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Franz Steiner Verlag, Description Music score — pages: Summary Deaconesses in nursing care: Mangion 'How to meet the needs of the Church': German settings of Ossianic texts, []. American vernacular music manuscripts, ca. Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University, Description Music score — 1 online resource Database topics Music Summary "This is a collaborative project between the Center for Popular Music and the American Antiquarian Society to inventory, catalog, digitize, and provide web-based public access to their extensive music manuscripts collections.

It concerns manuscripts inscribed before that are mainly American in provenance, with contents that are preponderantly vernacular in style. Anthems Goss, John, , composer.

Goss's early life and carrer ; Gresham Prize ; St. Paul's Smith and Panoptican organs ; Appendix. Almighty and merciful God ; And the King said to all the people ; Behold! Almighty and everlasting God ; Christ is risen ; Enter not into judgment ; Hosanna; for unto us ; Let thy merciful ear ; My voice shalt thou hear ; Praise waiteth for thee ; Wherewithal shall a young man ; Will God in very deed Appendix. Orchestration of And the King said to all the people. Description Music score — 1 score pages: M Unavailable In transit. Zabytoe, opublikovannoe i neopublikovannoe: B P7 Unknown.

Summary Rio de Janeiro: Campos Rio de Janeiro: R F Available. Anthology for music in the nineteenth century []. Description Music score — 1 volume of music x, p.

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English keyboard concertos, []. Stainer and Bell, Description Music score — 1 score lvii, pages: Adagio in the 1st concerto of Mr. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Koniok gorbunok; arranged Pugni, Cesare, Description Music score — xiv p. P K8 Unknown. Description Music score — 1 score 2 v. L'amour et le printemps. Selected songs of the Munich School, Lieder for soprano voice and piano []. Description Music score — 1 score lx, p. Verschlung'ne Wurzeln ; Nimm's mit!

Drei Frauenlieder von Karl Stieler: Waldeinsamkeit ; Die Nacht ; Die stille Stadt. Drei Lieder nach Gedichten von Clemens Brentano: A sketchbook from the year Artaria Selections Sketches Beethoven, Ludwig van, Verlag Beethoven-Haus ; [Stuttgart]: Description Music score — 2 v. Sonatas a solo en la Real Capilla []. Description Music score — 1 score li, p. Victorian music for the English concertina []. Description Music score — 1 score xxii, p. Ward Thou art gone from my gaze ; Exercise no. Amerikanische Orgelromantik [ - ].

Lewis ; Jubilate Deo: Bartley ; Romance op. I, Piezas de concierto []. Description Music score — xxi p. Border walls Kearney, Milo. Oliveira Literary Society Press, Description Music score — 1 score i, p. La curandera Ballad of Cortina the hero Cortina snippet 2 Did it have to end like this?

K24 B7 Unknown. Description Music score — p. Chants et airs traditionnels du pays vannetais fin XIXe []. Orchestral lieder []. Description Music score — 1 score xxi, p. Seis meditaciones para piano op. Early Romantic Lieder with guitar []. Presser, sole selling agent, c Description Music score — 1 score 68 p. E12 Unavailable At bindery Request. Description Music score — 1 score p.

Portrait de Lorenzaccio en milicien

Summary Oficio de defuntos en Mib: Butz, [] Description Music score — 46 p. Oxford University Press, Fuzeau, [] Description Music score — 7 v. Description Music score — 3 v. Instituto Complutense de Ciencias Musicales, c Description Music score — 1 score xviii, p. Noten, Texte, Kommentare []. Hoffmann und Campe, H H Unknown.

Die musikalische Klassik []. Description Music score — 1 score 82 p. Romantik in der Tonkunst []. Russian operatic arias for baritone: London ; New York: Description Music score — 1 vocal score xxix, p. Russian operatic arias for bass: Description Music score — 1 vocal score xxvi, p. Summary A life for the Tsar. Italian songs with guitar from the age of Napoleon []. Sole selling agent, T. Russian operatic arias for mezzo-soprano: Description Music score — 1 vocal score xxviii, p.

Summary Ruslan and Lyudmila. Russian operatic arias for tenor: Anthology of classical piano music: Description Music score — 1 score v. Description Music score — 1 score 3 v. Dresdner Orgelmusik des Description Music score — 64 p. Motets for one voice: Description Music score — 1 score xxvii, 82 p. Summary Ave Maria ; O salutaris: Las Edades del Hombre, Gli orazi e i curiazi: Topical song cycles of the early nineteenth century []. Description Music score — 1 score lxii, p. Anthology of romantic piano music: Description Music score — 44 p.

Jahrhunderts aus der Zips: Description Music score — 39 p. Wiener Orgelmusik um Description Music score — 56 p. Polish-French painter, born in Paris. American biologist, born in New York City. Baltimore, George Calvert, 1st Baron — He was secretary of state from until , when he announced himself a Catholic and on resigning received his Irish peerage. In he visited a colony which he had founded in Newfoundland, but after two years he decided to seek a warmer climate for his permanent home.

