individual form for the newest art. The minority that can understand deeper things will never let itself be satisfied wholly and exclusively by what everyone can understand. This minority will always want art to match its power of comprehension.
So the drama of the future and the opera of the future cannot be art for the masses; and if the drama is to be a verbal drama, then the opera will have to be an opera of musical ideas. In Schoenberg completed Op. No film scene was ever to be produced. It appears that the images aroused by the music are to be visualized instead of presented onscreen. Einstein also remarked that with Op.
Threatening peril, terror and catastrophe are depicted, it is true; indeed it is music for a kind of super-production--but only for an imaginary, not a real, an actual setting. The expressiveness of the greatest actors could not meet the demands of this music. Music with a Schoenbergian flavor. There is a wide discrepancy between the subject of this Begleitmusik and the manner of its presentation. He wrote to Schoenberg, in a letter dated 24 April Was it composed for a particular film?
Or is it something for general use in the sense, say, of a comedy overture? You can imagine how much I, too--personally as a composer--am preoccupied with the question of silent and talking films. I already own it, of course, and am--after just brief study--thrilled. If you were interested, it would surely be feasible in Berlin! It is clear that Schoenberg was perhaps more knowledgeable about films from a technical perspective and had much more sophisticated ideas about film music than Berg. Just prior to his remarks about Op. Essays on Modern Music, trans. Rodney Livingstone London and New York: In the following passage, he also attacked the Kitsch qualities of the cinema and their impression on the cinema audience and music listeners alike.
Without knowing it, the audience ignores the film music even though they are listening to the film: I once heard, in the great Galleria in Naples, cinema music coming from outside. It was not the jumble of posters that revealed the fact that it was coming from cinema: Not simply from the crude medley of tunes, but from the peculiar feeling that it was an accompaniment, even in the voices bearing the melody, a feeling that could not be explained in precise technical terms.
This is how music sounds from which something is missing. But since it was not specially composed for the film, its interpretation turns towards the film. Confronted with the film, the melodies taken from exhausted operas are so drained of their force that they can only serve as background music. This is why they cannot exist for the listener as music, but exist musically only for the film. The music comes to the film because the latter is silent and it rocks the film gently into the darkness of the audience, even when it makes the gesture of passion.
It is not meant for the audience. The listener only notices it when the film passes him by at a distance, separated from him by an abyss of empty space. At times he recognized that these Kitsch elements of the cinema were sources of enjoyment, sometimes showing both enthusiasm and disappointment over the successes and failures of the silent and sound cinema. Adorno also wrote about cinema in his later monograph of aphorisms Minima Moralia: Reflections from Damaged Life, trans.
Similar to his essay about Richard Strauss , Adorno showed that he admired some films and film music, but he can also be quite harsh when films and film music fall short of their potential. You say Bach, but you mean Gounod. You have the rigorous prelude, but what you really respond to is the soulful melody. On the organ for preference, but with the violin obligato in the vocal part. It is the birth of the Wurlitzer from the spirit of Faust: Its basic gesture is supplication in pious self-abandonment.
The soul delivers itself into the hands of the Almighty with uplifted skirt. This is how Henny Porten pleaded for mercy. It ended in death. To Adorno, these characteristics are products of the culture industry.
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Adorno did recognize, however, that conventionality is a source of enjoyment. The belief of the popular social psychologists that the film is a dream-machine and the happy end a wish fulfillment misses the point. The shop girl does not directly identify herself with the glamour girl dressed up as a private secretary who marries the boss. But when faced with this good fortune, and overwhelmed by its mere possibility, she ventures to admit to herself what the entire organization of life normally prevents her from admitting: What is taken for the wishfulfillment is the meager liberation which consists in the realization that you do not have to deny yourself the most minimal degree of happiness, namely the knowledge that happiness is not for you, although it may be.
Even the most stupid people have long since ceased to be fooled by the belief that everyone will win the big prize. The positive element of Kitsch lies in the fact that it sets free for a moment the glimmering realization that you have wasted your life. All this applies to music with even greater force. Most people listen emotionally: The sections of this essay are dated between and This is why they love the expression of longing more than happiness itself. He praised the FMI--without mentioning Kitsch or products of the culture industry--as part of what he considered a beautiful musical work: If one is looking for details there could be no more beautiful example than the very beginning, the eight introductory bars--the kind of sadness and bliss present only in the promise of beauty itself.
After that the breathless, hurried film music, as virtuosic as a career, evanescent as fireworks, stopping short midway. Emerging from the writings about film theory are several kinds of film theories that are still evolving today. These film theories include methods from auteur criticism, genre criticism, narrative criticism, and phenomenology.
Their emphasis on the montage 79 Ibid. For basic discussions about applications of these theories to film, see Richard L. Stromgren and Martin F. The use of genre theory in this chapter enables the FMI to be classified or categorized into fitting a couple genres of fictional film. The FMI consists of both filmic and musical elements that can be found in crime films, film noir, and documentary films. Of course, these observations must rely heavily on narrative and musical analysis of the FMI.