He died while in England to obtain a grant for the selected territory.

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The grant passed to his son, the 2nd Lord Baltimore, who governed the colony, now called Maryland, from England. French novelist, born in Tours. His unhappy schooldays are described in the autobiographical Louis Lambert An unfortunate speculation in a printing firm involved him in debt which took years to settle. His industry, both in research and in the writing of his novels, was enormous; his eventual earnings equally so. In total his output amounted to about novels, six plays, many pamphlets and a huge amount of correspondence. His Rabelaisian Contes drolatiques —37 are medieval tales written in a pseudo 16th century idiom.

His vast conception of linking under a single title , La Comedie Humaine , all the novels he had already written and those he planned to write, dates from , his idea being to present an integrated picture of 19th-century France, with scenes of life in Paris, the country, the army, the family. The novels thus linked contain over characters. Korean diplomat and administrator. He was strong on gay rights, ambiguous about the death penalty. American historian and diplomat. Services to the Democratic party were rewarded with official posts ending with that of minister to Great Britain — Banda, Hastings Kamazu — From he led the independence movement in Nyasaland and headed the Malawi Congress party founded in , being imprisoned for a time by the British.

When the country attained self-government in Banda became Prime Minister, an office which he retained when in July Malawi became independent. Bandaranaike, Solomon West Ridgeway Dias — He was assassinated by a Buddhist monk in but his policy of socialism at home accompanied by expropriation of foreign interests and neutralism abroad was continued by his widow Sirimavo Bandaranaike — , who became the first woman prime minister. Her period of office was one of mounting financial difficulty, communal troubles and administrative chaos, some of it due to forces outside her control.

Italian author, born in Piedmont. Bankhead, Tallulah Brockman — Famous in the s and s, the hysterical adulation aroused by her husky voice and vibrant personality was even more exuberantly expressed in London than in New York. Banks, Sir Joseph, 1st Baronet — English botanist and patron of science, born at Isleworth, near London. Educated at Harrow, Eton and Christ Church, Oxford which he left without a degree , he inherited great wealth from his father and used it to promote research and exploration for the advancement of botany.

He became a great authority on, and promoter of, Australia, was the first to grasp that its mammals were mostly marsupials, more primitive than placental mammals, and campaigned for the establishment of a penal colony in New South Wales. He voyaged to the North Atlantic in and investigated geysers in Iceland.

President of the Royal Society —, he was created baronet in , a KCB in and privy counsellor in He encouraged international scientific exchanges and created a great herbarium. His legs were paralysed from Pseudonym of British graffiti artist, thought to have been born in Bristol. He attracted international attention for his street art, marked by dark humour and political satire, which encouraged less gifted imitators around the world.

He was also a documentary filmmaker. Bannister, Sir Roger Gilbert — English athlete and neurologist. The first runner to achieve a four-minute mile 6 May , he became a distinguished researcher in neurology, knighted in and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, — Banting, Sir Frederick Grant — Canadian physiologist, born in Alliston, Ontario. On returning to Toronto, he began research into diabetes in the laboratory of J. Banting, furious, divided his share of the prize money with Best. He was killed while flying to England to conduct research into aviation medicine. Bantock, Sir Granville — He started his career as a conductor and was professor of music at Birmingham University — He was knighted in Banville, Theodore Faullin de — French poet and critic.

He was an ingenious verse technician particularly in his use of medieval verse forms, which he revived. Last Emperor of Annam — He was first head of state of Vietnam —55, part of which had composed his former realm. Bao Dai was still the nominal ruler in the south but showed little inclination for his task and spent much time on the French Riviera.

Pilate had hoped to save one whom he recognised as innocent by taking advantage of a supposed custom that a criminal, chosen by the people, should be released at the time of the Passover. Baradei, Mohamed Mostafa el- —. Egyptian administrator and diplomat. Israeli soldier and politician. After peace talks with the Palestinians stalled and communal violence returned, he called an early election Feb.

Barbarossa see Friedrich I Barbarossa. Brothers of Greek parentage, their names inspired terror in the Mediterranean area. Uruj, having treacherously murdered the amir, seized Algiers but was soon captured and beheaded. Khaireddin, succeeding him in Algiers, for about 30 years preyed upon Mediterranean shipping and the almost defenceless coasts. He died in Constantinople where he had eventually returned with over captives and laden with spoils. American composer, born at West Chester, Pennsylvania. He studied at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, and wrote some of the most popular of modern orchestral works, including Adagio for strings , Essay for orchestra No.

His first full-size opera, Vanessa , was performed at Salzburg in Later works include Anthony and Cleopatra opera, and The Lovers Barbirolli, Sir John — British orchestral conductor, born in London. French journalist and novelist. Barbusse became a Communist sympathiser and a propagandist of internationalist ideas.

He died in Moscow. He was chaplain of Ottery St Mary, Devon, and later became a monk. Working mainly in the Bell Telephone Laboratories, he investigated super conductivity in metals at very low temperature, and was co-inventor of the germanium transistor He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with W. Bardot, Brigitte Camille Javal —. French actor, born in Paris. She married Roger Vadim, the film director, in and Jacques Charrier, the actor, in A London leather merchant, he became a noted preacher and a leader of the Fifth Monarchy Sect.

Argentinian-Israeli pianist and conductor, born in Buenos Aires. He held citizenship from Argentina, Israel, Spain and Palestine. Dutch navigator and explorer. He led three expeditions —97 in an unsuccessful search for a north east sea passage to Asia, reaching Novaya Zemlya on the first two. In the June he and his crew escaped in small boats but Barents died on the way. In his winter quarters were discovered undisturbed.

Russian American pianist, born in Odessa. He developed a prodigious technique, but his career languished and the quality of his recordings was only recognised in the s. Barham, Richard Harris — They were published collectively as The Ingoldsby Legends British family of merchant bankers.

Baring, Evelyn, 1st Baron Howick of Glendale — He was created KG in English clergyman and writer, born in Devonshire. Member of an old county family, he held a quiet living at Lew Trenchard most of his life, allowing time for a large literary output. He is better remembered for his books on medieval lore and legends, e. Barker, Sir Herbert Atkinson — Barklay de Tolly, Mikhail, Prince — Russian soldier, of Scottish descent.

In the earlier part of his career he had lost an arm at Eylau in and in the same year led the army which invaded Finland and forced the Swedes to sue for peace. Barkley, Alben William — Persian family of predominant influence at the court of the Abbasid caliphs at Baghdad. He, however, entered into the spirit of the occasion and was rewarded with real food.

Personal name Joses d. Barnabas went to Cyprus but accounts of his later movements and supposed martyrdom are apocryphal. Barnard, Christiaan Neethling — Educated at the Universities of Cape Town and Minnesota, in was appointed director of surgical research at the University of Cape Town and from was head of the cardiothoracic surgical unit at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town.

Barnard introduced open-heart surgery to the Republic of South Africa, designed artificial heart valves and published much on congenital intestinal atresia. In December he performed the first human heart transplant operation on Louis Washkansky and became instantly famous. He later worked on arthritis. Barnardo, Thomas John — British social reformer, born in Dublin. In the intervening years the scope and scale of the work vastly increased. Barnato, Barney originally Barnett Isaacs — South African financier, born in London. Of Jewish parentage, he arrived in South Africa in , made a fortune by buying up abandoned diamond mines and eventually linked his interests with those of his rival Cecil Rhodes by joining the control of the De Beers Mining Companies.

He became a member of the Cape Colony legislature — He committed suicide at sea after suffering heavy financial losses.

Marcel Dupré - Variations sur un Noël (organ)

Barnes, Albert Coombs — American chemist and art collector. With Herman Hille he developed Argyrol, a silver nitrate solution used to prevent blindness in babies, made a fortune and created the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pa. Barnes, Julian Patrick —. English novelist, lexicographer and critic. He also wrote several novels under the name Dan Kavanagh , including Duffy and Going to the Dogs Nothing to be Frightened Of was a memoir. The Sense of an Ending , won the Man Booker Prize, and Levels of Life , is a meditation on bereavement after the death of his wife Pat ricia Olive Kavanagh — , an important literary agent.

He joined The Times as dramatic critic and in was appointed editor. During his 25 years of control The Times was the most formidable organ of opinion in Britain, and Barnes, who was independent of any political party, was the most powerful journalistic influence. English clergyman and poet. Having made a detailed study of local speech he became widely known as the author of three series , , of idyllic and pastoral poetry in the Dorset dialect, collected as Poems of Rural Life in Dorset Dialect Barnum, Phineas T aylor — It soon became an American institution and continued for a generation after his death.

Spanish novelist, born in San Sebastian. He wrote three trilogies, notable for their forceful, rather bare style and their undertone of social discontent: French aristocrat and revolutionary politician. French actor and stage director. With his wife Madeleine Renaud — he founded a new company, le Troupe Marigny , which gained an international reputation.

French novelist, journalist and politician. His literary talents were admired even by those who deplored his politics. He was a Deputy —93; —23 and fiercely anti-Dreyfusard. Barrett, Elizabeth see Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. Barrie, Sir J ames M atthew , 1st Baronet — Scottish playwright and novelist, born in Kirriemuir. Educated at Edinburgh University, he left Scotland in and worked as a journalist on the Nottingham Daily Journal before coming to London in He received a baronetcy in , the OM in and was chancellor of Edinburgh University — The whimsical humour of his works gradually lost much of its appeal, but Peter Pan is revived annually: He had a happy relationship with children, an uneasy one with adults.

English mathematician, born in London. Son of a merchant, he studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in and master — His royalist sympathies made life uncomfortable for him, and he left in for a five year tour of the Continent. Returning at the Restoration in , he became professor of Greek in Cambridge. He took the Lucasian chair of mathematics in Cambridge in Barrow was a first class teacher. He gave important optical lectures concerning a new method for finding the relationship of a sphere and a curve in a spherical interface.