The use of sociological studies on perceptions of crime films by Blumer and London leads to a deeper understanding of how audiences perceive crime film as well as the film music that accompanies films belonging to certain genres. This integrated study of early writings about film theory and film music offers evocative applications to the FMI. Many different levels of interpretation presented in this chapter enable even more exciting historical contexts of the FMI to emerge. But no art can exist on theory alone.
The next chapter deals with critical response to the FMI at the world premiere of the opera Lulu. Prentice-Hall , How happy he would have been to hear his work and witness its triumph! His life so humble, so hard, his endless labor without ever any artistic compromise, is an example of purity. Inexorable fate deprived him of this glory to which I am happy to pay homage. These reviews provided information about the performance of the incomplete opera, the subject matter and music, the tone of the event, and who attended the performance. Most of these reviews featured critical response to the FMI.
This chapter will analyze these reviews, investigating the nature of the critical response to and the reception of the FMI at its premiere. Here, excerpts from many of these reviews appear together with full bibliographic information in order to explore their content and, when possible, to learn about their authors.
This chapter pursues which of these elements received the most critical attention, if any, and explores the critical reception of the FMI. As with other composers of his time, Milhaud wrote many essays for this newspaper. Cambridge University Press, The review in the Berner Zeitung explained the function of the film more specifically than the Anbruch review, telling readers where the film takes place in the opera plot: Lulu is able to flee from the prison hospital with the support of the unfortunate Countess Geschwitz, who has fallen in love with her.
This magazine, founded in , has from its 4 At the time this review was published, Paul Stefan was editor of this journal. In the early s the journal was known as Anbruch: Where I have not been able to identify the authors, I retain the initials. Variety and plenty of it appeal mightily to Lulu, with the result that her first husband dies of apoplexy. This starts her along a series of conquests spiced with suicidal deaths of her victims till she shoots one of her numerous husbands. Prison Berg used a silent film for this phase , hard times, and a life of wandering follow, with Lulu getting less and less particular about her male companions.
In London she becomes a prostitute and with a final flare of poor judgment lures into her home a stranger who turns out to be Jack the Ripper. The opera closes with Jack the Ripper disemboweling the heroine. The function of the film, according to the author of this review, was to show Lulu in prison.
There was neither mention nor explanation of her escape. The title was changed to Newsweek before the magazine was bought by The Washington Post Company in The scenes were not shown because the orchestration was still incomplete at the time of the premiere. In the second act Lulu kills Dr. This newspaper contains a fine and well-known section on art and music.
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The actual peripateia does not play itself out within the confines of the stage: In his review in the Schweizerische Musikzeitung, Karl Heinrich David also focused on the opera action and the film action and function: He also studied for a short time under Arnold Schoenberg. Schirmer Books, , This technique derived from the sound film , which lets the many short but highly concentrated scenes play out one after another in rapid succession; this tempo, which now and then has something breathless about it--these appear to me to constitute the principal [aspect of the] Modern in this opera.
Berg also draws many means of expression from the sound film: David abbreviates his first and middle name as author of the review and as editor of the Schweizerische Musikzeitung. The Man and His Music London: John Calder, , David wrote back to him F 21 Berg Here ends the Erdgeist tragedy. And here we are at the midpoint of the opera, in the second act. Here an interlude begins, during which a film runs.
At its climax, the film music begins to proceed in crab fashion, that is, to run backwards. Und an dieser Stelle sind wir im Mittelpunkt der Oper, im zweiten Akt. Und von da an setzt auch der Abstieg Lulus ein. Rosenzweig reviewed the premiere of Tartuffe in one short paragraph whereas the bulk of the review over three out of four short columns was about the premiere of Lulu. And even when not mentioning the FMI specifically, Milhaud compared the opera to film.
Texte, Materialien, Kommentaire Munich: Ricordi, , The Man and His Music, Maxine Block New York: Wilson Company, , Macmillan Publishers Limited, , Donald Evans New York: See also Milhaud, My Happy Life: Marion Boyars, , Later in the same monograph Milhaud discussed his experiences at the musical festival held in Florence the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino , which was also an opportunity to meet both old and new friends.
He explained that he and a group of composers, including Berg, Krenek, Malipiero, and Casella, would eat lunch in one of the trattorie and then would go on an excursion together. Both autobiographies reveal that Milhaud saw festivals and exhibitions as events that took place or were connected to important events in his life. This letter is cited in Collaer, Darius Milhaud, , Even his own autobiographical writings seem to lack detailed discussion of his success as music critic.
Even when he found the slightest fault with the performance, he excused it as he did in his review found in the journal Marianne: When Milhaud compared the interplay of the actors of the opera to that of a prewar film, he was probably thinking of the characteristically hysterical or awkwardly exaggerated gestures by the actors in many silent films before World War I: Interestingly, both situations can occur in Lulu. Here an admirable symphonic piece is commented on by a silent film, acted by the singers who perform this opera.