Newton succeeded Barrow as Lucasian professor of mathematics. His Life and Times. Barry, Sir Charles — He won the commission to design the new Houses of Parliament erected from to replace the old buildings destroyed by fire in It was stipulated that the work should be in Gothic style, and Barry, who was essentially a classic architect, therefore obtained some assistance in Gothic detail from A. Barry, Sir Redmond — Irish-Australian colonial judge, born near Cork. Son of a general, and an Anglican, he studied in Dublin and migrated to Australia in , settling in Melbourne in American theatrical family, children of the British actor Herbert Blythe — who adopted the stage name Maurice Barrymore and married the actor Georgina Drew.

Lionel Barrymore — , like his younger brother, John, was successful both on stage and screen but it was in character rather than romantic parts that he excelled. He became paralysed in but continued to act from a wheelchair. Their sister Ethel — was perhaps the most talented of the trio and in opened the New York theatre bearing her name. John — was the matinee idol of his time, achieving his greatest fame as a Shakespearian actor, particularly in Hamlet and Richard III. From onwards he was occupied almost exclusively with the cinema, in which he played romantic and dramatic roles in films such as Don Juan and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

In his later years he was incapacitated by alcoholism. He first served with the Dutch navy, and it was only after he had left that service and had achieved fame as a privateer that he was appointed lieutenant of a French man of war. In the War of the Grand Alliance his exploits were a constant menace to the English and Dutch by whom France was opposed. A raid was made near Newcastle. Many ships were sunk and on one occasion he captured a whole flotilla of Dutch corn ships.

English composer and song writer. Swiss Calvinist theologian, born in Basle. He was appointed to a theological professorship at Basle in , retiring in French writer and critic. Bartholdi, Frederic Auguste — Almost nothing is known of him but traditions tell of missionary journeys in Asia Minor and India and of being martyred by flaying in Armenia.

Bartholomew, John George — Scottish cartographer and map and atlas publisher. He improved standards of British cartography and introduced into Great Britain the use of contours and systematic colour layering to show relief. His father was Edinburgh map publisher John Bartholomew — Barthou, Jean-Louis Firmin — He entered politics in , was Premier , Minister of Justice , and Minister of War — In he became professor of piano at the Academy.

By he was commissioned to write an orchestral work for the fiftieth anniversary of the union of Buda and Pest the Dance Suite. He visited Britain 20 times between and to give concerts. He composed the series Mikrokosmos for piano —39 , three important piano concertos , , , six string quartets —39 , among the greatest in the repertoire, the virtuosic Music for strings, percussion and celeste and Sonata for two pianos and percussion In he emigrated to the US and became a research assistant in music at Columbia University continuing his work on folk music.

There he published several important collections, including a study of Romanian folk music 3 volumes Unable through ill health to get more profitable employment, he died of cancer in penury in New York. He combined the essential characteristics of Hungarian folk music with traditional music and developed a nationalistic, yet individual, style. He was reburied in Budapest in Bartolommeo, Fra Baccio della Porta c. But his treatment of figures and draperies and his grand static compositions assert his own instincts.

His book plates, to be seen in many libraries of the period, were attractive. Barton, Sir Edmund — Australian lawyer, politician and judge, born in Sydney. In January he became the first Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia and also served as Minister for External Affairs until his appointment as a justice of the High Court of Australia — The One Man for the Job.

She was a domestic servant who, after a period of illness, began to fall periodically into trance states, during which she uttered prophecies that were taken to be divinely inspired. Unfortunately the monk, Edward Bocking, sent by Archbishop Warham of Canterbury to examine her, tried to make use of her for political ends. Eventually she was arraigned before Cranmer, confessed her imposture and was executed, with Bocking and others.

American naturalist and traveller. Baruch, Bernard M annes — Barwick, Sir Garfield Edward John — Australian lawyer, Liberal politician and judge, born in Sydney. Baryshnikov, Mikhail Nikolayevich —. Bashkirtsev, Maria Konstantinovna — She lived in France from early childhood, studied painting, in which she achieved a limited success, and died of tuberculosis.

American jazz pianist, composer and band leader. Basil I the Macedonian c. Founder of the Macedonian dynasty, he gained the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire by murdering his patron Michael III, but raised the empire to the height of its power, codified its laws and beat back Muslim incursions. Basil II Bulgaroctonus — He shared rule with his brother Constantine VIII but was always dominant and protected the peasants from encroachments by the nobles.

Cappodocian Father of the Church, born in Caesarea. From a noble family, he was a brother of St Gregory of Nyssa. Monastic rules set out by him are still used with little alteration by communities within the Greek Orthodox Church. English typographer, born in Worcestershire. After working as footman, writing master and manager of a Birmingham japanning business, he rose to be one of the most influential designers of type in the history of printing. As printer to Cambridge University from he produced many magnificent editions, including the Bible and the Greek New Testament.

English surgeon and sailor. He was lost in the Pacific, possibly captured by pirates. Bassano, Jacopo or da Ponte c. Italian painter, born in Bassano. With his four sons, he developed a popular style of genre painting. Bath, 1st Earl of see Pulteney, William. Bathsheba 11th—10th centuries BCE. Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio — Cuban soldier and politician. He retired to Florida with his wealth after a period of stability, reform and corruption.

He seized power again in and as President ruled as a dictator until his overthrow by Fidel Castro December Thereafter he lived in the Dominican Republic, then Madeira and finally Portugal. Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo — Italian painter, born in Lucca. A skilled, prolific and popular artist, he worked especially in portraiture, but also in landscape and was a forerunner of neo-classicism. Many of his portraits are of British subjects, but he also painted popes, emperors and kings. Batten, Jean Gardner — In she became the first woman to complete a return flight England—Australia—England.

In she disappeared on Majorca. The Garbo of the Skies. Two sons, Louis — and Henry — , married into the British royal family, the former to a granddaughter of Queen Victoria Princess Victoria of Hesse , the latter to a daughter Princess Beatrice. Louis, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, was a distinguished naval officer who became First Sea Lord , but was forced out by anti-German feeling in Baudelaire, Charles Pierre — French poet, born in Paris.

Cherished son of an elderly father who encouraged his artistic appreciation, he never forgave his widowed mother for remarrying. Educated in Lyon and Paris, he was sent to India but stopped off at Mauritius — On his return to France he soon spent half his small fortune and though the remainder was tied up he had a constant struggle with poverty throughout his life. In he published a collection of poems, Les Fleurs du mal Flowers of Evil , an extraordinary mixture of morbidity, eroticism, mysticism, and acute aesthetic perception, for which author, printer and publisher were prosecuted on grounds of impropriety in Much of the reputation acquired by his works for immorality and decadence was due to misunderstanding.

The unity of all art as a manifestation of the divine essence is one of his most important themes. There is to him unity, too, as well as contrast, between the beautiful and the ugly and evil; man should not shrink from the poor, the wicked or the tortured. He is indeed almost obsessed with human suffering.

But above all he is an artist in words who evokes, rather than describes, colours, scents, sensations, sounds, using a glowing imagination and a mastery of poetic symbolism. In later life he became addicted to opium and alcohol. Paralysis with aphasia attacked him in and his condition progressively worsened until his death. King of the Belgians — Frenchcultural theorist and philosopher, political commentator, and photographer.

His work is frequently associated with Postmodernism and Post-structuralism. Baum, L yman Frank — Austrian novelist, born in Vienna. Her Grand Hotel , which used the accidental isolation of a group of people in an artificial setting as the basis of the plot, set a pattern by many other novelists.

Its immense success, reinforced by a film version, was never achieved by her later works. Baur, Ferdinand Christian — Bax, Sir Arnold Edward Trevor — English composer, born in London. He composed the symphonic poems In Faery Hills and Tintagel in addition to seven symphonies, concertos for piano, violin and cello, songs, piano works and the choral work Mater, ora Filium … Baxter, James Keir — His parents were radical pacifists, and after an unhappy schooling in the South Island and England, he published his first volume of poetry Beyond the Palisade at 18 After a sporadic education at three universities, he worked as a postman, teacher and public servant, and became a Catholic He struggled with alcoholism, was tormented by his linking of sexuality and death, and torn between radical and conservative instincts.

He set up an unsuccessful commune for juvenile drug addicts, and malnutrition contributed to his early death. English Puritan divine, born in Shropshire. A prolific writer, his best known works are The Saints Everlasting Rest and an autobiography, Reliquiae Baxterianae. Bayard, Pierre du Terrail, Seigneur de c. His reputation for humanity and piety grew with the fame won by his courage. Bayezid or Bajazet c. He succeeded Murad I, greatly extended his dominions in Anatolia and invested Constantinople.

The threat to Europe provoked a crusade against him by the emperor Sigismund, but by his victory at Nicopolis on the Danube Bayezid he was able to move into northern Greece. Bayezid was defeated and captured at Ankara ; he died in captivity. Son of a Calvinist minister, he became a Catholic and then reverted to Protestantism. He was professor of philosophy at Sedan —81, of philosophy and history at Rotterdam University —93, and wrote a famous Dictionnaire historique et critique. Baylis, Lilian Mary — In the Franco Prussian War, he was forced to take refuge in the fortress of Metz after the defeat at Gravelotte.

His surrender with over men October was a decisive disaster. In he escaped to Spain, where he died. Bazalgette, Sir Joseph William — On the recommendation of I. Beaconsfield, 1st Earl see Disraeli, Benjamin. Beadle, George Wells — Tatum of the Rockefeller Institute, for discovering that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.