In short, one sees the police, the arrest, the reenactment of the crime, the court, the indictment, the prison, the hospital where Lulu, suffering from cholera, ends up recovering and from which she is rescued. At this point, one finds her on the stage again. The intervention of the cinema is very impressive; it gives an extraordinary force to the dramatic action and enables the music to blossom into a paroxysm of romanticism of an incredible intensity.
Most music critics did the opposite, even when they intended to focus on the music and the aural aspects of the performance. Milhaud responded to the FMI as a composer--a composer with experience in employing the cinema in opera--, believing that even though the spectacle of cinema was inserted into the opera the music was more important than the film. The cinema, too, intervenes to parade in front of us all the details of the action between a murder and an escape from a prison hospital arrest, trial, prison, illness, hospital, etc.
And what a magnificent symphonic interlude is afforded us! Though he did not explain here that the film was at the midpoint of the opera, he placed the film between a murder and an escape from prison. Milhaud praised the symphonic interlude without explaining what made it magnificent. As we shall see, he was not the only critic who responded positively. Yes, it is perhaps more correct to say that he reinterpreted the chosen forms as motives than that he expanded the language of motives into one of forms. Et quel prodigieux interlude symphonique cela nous vaut!
And though Lulu is an entirely serial opera, it was not based on strict application of the twelve-tone technique. In a review by P. The second act, thus the last completed, is hardly inferior and neither does the interruption by means of a film impair its power. A music of tremendous expressiveness, however, never lives in selfish independence, but rather enhances the events on stage--one does not even want to experience this eerie sex tragedy without the music any more: He is discussed earlier in this chapter as the editor of Anbruch and the author of a review in the Neues Wiener Abendblatt focusing only on the film content.
The review was devoid of positive or negative criticism. It appears that whereas he signs his full name to the review in Neues Wiener Abendblatt, he hides it a bit by abbreviating it for Die Stunde. The essay was written for the Viennese newspaper. An even more positive review of the FMI by E. In contrast to the reviews by Gd. Rather than focusing on the unpleasant content of the film, Sp.
The FMI appears with its surrounding curtain music an ostinato as the Ostinato, or second movement, of the Lulu-Suite. Gysi was a Swiss musicologist and music critic for Allgemeine Musikzeitung. A film had to help out where the tempo of the stage action is no longer able to follow the course of the rushing of events. This filmic intermezzo developed with amazingly logical consistency, as everything that fell into the realm of the carefully considered direction of Schmid-Bloss.
One must not forget that Lulu has remained a torso. The quotation below suggests that Lh. This remark is similar to those of David and Milhaud, who both perceived the composer as using the film to accompany the music rather than the other way around. The first excerpt in this section is from a previously mentioned review by David. As already mentioned in this chapter, David described the opera action and the film action and function.
In the second act, the situation becomes more obscure, and everything is no longer equally interesting. The film music functions more as [a] backdrop, but perhaps it was not a useless gimmick after all, [the backdrop] having been constructed so carefully as a retrograde.
Peyser agreed with David that the music that accompanied the film appeared to the audience to function as background music. But first he commented on the forms employed throughout the opera, followed by explaining how he perceived the musical structure of the FMI: In Lulu, as in Wozzeck, moreover, he liberally toys with the learned forms of classicism.
Opening the score at random you run across designations that leave you in amused wonder. It is all a rather useless affectation, this labeling, except for the eye that tries to unravel the enormous complications of the score. In the theatre such things mean exactly nothing to the hearer, nor do they add a jot or tittle to the value of the music or to its emotional or pictorial effectiveness.
Actually, the audience, engrossed in watching the novelty of a film in opera, is vaguely conscious, at the most, that the orchestra is playing something loud, fast and dissonant. The author, who 37 38 Ibid. Though the music proceeds in retrograde, there is no crab canon in the FMI. Nevertheless, we must particularly emphasize the pure and strong effect that emanates from the rendition of the fragments of the third act. Berg gave explicitly detailed instructions for how the film is to be designed and what was to be shown in the score and the Film Music Scenario the latter contains both a chart of paired events designated to certain measures of the FMI as well as a description by Berg of how the film and music are to work together; see Figure 2.
He served as music editor for the newspaper from to He gave his own stamp to opera and concert criticism. His carefully prepared reviews are of permanent value for their emphasis on the thorough analysis and evaluation of the work performed, particularly in the case of new and rare works.
Tempo was a small Zurich firm that produced both opera and advertising films. The critic implies that the film was not up to current standards: The harshest criticism of the film at the premiere offers the most vivid impression of it. The coarse naturalism on the stage, the too literal action of the performers in the movie written by Berg for the middle of the drama, acted as in the primitive beginnings of the silent film, fell completely out of the frame, and destroyed the meaning of the work.