Beaglehole, John Cawte — After a slow climb up the academic ladder, he became professor of Commonwealth History at Victoria University, Wellington —66 and received the OM in the Cook Bicentennial Year for his scholarly work, including editing the four volume Journals of Captain James Cook — Bean, C harles E dwin W oodrow — Australian war correspondent and historian. Born in Bathurst, but educated in England, he became an official war correspondent in , reporting on Gallipoli and the Western Front.

Beard, Winifred Mary —. English illustrator, born in Brighton. Associated with the English Aesthetic movement which his work typifies, he early developed a highly individual two dimensional style, characterised by contrasts of fine richly detailed linework and solid blacks, and by all the preoccupations and morbid tendencies of the Decadents. He became a Roman Catholic shortly before his early death from tuberculosis. British pop group, born in Liverpool. English photographer and designer.

Originally known for his portraits of the fashionable, he extended his range to include designs of sets and costumes for theatre and films. Beaton or Bethune , David — Scottish prelate and statesman. He was murdered by Protestant conspirators in revenge for the execution of George Wishart, a Calvinist preacher. Beaton was a typical Renaissance figure, cultivated, able, brave, intensely individual but largely amoral.

Beatrix Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard —. Queen of the Netherlands — A gifted painter, she abdicated in favour of her son Willem-Alexander. Beatty, Sir Alfred Chester — American-British-Irish mining magnate, art collector and philanthropist, born in New York. Beatty, David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl — British admiral of the fleet, born in Cheshire.

He directed successful naval actions at Heligoland Bight and Dogger Bank He succeeded Jellicoe as Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet —18 and received the surrender of the German fleet in November Beaufort, Sir Francis — In he devised a scale of numbers the Beaufort Scale for expressing wind force. Originally the numbers ran from 0 calm to 12 hurricane that no canvas can withstand but they have now been given precise values in knots and the scale has been extended to Force Beaufort also devised a system of letters, still in use, for denoting weather phenomena.

Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais — , served in the American War of Independence and supported the Revolutionary cause in France, but was executed during the Terror. He was one of the few to gain fresh laurels during the Moscow campaign of , and returned to hold Italy loyally to the last. Beaumarchais, Pierre Augustin Caron de — French playwright, born in Paris. English playwright, born in Leicestershire. The son of a judge, he studied law but from he devoted himself to literature. Altogether Beaumont is believed to have had a hand in about 10 of the ingenious and sophisticated tragedies and tragi-comedies attributed to the joint authorship.

American physiologist and surgeon, born in Lebanon, Connecticut. Son of a farmer, he became a village teacher and began to study medicine. In July he began treating a French-Canadian fur trapper, Alexis St Martin, who had been badly wounded in the stomach by a shotgun accident. The patient recovered living to the age of 82 but developed a fistula, 25mm across, through which the operation of his digestion could be observed. Over 10 years Beaumont carried out experiments on St Martin, publishing the results in his classic Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice Beaumont established the presence of free hydrochloric acid in the juice, thus confirming that its action was primarily chemical in nature.

He noted that gastric juices were not to be found in the stomach in the absence of food, and that psychological factors could influence their secretion. He also carefully investigated the digestibility of different aspects of diet, and studied the action of stimulants, such as coffee and alcohol, on the workings of the digestive system. His work was highly influential, especially in Germany. Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant — American soldier, born in New Orleans.

A West Point graduate, he joined the Confederate army on the outbreak of Civil War in , and was appointed to a command at Charleston in South Carolina. His order to fire on Fort Sumter marked the opening of the war, throughout which he held high command with varying success. French philosopher and author, born in Paris. She became an important exponent of existentialism. She joined the board of the review Les Temps Modernes in and wrote many articles for it. She was buried with him at Montparnasse Cemetery. Beaverbrook, William Max well Aitken, 1st Baron — British newspaper proprietor and politician, born in Canada.

It became in a sense an enlargement of his own personality, energetic, exciting, entertaining, mischievous and sometimes brash. Later he founded the Sunday Express , and the Evening Standard was taken over in His great collection of political papers, as well as providing valuable source material for historians notably his friend and biographer A.

Beazley, Kim Christian —. Bebel , Ferdinand August — Beccaria, Cesare Bonesana Beccaria, Marchese di — Italian legal reformer, born in Milan. He urged comparative statistical examination of crime rates, that the aims of punishment are reformation and deterrence, and that certainty of apprehension and conviction is a greater deterrent than severity of punishment. Becker, Gary Stanley — He won the Nobel Prize for Economics.

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English archbishop and martyr, born in London. Theobald sent him to Bologna and Auxerre to study canon law, and appointed him as Archdeacon of Canterbury in Henry was preoccupied with preventing what he regarded as the encroachments of Church courts upon secular jurisdiction. Before enthronement as Archbishop, Becket had to be ordained as a priest.

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Henry was soon bitterly disappointed: Henry was furious and, to escape persecution, in Becket took refuge in Sens and Pontigny. Becket excommunicated many of his opponents, and there were bitter disputes about land ownership. A settlement was negotiated and in December Becket returned to Canterbury. Four of his knights eagerly took up the hint, proceeded to Canterbury and hacked Becket to death in his cathedral, near the entry to the crypt 29 December The dead martyr was far more powerful than the living priest.

In the pope proclaimed Becket a saint and the king did public penance in After Rome and Compostella, Canterbury became one of the greatest European pilgrimage destinations. Beckett, Samuel Barclay — Irish dramatist, novelist and poet, born near Dublin. He lectured in French at Trinity College, Dublin —32, then returned to Paris where he spent most of his life —37; — His important early novel, Murphy , written in English, shows the influence of Joyce, and a second comic novel Watt , completed in , and later dramatised, was published in Beckett showed some affinity with existentialism and his spare, lucid style is minimalist.

It will be the silence, where I am? You must go on. His plays have the quality of chamber music with the beauty of the words either in French or English and significant pauses and silence. Two men, Estragon and Vladimir, sit near a tree in the country waiting interminably for Godot to arrive. Later they are joined by the bullying Pozzo, who is trying to sell his slave, Lucky. A boy who seems to know Godot makes an enigmatic appearance. Beckford, William Thomas — English writer and collector. A large inherited fortune enabled him to lead an easy cultured life as a man of letters.

His novel Vathek, a tragicomic oriental fantasy, was begun in and in French. From to , partly as the result of a scandal, he spent most of his time in France, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal. His Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaca and Batalha , esteemed as his best book, recalls a Portuguese visit made in He lived there in hermit-like seclusion. His paintings were large, powerful and savage, reflecting despair at human cruelty. In this post he was succeeded by his son Alexandre Edmond — , whose principal field of study was optics.

In , while investigating the fluorescence produced by exposing uranium salts to X-rays, Becquerel discovered that radiation was given off by the uranium salts even when they had not been exposed to X-rays. Becquerel and the Curies were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in Beddoes, Thomas Lovell — The son of a physician, he studied at Oxford —24 and spent the rest of his life as a doctor in Germany and Switzerland with occasional visits to England.

His collected poems first appeared posthumously in l. Bede or Baeda , St c. English historian and theologian.

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In On the Reckoning of Time c. He calculated that the creation of the universe occurred in BC, using Genesis as his source. His main work was The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation , still an essential source for the period to Bedford, John of Lancaster, Duke of — Beebe, Charles William — American ornithologist and explorer. In he reached a record depth of m 3, feet in the sea off Bermuda in a bathysphere, a diving bell of his own design, in order to study marine life at intense pressures. He described the experience in Half a Mile Down Beecham, Sir Thomas, 2nd Baronet — English conductor, born in St Helens, Lancashire.

In he founded the New Symphony Orchestra and in initiated a series of opera seasons at Covent Garden. He strove to establish opera permanently in Britain and to improve operatic and orchestral performances. Beecher, Henry Ward — A visit to Britain proved a triumph. In he was charged with having committed adultery with Mrs Elizabeth Tilton, the wife of prominent journalist, Theodore Tilton, but after a long trial the jury was unable to agree on a verdict.

Beethoven, Ludwig van — German composer, born in Bonn. Of Flemish descent, his father Johann c. He was assistant conductor at the Electoral court —88 and also played the viola in the Bonn opera orchestra. Apart from short visits to Berlin and Budapest, he remained in Vienna until his death. His acceptance by the highest social circles showed the revolutionary change in the status of composers since Haydn and Mozart.

His early music shows the extent of his debt to the Classical masters, especially Haydn and Mozart, with its restraint, balance, subtle emotion and strict observance of form. To this period belong the first two symphonies , ; the first two piano concertos , —98 ; the first 12 piano sonatas; the first six string quartets and many trios. From Beethoven suffered from acute tinnitus, and by there was serious hearing loss, a cause of profound personal and professional anguish for 30 years. His deafness was probably caused by otosclerosis, abnormal growth of bone in the cochlea or the stirrup-shaped stapes bones.

Alternative diagnoses include nerve damage, lupus or a connective tissue disorder. He rarely played in public after , ceased playing altogether in He became totally deaf from about but conducted as late as After he also had acute liver trouble, probably alcohol-induced cirrhosis, complicated by malnutrition and possible lead poisoning. He contemplated suicide in His symphonies and sonatas were longer than their Classical forebears, more vigorous, with a much greater range of dynamics, tempos, rhythms, key changes, syncopation and harmony.

The music was much less predictable and much more emotional in both form and content. An ardent democrat and republican, Beethoven originally dedicated his Symphony No. The symphony begins starkly with two fierce chords followed by a long powerful theme over a grinding bass. The slow movement is a long, unprecedented, funeral march, followed by a wild scherzo, concluding with a heaven storming set of variations on the theme of Prometheus. Its power and the obsessive repetition of dissonance shocked the Viennese audience. The hero, the creative artist challenging the world and defying death and infirmity, is Beethoven himself.

Originally titled Leonora, after the heroine, Fidelio was a failure when first performed in It succeeded in only after drastic revisions had been made. Four more symphonies were also composed during this period: The last five string quartets and the Grosse Fuge —27 , are the greatest in the repertoire. The music begins with an attempt to grapple with the stress of existence, pain and uncertainty, moving through questioning to understanding, to resolution, to affirmation and finally to joy.

Beethoven was recognised as a genius by contemporaries but he lost his savings in unwise investment and lived in squalor although at a good address in his later years, compounded by anxiety over his hapless nephew Karl — He never married, although he had several brief and pathetic love affairs; he never found his Leonora. Raised as a Catholic, he was a deist with a profound reverence for nature. After a long illness he died of dropsy and jaundice at his lodgings in the Schwarzspanierhaus demolished in His funeral was attended by 20, people.

Beethoven remains the most popular of the greatest composers perhaps because listeners feel that in his constant struggles with fate he never fails to win a victory. Her famous Book of Household Management originally appeared in three parts during — Israeli politician, born in Poland. After working as a Jewish youth organiser in Poland he was deported to Siberia by the Russians, released and sent to Palestine.

Begin and Sadat shared the Nobel Peace Prize. Irish playwright, born in Dublin. Son of a house painter, he was arrested in Liverpool for terrorist activities on behalf of the Irish Republican Army in the early days of World War II. His subsequent years in an institution were described in Borstal Boy The first professional woman writer in English, she was brought up in Surinam before returning to England and marrying a merchant called Behn.

German architect, born at Hamburg. He worked as an industrial designer in Munich before being appointed professor of architecture at Darmstadt in He became the principal architect of the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in , an association of architects and designers formed to meet the needs of and take advantage of the new opportunities provided by industrial building and design.

Both his architecture and his design are characterised by functional expression and geometric simplicity. Behring, Emil Adolf von — In he became a professor at Marburg, where he set up his own laboratories for manufacturing anti-toxins. Beiderbecke, Bix Leon Bismarck — American cornettist, pianist and composer, born in Davenport, Iowa, he was the first to attempt to incorporate concert hall harmonies into jazz improvisation, and the first white musician to be acknowledged an important innovator by African-American contemporaries.

He worked with various musicians, including Frank Trumbauer and Jean Goldkette, but died in comparative obscurity. American dramatist, theatre manager, and actor, born in San Francisco. From childhood he worked in stock touring companies, lived in San Francisco —79 and moved to New York in , becoming an independent producer from He established the Belasco Theatre in His lavish productions were marked by technical innovations and new standards of professionalism. However, his taste was conservative and he ignored the emerging major playwrights of Europe and the US.

Belinsky, Vissarion Grigorievich — Russian literary and social critic, born in Helsinki. He defeated the Vandals in Africa —34 and in occupied Sicily, whence he proceeded to his main task of expelling the Ostrogoths from Italy. Recalled to repel Persian attacks in the East, he returned to Italy when the Ostrogoths had renewed the struggle. Mainly through lack of support by the emperor, he failed to achieve decisive results and in he was again recalled. Justinian, indeed, found it difficult not to suspect the loyalty of so successful and popular a general and though in the case of Belisarius they were quite groundless, these suspicions continually hampered his career.

Indeed in he was even imprisoned for a short time, though only three years earlier the Huns had been driven back from the outskirts of Constantinople by his skill and courage. However, the legend that he was blinded and died a beggar is untrue. Bell, Alexander Graham — American inventor, born in Edinburgh.

Educated at Edinburgh and London universities, he worked with his father as a teacher of the deaf —70, migrated to Canada for his health , then went to Boston where he taught deaf mutes and became professor of vocal at Boston University Preoccupied with the mechanical transmission of sound vibrations by wire, he invented the telephone in , patenting it only a few hours before Elisha Gray. The telephone was an instant success at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and the Bell Telephone Company was founded in Bell became a US citizen in , was a co-founder of the magazines Science and the National Geographic , supported experimentation in aviation, and invented the tetrahedral kite.

He also studied eugenics, the hereditary basis of deafness and sonar detection. He died in Nova Scotia. Bell, Andrew see Lancaster, Joseph. Bell, Clive Arthur Howard — English art and literary critic. He did much by his critical works, e. Other works include Civilisation and Prous t Originally a journalist, he became a socialist, then a liberal, finally a conservative, holding a chair in sociology at Harvard. Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian — English traveller, mountaineer, linguist, author and archaeologist. Educated at Oxford but unable to take out a degree , her travels from in almost every part of the Middle East were of great importance to the British Government when these lands became battlefields or areas of political contention during and after World War I.

She worked with T. She lived in Baghdad, worked at the museum and committed suicide there. She was anti-Zionist and also oddly strongly opposed to votes for women. Australian actor and theatre director, born in Maitland. Bell, John Stewart — Scottish inventor, born in Angus. He invented the first practical reaper for cereal crops and machines for grinding oats and making wheat-flour, and devised equipment for extracting the sugar from sugar beet.